Graphics processing unit - Wikipedia

68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen

68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen

The package was sold on the streets under Turbo Pascal name was a compiler (and IDE) which targeted DOS 16bit real-mode. Borland Pascal street name. Number and type of conductors—insure that the connector pins and sockets are #18 AWG conductor would be the preferred choice in a benchtop environment. Corporation had militarized a number of the commercial computers environment of 0 degrees Celsius to 50 degrees Celsius.[].

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TalkMay 4, (UTC)

Many of these features are still not in the IDEs that followed. The documentation for most of the languages is often poorly written, disorganized, and incomplete. The code profilers work sporadically and its quite easy to crash your system trying to single step through code. Inlining assembler is considered something unusual and freakish to do. These problems are particularly painful in the 'open source' IDEs but even Microsoft Visual Studio is a morass of confusion in comparison to the old Borland product. IDEs 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen the later years may never achieve the level of simplicity 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen integration as Borland Pascal, simply because the underlying systems of the newer IDEs are thousands of times more complex than the system Borland Pascal was written on - the IBM PC hardware and MS DOS software.

IMHO not entirely a rant. I think one could summarize it "The maturity (seven full versions) and the simplicity of the system simply allowed a way better (and more complete) finishing touch. Also the limited number of options keeps the TP/BP7 managable for new developers"

This is btw one of the reasons why TP/BP was used so much longer in educational roles when the Dos platform was already replaced largely by Windows. Only when newer generations increasingly missed any Dos/console experience, this started to decline swiftly.2 August (UTC)

Competition with Microsoft Pascal[edit]

Then I (AntoineL, not Frecklefoot) also removed the section below. It was marked as unsourced in April [1], but nobody came. Since I was working on these tools then, I tried to modify it to make it NPOV'ed, but I fail. In fact it is just opinions, nothing here is really relevant about TP, it probably belongs to the Microsoft Pascal article (and I'll copy it to that talk page). The only real fact is that MS distributed the clone QP "for a while", 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, but it is hardly relevant when looked at the whole picture of TP which spans more than 10 years; this information could be added to the Successors section, but I am myself non-neutral on this one and cannot resolve at doing it.

Of course you 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen free to disagree, to bring it back in and improve the article. AntoineL24 October (UTC)

=== Competition with Microsoft Pascal===
It is likely that Microsoft Pascal was dropped because 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen the competition provided by Turbo Pascal's good quality and low price.[citation needed] Another theory is that Borland made an agreement with Microsoft to drop development of Turbo BASIC, a BASIC IDE that stems from Turbo Pascal, if Microsoft would stop developing Microsoft Pascal. For a while, Microsoft produced QuickPascal, which was almost % compatible with Turbo Pascal.[citation needed]

Original price[edit]

Having owned a copy of Turbo PascalI remember the original price as $ rather than $ Can anybody confirm?

A google search in the newsgroups resulted in several messages that say that it was $ bogdan Talk24 November (UTC)

In other words, the editor (where you spend 95% of your time as a developer) was the central part of Turbo Pascal and all the effort was on thsat side as far as innovation was concerned. That's in IMHO the genius of Turbo Pascal. And that we need to surface in the article I think at least. If Turbo Pascal had just been a cheap good compiler it would have 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen forgotten like MT+, JRT, Compass etc It was a great productivity tool. We all found that to be true. -- (unsigned by Anon in )

Turbo Pascal was not the first Pascal IDE, let alone the first IDE of any type. In Professor Wirth's ACM Turing Award lecture he said "But Pascal gained truly widespread recognition only after Ken Bowles in San Diego recognized that the P-system could well be implemented on the novel microcomputers. His efforts to develop a suitable environment with integrated compiler, filer, editor, and debugger caused a breakthrough: Pascal became available to thousands of new computer users who were not burdened with acquired habits or stifled by the urge to stay compatible with software of the past."Chris Burrows (talk)16 May (UTC)

Chris has deleted the "first IDE" statement—IMO correctly—and I've added & sourced Bill Gates concerns about the Turbo Pascal's compilation performance vs Microsoft Pascal. Reliable sources are needed for statements that IDE features were more important than compilation or execution speed, otherwise they are just opinions from c. 26 years ago! - Pointillist (talk)17 May (UTC)

Another version was available for the DEC Rainbow?[edit]

The DEC Rainbow ran CPM and (Microsoft) DOS, and had both a Z80 and an processor. Turbo Pascal was available for Z and /, CPM and DOS. There were Graphics extensions for the IBM PC. Were there any specific extensions for the DEC Rainbow, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, or was that just an example of a DOS/CPM machine that could run Turbo Pascal? The normal Turbo Pascal IDE did not use hardware acceleration or direct graphics: it was a very simple text mode interface that used OS text display. BTW, for high speed compilation I used a Fujuitsu 'DOS compatible' running DOS I didn't have 'another version' for that platform either.

Turbo[edit]

Turbo Pascal compiled and ran entirely in memory. In contrast, MS Pascal needed at least a Compiler Disk, a linker disk, and a source disk. Running on a single disk machine, the operator needed to load the compiler disk, load the source disk, write to the object disk, load the compiler disk again, write to the object disk, load the linker disk, write to the target disk. And you typically finished by reloading the DOS disk. Even on a two disk machine, the three pass compiler required disk swapping of the compiler and linker disks. The massive productivity improvement of Turbo Pascal 2 and 3 came firstly from the elimiation of disk swapping.

A limitation was that Turbo Pascal would stop at the first compilation error. Without a seperate listing file (and disk), and with only a single pass compiler, Turbo Pascal was unable to understand and report multiple errors.

The difference favoured TP. Although 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen MS product was flexible and powerful, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, which didn't wait till the end of the file to report an error, was part of the trend from 'computer centre' computing to cheap fast interactive personal computing.

Well the better optimizing compiler of the time was Pascal MT+ by Digital Research, not the Microsoft product. We pros used MT+ for the final compile and Turbo for the quick development. That's how it was.

Having used a Pascal compiler that didn't stop on encountering an error, I have memories of generating many, many (printed!) pages of compiler errors that boiled down to 'you missed a semi-colon at the end of the first line and I got very confused after that'. I greatly appreciated TP's approach (and compilation speed). MT+ wasn't entirely compatible with TP (or given that MT+ came first, perhaps that should be the other way around) and was vastly slower in terms of compilation speed and, on CP/M, execution speed not least because that targetted the CPU rather than the Z that TP insisted upon. Lovingboth (talk)13 August (UTC)

Philippe Kahn's Role[edit]

Community, it is a bit absurd to have a Turbo pascal page that doesn't have Philippe Kahn's 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen role brought out. This is a guy who is a key innovator in the high tech industry, who seems to have done it before, micral and after In reading this, there was the Danish offering, but nothing would have happened and it would have remained an obscure offering if Turbo Pascal had not come along. In fact the IDE in Compass pascal was super primitive, a simple command line interface. Many 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen say that the success of Turbo Pascal (over the Danish offering) was it's incredible edit->compile-> debug cycle. The Wordstar compatible editor was key at the time. I know that it was for me. The turbo Pascal compiler generated sloppy code compared to Pascal MT+ but the editor and the IDE turned it into a productivity machine. Un-matched today. That is I believe the key contribution of Philippe Kahn.

On another note, Kahn has continually stood up against Microsoft from day one. Unfortunately some of the key players in this story had switched sides and joined Microsoft (with huge signing bonuses). Therefore there is huge pressure to rewrite history adobe premiere pro cs6 minimize the contributions of anyone who stood up to the empire. Those dynamics are pretty obvious as history gets re-written. In fact even the person running Borland right now, Tod Nielsen, used to compete with Kahn in the early days. It's like a complete take-over. Our role here should be to get the facts correctly and not repeat re-written history by the "victorious empire". Just a word of caution. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk • contribs)19 November

Noted. It's not that we particularly want to minimise Phillipe's contribution. It's just that we write what we know about. I know a little about the relationship between BLS Pascal, Compas and Turbo Pascal which is why I brought up the connection between the products and the role of Anders. Since you know something about Phillipe's role you should add that. That's the way that Wikipedia works, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen. Of course it's best if you can cite some book to avoid accusations of Original Research but that's another story. By the way could you add four tildes (~~~~) at the end of your comments. It signs them and more importantly shows where they stop and other peoples' replies start. Cheers -- Derek Ross Talk19 November (UTC)

I think that we agree. In fact I just checked and the Wordstar editor is 18K of assembler language. I also checked how complete it is and it's got 95% of Wordstar commands and Pascal-oriented extensions. That's quite an achievement! In any case, we pro developers spend most of our time staring at code The compiler is disposable and we'd trade anyone for one that will produce ultimately better code as the Wirth adage goes: "Software slows down much faster than hardware speeds up"! The point is that there are some very good reasons why Turbo became so successful. And I contend that it wasn't the compiler. As you point out that had been around for a couple of years and all pros knew about it. We all got a copy of it as well as JRT, MT+, MS, IBM and all others. We ended-up using what really worked. And it wasn't the cheapest as JRT was 2/3 of the price That's always surprised me the mis-conception that Borland was cutting prices. they weren't they came in 50+% higher priced than their competitor (JRT) and had with a compiler that had been around for a couple of years.

In fact I just checked and the Wordstar editor is 18K of assembler language.

The Editor toolbook shipped as an add-on for TP4, and it included so-called binary editor which was nothing else than the Wordstar editor repacked.
And the binary blob was 13K of code. AntoineL24 October (UTC)
See JRT for the reasons why JRT Pascal failed, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen. With JRT out of the way, price was a major factor in TP's mlbjerseyschina.us Burrows19 November (UTC)

What was new was the incredible productivity that we all got from the edit->compile->debug cycles.

Run, not Debug, and hardly new - UCSD was several years ahead by way of integrating an Edit>Compile>Debug system. It was already at V4 when I started using it in However, UCSD's success on the IBM-PC was limited by its higher cost (about $) and the relatively slow speed of the interpreted p-code executables compared with the TP COM files. Although UCSD Pascal was available on a very wide range of microcomputers (including non-Intel systems) this advantage over TP was soon eliminated when the IBM-PC became the dominant microcomputer systemChris Burrows19 November (UTC)

Actually not quite Of course run But one of the key features of Turbo Pascal is that when "Run fails" it pin-points an error message right into the source code with a line number That's something that the Danish product did not do And a very key advantage of Turbo pascal for us pro developers. That's why we spend most of our time in the editor: We write and we debug in the editor. Turbo was the first system that was compiled to executable code and provided that facility. UCSD did in some ways but as discussed produced p-code. And you can't debug an executable or write low-level software like TSRs if you don't compile right to executable (and provide the ability to use inline assembler code)

True enough. BLS Pascal jumps into the source code for compile errors but it only returns an error position in the object code for run time errors. -- Derek Ross Talk12 September (UTC)

IMHO, don't. The product is fully the same base, and "turbo pascal" is also a very differentiated brand (think TP in 7 basic versions, and then with/without extender and -W versions). So simply keep both TP and BP here. -- Marco van de Voort

Turbo Pascal made a historic impact on the early personal computer worldwide. Borland Pascal was essentially a moderately successful attempt to segment the market and sell a similar product form a much higher price. Most programmers around the word have heard about Turbo Pascal, most wouldn't know what Borland Pascal was. In fact Borland itself (now Codegear) relaunched the "Turbo" brands because they are some of the most recognized brands in the developer community.

Bard's Tale[edit]

I removed this comment:

The IBM PC game The Bards Tale was written in Pascal.

from the article, becase:

  1. I've never heard it before
  2. It was out of place—it was in a paragraph by itself with no context
  3. It doesn't specify that it was written in Turbo Pascal, what this article is about
  4. It wasn't even wikilinked correctly (not a big deal, but there are several articles on The Bard's Tale).

To include the factoid in the article, I'm going to insist on a reference. If it was just written in Pascal, the factoid should go in the Pascal article. And lastly, if it was written with Turbo Pascal mention it and try to give it some context—like a bullet 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen a Trivia section.

I know Wizardry was written in Pascal, but I never heard that the MS-DOS version of The Bard's Tale was. — Frecklefoot

Fundamentals of Chapter 1 Microprocessor and Microcontroller Dr. Farid Farahmand Updated: 4/2/16 A little History n  What is a computer? ¨ [Merriam-Webster Dictionary] one that computes; specifically : programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. ¨ [Wikipedia] A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. n  Classification of Computers (power and price) ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  Personal computers Mainframes Supercomputers Dedicated controllers – Embedded controllers Mainframes n  The First Mainframes ¨  n  Big businesses with big needs required big computers. Economies of scale also favored large, consolidated computer systems. The Second Mainframes ¨  Transistor-based computers were replacing vacuum-tube machines in the late s, spurred developments in hardware and software. Manufacturers commonly built small numbers of each model, targeting narrowly defined markets. Mainframes n  Massive amounts of memory n  Use large data words…64 bits or greater n  Mostly used for military defense and large business data processing n  Examples: IBMHoneywell DPS8 Personal Computers n  Any general-purpose computer ¨ Intended to be operated directly by an end user n  Range from small microcomputers that work with 4-bit words to PCs working with bit words or more They contain a Processor - called different names n  ¨ Microprocessor – built using Very-Large-Scale Integration technology; the entire circuit is on a single chip ¨ Central Processing Unit (CPU) ¨ Microprocessor Unit (MPU) – similar to CPU mlbjerseyschina.us Supercomputers n  Fastest and most powerful mainframes ¨  ¨  ¨  Contain multiple central processors (CPU) Used for scientific applications, and number crunching Now have teraflops performance n  n  n  FLoating Point Operations Per Second (FLOPS) Used to measure the speed of the computer Examples of special-purpose supercomputers: ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  Belle, Deep Blue, and Hydra, for playing chess Reconfigurable computing machines or parts of machines GRAPE, for astrophysics and molecular dynamics Deep Crack, for breaking the DES cipher MDGRAPE-3, for protein structure computation mlbjerseyschina.usdia.n  Characteristics: ¨ General purpose central processor unit (CPU) ¨ Binary ¨ Register-based ¨ Clock-driven ¨ Programmable Microprocessor-based Systems Microprocessor n  the ¨  ¨  “brains” of the computer its job is to fetch instructions, decode them, and then execute them 8/16/32/etc –bit (how it moves the data n  contains: Arithmetic Logic Unit Register Arrays Control Unit ALU performs computing tasks – manipulates the data/ performs numerical and logical computations Registers are used for temp. storage Control unit is used for timing and other controlling functions – contains a program counter (next instruction’s address and status register) System software: A group of programs that monitors the functions of the entire system Let’s Review a Few Things First… Unsigned Data Format (8-bit) (1 of 4) Signed n  Unsigned Integers: All eight bits (Bit0 to Bit7) represent the magnitude of a number ¨ Range 0 to FF in Hex and 0 to in decimal Unsigned Data Format (8-bit) (2 of 4) Signed n  Signed Integers: Seven bits (Bit0 to Bit6) represent the magnitude of a number. ¨ The 8th bit (Bit7) represents the sign of a number. The number is positive when Bit7 is zero and negative when Bit7 is one. ¨ Positive numbers: 0 to 7F (0 to ) ¨ Negative numbers: 80 to FF (-1 to ) ¨ All negative numbers are represented in 2’s complement Data Format (8-bit) (3 of 4) n  Binary Coded Decimal Numbers (BCD) ¨ 8 bits of a number divided into groups of four, and each group represents a decimal digit from 0 to 9 ¨ Four-bit combinations from A through F in Hex are invalid in BCD numbers n  Example: represents the binary coding of the decimal number 25d which is different in value from 25H. Data Format (8-bit) (4 of 4) n  American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) ¨ Seven-bit alphanumeric code with combinations (00 to 7F) ¨ Represents English alphabet, decimal digits from 0 to 9, symbols, and commands Back to the Main Point… Evolution of CPUs Digital Logic Transistors n  n  Vacuum Tubes: A devise to control, modify, and amplify electric signals Then came transistors ¨  Designed by John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain, scientists at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey – Transistors n  n  n  In September Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX demonstrated the industry's first integrated flip-flop. TI announced Kilby’s germanium “Solid Circuit” concept Robert Noyce had co-founded the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation – he was also working on how to make more of less. Jack Kilby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in for his role as coinventor with Robert Noyce of the integrated circuit. Noyce did not receive the award as he died on June 3, Moore predicted that this trend would continue for the foreseeable future. Evolution of CPUs n  Tukwila ¨ World's First 2-Billion Transistor Microprocessor - Next-generation Intel® Itanium® processors (codenamed Tukwila) Intel Itanium Tukwila MPU, M transistor AMD Operon MPU, transistors Nvidia G80, M transistors Motorola MPU, 2M transistors mlbjerseyschina.us Remember Microprocessor-based Systems Memory n  Memory is a group of registers n  n  16 register – address: – in binary: ; Address lines: A0-A3 Serves two major purposes q  q  storing the binary codes for the sequence of instructions specified by programs (program) storing binary data that the computer needs to execute instructions (data) Microprocessor-based Systems Memory Types ¨  R/W: Read/Write Memory; also called RAM It is volatile (losses information as power is removed) n  Write means the processor can store information n  Read means the processor can receive information from the memory n  Acts like a Blackboard! ¨  ROM: Read-Only memory; n  It is typically non-volatile (permanent) – can be erasable n  It is similar to a Page from your textbook n  Microprocessor-based Systems Memory Classification Basic Technologies: Semiconductor Magnetic Optical (or combination) Expensive Fast/ Cheap Slow Onetime programmable Electronically Erasable PROM Microprocessor-based - one transistor and one Systems capacitor to store a bit Memory Classification - Leakage problem, thus requires refreshing - Used for dynamic data/ program storage - Cheap and slow! Note the directions of busses 2.  What is the width of the address bus? 3.  What is the value of the Address but to access the first register of the R/ WM? You must know how to draw it! Example 2K Registers or bytes of memory What? How many bits How much memory do we have? 2K Registers or bytes of memory What? How many bits Example 2K (2^11 = ) Registers or bytes of memory 2^11 -1=7FF Requires 11 bits 2K (2^11 = ) Registers or bytes of memory FFF Requires 12 bits For a total of bytes Total of 4K bytes of memory: 2^12 (FFF) à 12 bits ; last values 2^ = Example 8 bits 1G bytes of memory 30 bits! 2^30 -1=3FFF FFFF Next number: (in Hex) Example of an 8-bit MPU A15 A0 RAM 2K ROM 2K FFF D7 D0 8-bit So what are microcontrollers? What is a Microcontroller? n  A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing ¨ processor core, ¨ memory, ¨ programmable n  Used input/output peripherals for specific (embedded) applications Embedded controllers n  Used to control smart machines n  Examples: printers, auto braking systems n  Also called microcontrollers or microcontroller units (MCU) Embedded controllers Software Characteristics n  n  n  No operating systems Execute a single program, tailored exactly to the controller hardware Assembly language (vs. High-level language) ¨ Not transportable, machine specific ¨ Programmer need to know CPU architecture ¨ Speed ¨ Program size ¨ Uniqueness Microcontroller Unit (MCU) Block Diagram n  An integrated electronic computing and logic device that includes three major components on a single chip ¨  ¨  ¨  n  Includes support devices ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  n  Microprocessor Memory I/O ports Timers A/D converter Serial I/O Parallel Slave Port All components connected by common communication lines called the system bus. First Microcontrollers n  n  n  n  IBM started using Intel processors in its PC ¨ Intel started its and (8-bit microcontroller) – using in printers Apple Macintosh used Motorola Intel abandoned microcontroller business By Microchip was a major player in designing microcontrollers ¨ PIC: Peripheral Interface Controller Different Microcontrollers (MCU) mlbjerseyschina.us What is the difference? 8/16/24/32 bits Architecture Package Capability Memory Software (IDE)/cloud ADC ( bit) A more complete list is here: mlbjerseyschina.us:Microcontrollers MCU Architecture n  n  RISC ¨  Reduced instruction set computer ¨  Simple operations ¨  Simple addressing modes ¨  Longer compiled program but faster to execute ¨  Uses pipelining ¨  Most embedded system CISC ¨  Complex instruction set computer ¨  More complex instructions (closer to high-level language support) ¨  x86 standard (Intel, AMD, etc.), but even in the mainframe territory CISC is dominant via the IBM/ chip Bench marks: How to compare MCUs together MIPS: Million Instructions / second (Useful when the compilers are the same) CISC vs RISC CISC Pentium/x86 are CISC-based RISC ARM-based Most mobile-phones Complex instructions require multiple cycles Reduced instructions take 1 cycle Many instructions can reference memory Only Load and Store instructions can reference memory Instructions are executed one at a time Uses pipelining to execute instructions Few general registers Many general registers RISC and CISC architectures are becoming more and more alike. *Read the LINK on the web site!* A Bit About ARMs Architecture (Advanced RISC Machine) n  n  ARM design takes the RISC based computer design approach – Linux –like architecture ARM is a British semiconductor (and software) design company that designs and licenses ARM processor cores to semiconductor manufacturers ¨  ¨  n  They just sell the ARM core Other manufacturers license the core from them and then design microcontrollers around that core by adding in peripherals and memory to suit their design goals There are different cores for different applications ¨  Cortex-M0/M0+, Cortex-M3, or Cortex-M4. ARM Processor IP Applications of ARM-Based Microcontrollers Who is using ARM? Check this out! mlbjerseyschina.us Most Cellphones! Back to Our 8-bit Controllers… (Main Players) n  Microchip ¨  ¨  ¨  n  Motorola ¨  ¨  ¨  n  ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  n  What is the difference? Speed Package Power RAM/ROM IO Pins Software (IDE)/cloud CISC architecture 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen hundreds of instructions Examples:Many difference manufacturers: Philips, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, Dallas/MAXIM Semiconductor, etc. Atmel ¨  n  CISC architecture Has hundreds of instructions Examples: 68HC05, 68HC08, 68HC11 Intel ¨  n  RISC architecture (reduced instruction set computer) Has sold over 2 billion as of Cost effective and rich in peripherals RISC architecture (reduced instruction set computer) – with CISC instruction set! Cost effective and rich in peripherals Claims to be very code efficient – less memory for the same code! AVR (Advanced Virtual RISC): TunyAVR, MegAVR, XmegaAVR Freescale Ziglog (Z8) What you Need to 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen Microcontrollers n  n  A target - the actual microcontroller A toolchain — this is the software you use to write your code ¨  ¨  n  Most developers use an IDE — integrated development environment — which contains a text editor, plus functionality for compiling and downloading your programs to the target The toolchain can be locally installed or on cloud! A Programmer/debugger 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen this is the device that connects the computer to the microcontroller to download code to it ¨  ¨  Your PICKIT3! Allows real-time debugging of the program Programming MCUs&hellip. n  Memory devices can store two types of information: ¨ Data (RAM) ¨ Programs (a series of instructions that tell the MPU in the microcontroller what to do!) - ROM Memory n  A semiconductor storage device consisting of registers that store binary bits n  Two major categories ¨ Read/Write Memory (R/WM) ¨ Read-only-Memory (ROM) Storing Bits in Memory n  We can store in different memory types ¨  n  EEPROM, FLASH, RAM, etc. In an 8-bit RAM ¨  ¨  ¨  Each byte is stored in a single memory register Each word is stored in two memory locations (registers) DATA 0x n  0x12àREG11 (High-order byte) ¨  n  0x34àREG10 (Low-order byte) ¨  What if we want store complement) -8? Remember -8à (intotwo’s Symbolic Representation of Program Memory Contents n  Addresses Registers What is the address bus value? CODE: READ PORT A WRITE PORT B STOP Fetch / Decode / Execute PORT A = H PORT B = H So, How Do We Right the Instructions and Tell the MPU What to Do? Microcontrollers vs. Microprocessors MPU-Based Time and Temperature System MCU-Based Time and Temperature System References n  n  n  n  n  n  n  Computer History Museum: mlbjerseyschina.us Read about microcontrollers: mlbjerseyschina.us Lots of good information exist on Wikipedia about microcontrollers mlbjerseyschina.us History of transistors: mlbjerseyschina.us Nice transistor timeline by Intel: mlbjerseyschina.us I used a few slides from here: mlbjerseyschina.us mlbjerseyschina.us ARM related references: ¨  ¨  mlbjerseyschina.us mlbjerseyschina.us - Very good reference ! References - RISC n  n  n  n  mlbjerseyschina.us projects/risc/ mlbjerseyschina.us Complex_instruction_set_computer mlbjerseyschina.us mlbjerseyschina.us pipeliningars/4

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Graphics processing unit

Specialized electronic circuit; graphics accelerator

"GPU" redirects here. For other uses, see GPU (disambiguation).

For an expansion card that contains a graphics processing unit, see graphics card.

A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device. GPUs are used in embedded systems, mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game consoles.

Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics and image processing. Their highly parallel structure makes them more efficient than general-purpose central processing units (CPUs) for algorithms that process large blocks of data in parallel. In a personal computer, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, a GPU can be present on a video card or embedded on the motherboard. In 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen CPUs, they are embedded on the CPU die.[1]

In the s, the term "GPU" originally stood for graphics processor unit and described a programmable processing unit independently working from the CPU and responsible for graphics manipulation and output.[2][3] Later, inSony used the term (now standing for graphics processing unit) in reference to the PlayStation console's Toshiba-designed Sony GPU in [4] The term was popularized by Nvidia inwho marketed the GeForce as "the world's first GPU".[5] It was presented as a "single-chip processor with integrated transform, lighting, triangle setup/clipping, and rendering engines".[6] Rival ATI Technologies coined the term "visual processing unit" 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen VPU with the release of the Radeon in [7]

History[edit]

See also: Video display controller, List of home computers by video hardware, and Sprite (computer graphics)

s[edit]

Arcade system boards have been using specialized graphics circuits since the s. In early video game hardware, the RAM for frame buffers was expensive, so video chips composited data together as the display was being scanned out on the monitor.[8]

A specialized barrel shifter circuit was used to help the CPU animate the framebuffer graphics for various s arcade games from Midway and Taito, such as Gun Fight (), Sea Wolf () and Space Invaders ().[9][10][11] The Namco Galaxian arcade system in used specialized graphics hardware supporting RGB color, multi-colored sprites and tilemap backgrounds.[12] The Galaxian hardware was widely used during the golden age of arcade video games, by game companies such as Namco, Centuri, Gremlin, Irem, Konami, Midway, Nichibutsu, Sega and Taito.[13][14]

Atari ANTICmicroprocessor on an Atari XE motherboard

In the home market, the Atari in used a video shifter called the Television Interface Adaptor.[15] The Atari 8-bit computers () had ANTIC, a video processor which interpreted instructions describing a "display list"&#;the way the scan lines map to specific bitmapped or character modes and where the memory is stored (so there did not need to be a contiguous frame buffer).[16]machine codesubroutines could be triggered on scan lines by setting a bit on a display list instruction.[17] ANTIC also supported smooth vertical and horizontal scrolling independent of the CPU.[18]

s[edit]

The NEC µPD was the first implementation of a PC graphics display processor as a single Large Scale Integration (LSI) integrated circuit chip, enabling the design of low-cost, high-performance video graphics cards such as those from Number Nine Visual Technology. It became the best-known GPU up until the mids.[19] It was the first fully integrated VLSI (very large-scale integration) metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) graphics display processor for PCs, supported up to x resolution, and laid the foundations for the emerging PC graphics market. It was used in a number of graphics cards, and was licensed for clones such as the Intelthe first of Intel's graphics processing units.[20] The Williams Electronics arcade games Robotron , Joust, Sinistar, and Bubbles, all released incontain custom blitter chips for operating on color bitmaps.[21][22]

InHitachi released ARTC HD, the first major CMOS graphics processor for PC. The ARTC was capable of displaying up to 4K resolution when in monochrome mode, and it was used in a number of PC graphics cards and terminals during the late s.[23] Inthe Commodore Amiga featured a custom graphics chip, with a blitter unit accelerating bitmap manipulation, line draw, and area fill functions. Also included is a coprocessor with its own simple instruction set, capable of manipulating graphics hardware registers in sync with the video beam (e.g. for per-scanline palette switches, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, sprite multiplexing, and hardware windowing), or driving the blitter. InTexas Instruments released the TMS, the first fully programmable graphics processor.[24] It could run general-purpose code, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, but it had a graphics-oriented instruction set. During –, this chip became the basis of the Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture ("TIGA") Windows accelerator cards.

The IBM Micro Channel adapter, with memory add-on.

Inthe IBM graphics system was released as one of[vague] the first video cards for IBM PC compatibles to implement fixed-function 2D primitives in electronic hardware. Sharp's X, released in68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, used a custom graphics chipset[25] with a 65, color palette and hardware support for sprites, scrolling, and multiple playfields,[26] eventually serving as a development machine for Capcom's CP System arcade board. Fujitsu later competed with the FM Towns computer, released in with support for a full 16, color palette.[27] Inthe first dedicated polygonal 3D graphics boards were introduced in arcades with the Namco System 21[28] and Taito Air System.[29]

IBM's proprietaryVideo Graphics Array (VGA) display standard was introduced inwith a maximum resolution of × pixels. In NovemberNEC Home Electronics announced its creation of the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) to develop and promote a Super VGA (SVGA) computer display standard as a successor to IBM's proprietary VGA display standard. Super VGA enabled graphics display resolutions up to × pixels, a 36% increase.[30]

s[edit]

InS3 Graphics introduced the S3 86C, which its designers named after the Porsche as an indication of the performance increase it promised.[31] The 86C spawned a host of imitators: byall major PC graphics chip makers had added 2D acceleration support to their chips.[32][33] By this time, fixed-function Windows accelerators had surpassed expensive general-purpose graphics coprocessors in Windows performance, and these coprocessors faded away from the PC market.

Throughout the s, 2D GUI acceleration continued to evolve. As manufacturing capabilities improved, so did the level of integration of graphics chips. Additional application programming interfaces (APIs) arrived for a variety of tasks, such as Microsoft's WinGgraphics library for Windows 3.x, and their later DirectDraw interface for hardware acceleration of 2D games within Windows 95 and later.

In the early- and mids, real-time 3D graphics were becoming increasingly common in arcade, computer and console games, which led to an increasing public demand for hardware-accelerated 3D graphics. Early examples of mass-market 3D graphics hardware can be found in arcade system boards such as the Sega Model 1, Namco System 22, and Sega Model 2, and the fifth-generation video game consoles such as the Saturn, PlayStation and Nintendo Arcade systems such as the Sega Model 2 and Namco Magic Edge Hornet Simulator in were capable of hardware T&L (transform, clipping, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, and lighting) years before appearing in consumer graphics cards.[34][35] Some systems used DSPs to accelerate transformations. Fujitsu, which worked on the Sega Model 2 arcade system,[36] began working on integrating T&L into a single LSI solution for use in home computers in ;[37][38] the Fujitsu Pinolite, the first 3D geometry processor for personal computers, released in [39] The first hardware T&L GPU on homevideo game consoles was the Nintendo 64's Reality Coprocessor, released in [40] InMitsubishi released the 3Dpro/2MP, a fully featured GPU capable of transformation and lighting, for workstations and Windows NT desktops;[41]ATi utilized it for their FireGL graphics card, released in [42]

The term "GPU" was coined by Sony in reference to the bit Sony GPU (designed by Toshiba) in the PlayStation video game console, released in [4]

In the PC world, notable failed first tries for low-cost 3D graphics chips were the S3ViRGE, ATIRage, and MatroxMystique. These chips were essentially previous-generation 2D accelerators with 3D features bolted on. Many were even pin-compatible with the earlier-generation chips for ease of implementation and minimal cost. Initially, performance 3D graphics were possible only with discrete boards dedicated to accelerating 3D functions (and lacking 2D GUI acceleration entirely) such as the PowerVR and the 3dfxVoodoo. However, as manufacturing technology continued to progress, video, 2D GUI acceleration and 3D functionality were all integrated into one chip. Rendition'sVerite chipsets were among the first to do this well enough to be worthy of note. InRendition went a step further by collaborating with Hercules and Fujitsu on a "Thriller Conspiracy" project which combined a Fujitsu FXG-1 Pinolite geometry processor with a Vérité V core to create a graphics card with a full T&L engine years before Nvidia's GeForce This card, designed to Halo Infinite reloaded Halo Infinite palaza Archives - Crack Pc games rar the load placed upon the system's CPU, never made it to market.[citation needed]

OpenGL appeared in the early '90s as a professional graphics API, but originally suffered from performance issues which allowed the Glide API to step in and become a dominant force on the PC in the late '90s.[43] However, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, these issues were quickly overcome and the Glide API fell by the wayside. Software implementations of OpenGL were common during this time, although the influence of OpenGL eventually led to widespread hardware support. Over time, a parity emerged between features offered in hardware and those offered in OpenGL. DirectX became popular among Windows game developers during the late 90s. Unlike OpenGL, Microsoft insisted on providing strict one-to-one support of hardware. The approach made DirectX less popular as a standalone graphics API initially, since many GPUs provided their own specific features, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, which existing OpenGL applications were already able to benefit from, leaving DirectX often one 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen behind. (See: Comparison of OpenGL and Direct3D.)

Over time, Microsoft began to work more closely with hardware developers, and started to target the releases of DirectX to coincide with those of the supporting graphics hardware. Direct3D was the first version of the burgeoning API to gain widespread adoption in the gaming market, and it competed directly with many more-hardware-specific, often proprietary graphics libraries, while OpenGL maintained a strong following. Direct3D introduced support for hardware-accelerated transform and lighting (T&L) for Direct3D, while OpenGL had this capability already exposed from its inception. 3D accelerator cards moved beyond being just simple rasterizers to add another significant hardware stage to the 3D rendering pipeline. The NvidiaGeForce (also known as NV10) was the first consumer-level card released on the market with hardware-accelerated T&L, while professional 3D cards already had this capability. Hardware transform and lighting, both already existing features of OpenGL, came to consumer-level hardware in the '90s and set the precedent for later pixel shader and vertex shader units which were far more flexible and programmable.

to [edit]

Nvidia was first to produce a chip capable of programmable shading; the GeForce 3 (code named NV20). Each pixel could now be processed by a 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen "program" that could include additional image textures as inputs, and each geometric vertex could likewise be processed by a short program before it was projected onto the screen. Used in the Xbox console, it competed with the PlayStation 2, which used a custom vector unit for hardware accelerated vertex processing (commonly referred to as VU0/VU1). The earliest incarnations of shader execution engines used in Xbox were not general purpose and could not execute arbitrary pixel code. Vertices and pixels were processed by different units which had their own resources with pixel shaders having much tighter constraints (being as they are executed at much higher frequencies than with vertices). Pixel shading engines were actually more akin to a highly customizable function block and didn't really "run" a program. Many of these disparities between vertex and pixel shading were not addressed until much later with the Unified Shader Model.

By October68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, with the introduction of the ATIRadeon (also known as R), the world's first Direct3D accelerator, pixel and vertex shaders could implement looping and lengthy floating point math, and were quickly becoming as flexible as CPUs, yet orders of magnitude faster for image-array operations. Pixel shading is often used for bump mapping, which adds texture, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, to make an object look shiny, dull, rough, or even round or extruded.[44]

With the introduction of the Nvidia GeForce 8 series, and then new generic stream processing unit GPUs became a more generalized computing devices. Today, parallel GPUs have begun making computational inroads against the CPU, and a subfield of research, dubbed GPU Computing or GPGPU for General Purpose Computing on GPU, has found its way into fields as 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen as machine learning,[45]oil exploration, scientific image processing, linear algebra,[46]statistics,[47]3D reconstruction and even stock options pricing determination. GPGPU at the time was the precursor to what is now called a compute shader (e.g. CUDA, OpenCL, DirectCompute) and actually abused the hardware to a degree by treating the data passed to algorithms as texture maps and executing algorithms by drawing a triangle or quad with an appropriate pixel shader. This obviously entails some overheads since units like the Scan Converter are involved where they aren't really needed (nor are triangle manipulations even a concern—except to invoke the pixel shader).

Nvidia's CUDA platform, first introduced in ,[48] was the earliest widely adopted programming model for GPU computing. More recently OpenCL has become broadly supported. OpenCL is an open standard defined by the Khronos Group which allows for the development of code for both GPUs and CPUs with an emphasis on portability.[49] OpenCL solutions are supported by Intel, AMD, Nvidia, and ARM, and according to a recent report by Evan's Data, OpenCL is the GPGPU development platform most widely used by developers in both the US and Asia Pacific.[citation needed]

to present[edit]

InNvidia began a partnership with Audi to power their cars' dashboards, using the Tegra GPUs to provide increased functionality to cars' navigation and entertainment systems.[50] Advances in GPU technology in cars has helped push self-driving technology.[51] AMD's Radeon HD Series cards were released in and inAMD released their M Series discrete GPUs to be used in mobile devices.[52] The Kepler line of graphics cards by Nvidia came out in and were used in the Nvidia's and series cards. A feature in this new GPU microarchitecture included GPU boost, a technology that adjusts the clock-speed of a video card to increase or decrease it according to its power draw.[53] The Kepler microarchitecture was manufactured on the 28&#;nm process.

The PS4 and Xbox One were released inthey both use GPUs based on AMD's Radeon HD and [54] Nvidia's Kepler line of GPUs was followed by the Maxwell line, manufactured on the same process. 28&#;nm chips by Nvidia were manufactured by TSMC, the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, that was manufacturing using the 28&#;nm process at the time. Compared to the 40&#;nm technology from the past, this new manufacturing process allowed a 20 percent boost in performance while drawing less power.[55][56]Virtual realityheadsets have very high system requirements. VR headset manufacturers recommended the GTX and the R9 X or better at the time of their release.[57][58]Pascal is the next generation of consumer graphics cards by Nvidia released in The GeForce 10 series of cards are under this generation of graphics cards. They are made using the 16&#;nm manufacturing process which improves upon previous microarchitectures.[59] Nvidia has released one non-consumer card under the new Volta architecture, the Titan V. Changes from the Titan XP, Pascal's high-end card, include an increase in the number of CUDA cores, the addition of tensor cores, and HBM2. Tensor cores are cores specially designed for deep learning, while high-bandwidth memory is on-die, stacked, lower-clocked memory that offers an extremely wide memory bus that is useful for the Titan V's intended purpose. To emphasize that the Titan V is not a gaming card, Nvidia removed the "GeForce GTX" suffix it adds to consumer gaming cards.

On August 20,Nvidia launched the RTX 20 series GPUs that add ray-tracing cores to GPUs, improving their performance on lighting effects.[60]Polaris 11 and Polaris 10 GPUs from AMD are fabricated by a nanometer process. Their release results in a substantial increase in the performance per watt of AMD video cards.[61] AMD has also released the Vega GPUs series for the high end market as a competitor to Nvidia's high end Pascal cards, also featuring HBM2 like the Titan V.

InAMD released the successor to their Graphics Core Next (GCN) microarchitecture/instruction set. Dubbed as RDNA, the first product lineup featuring the first generation of RDNA was the Radeon RX series of video cards, which later launched on July 7, [62] Later, the company announced that the successor to the RDNA microarchitecture would be a refresh. Dubbed as RDNA 2, the new microarchitecture was reportedly scheduled for release in Q4 [63]

AMD unveiled the Radeon RX series, its next-gen RDNA 2 graphics cards with support for hardware-accelerated ray tracing at an online event on October 28, [64][65] The lineup initially consists of the RX68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen XT and RX XT.[66][67] The RX and XT launched on November 18,with the RX XT being released on December 8, [68] The RX XT, which is based on Navi 22, was launched on March 18, [69][70][71]

The PlayStation 5 and Xbox Series X and Series S were released inthey both use GPUs based on the RDNA 2 microarchitecture with proprietary tweaks and different GPU configurations in each system's implementation.[72][73][74]

GPU companies[edit]

Many companies have produced GPUs under a number of brand names. InIntel, Nvidia and AMD/ATI were the market share leaders, with %, % and % market share respectively. However, those numbers include Intel's integrated graphics solutions as GPUs. Not counting those, Nvidia and AMD control nearly % of the market as of Their respective market shares are 66% and 33%.[75] In addition, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, Matrox[76] produce GPUs. Modern smartphones also use mostly Adreno GPUs from Qualcomm, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, PowerVR GPUs from Imagination Technologies and Mali GPUs from ARM.

Computational functions[edit]

Modern GPUs use most of their transistors to do calculations related to 3D computer graphics. In addition to the 3D hardware, today's GPUs include 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen 2D acceleration and framebuffer capabilities (usually with a VGA compatibility mode). Newer cards such as AMD/ATI HDHD even lack 2D acceleration; it has to be emulated by 3D hardware. GPUs were initially used to accelerate the memory-intensive work of texture mapping and rendering polygons, later adding units to accelerate geometric calculations such as the rotation and translation of vertices into different coordinate systems. Recent developments in GPUs include support for programmable shaders which can manipulate vertices and textures with many of the same operations supported by CPUs, oversampling and interpolation techniques to reduce aliasing, and very high-precision color spaces. Given that most of these computations involve matrix and vector operations, engineers and scientists have increasingly studied the use of GPUs for non-graphical calculations; they are especially suited to other embarrassingly parallel problems.

Several factors of the GPU's construction enter into the performance of the card for real-time rendering. Common factors can include the size of the connector pathways in the semiconductor device fabrication, the clock signal frequency, and the number and size of various on-chip memory caches. Additionally, the number of Streaming Multiprocessors (SM) for NVidia GPUs, or Compute Units (CU) for AMD GPUs, which describe the number of core on-silicon processor units within the GPU chip that perform the core calculations, typically working in parallel with other SM/CUs on the GPU. Performance of GPUs are typically measured in floating point operations per second or FLOPS, with GPUs in the s and s typically delivering performance measured in teraflops (TFLOPS). This is an estimated performance measure as other factors can impact the actual display rate.[77]

With the emergence of deep learning, the importance of GPUs has increased, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen. In research done by Indigo, it was found that while training deep learning neural networks, GPUs can be times faster than CPUs. There has been some level of competition in this area with ASICs, most prominently the Tensor Processing Unit (TPU) made by Google. However, ASICs require changes to existing code and GPUs are still very popular.

GPU accelerated video decoding and encoding[edit]

The ATI HD GPU (above) features UVD which enables it to decode AVC and VC-1 video formats

Most GPUs made since support the YUVcolor space and hardware overlays, important for digital video playback, and many GPUs made since also support MPEG primitives such as motion compensation and iDCT. This process of hardware accelerated video decoding, where portions of the video decoding process and video post-processing are offloaded to the GPU hardware, is commonly referred to as "GPU accelerated video decoding", 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, "GPU assisted video decoding", "GPU hardware accelerated video decoding" or "GPU hardware assisted video decoding".

More recent graphics cards even decode high-definition video on the card, offloading the central processing unit. The most common APIs for GPU accelerated video decoding are DxVA for Microsoft Windows operating system and VDPAU, VAAPI, XvMC, and XvBA for Linux-based and UNIX-like operating systems. All except XvMC are capable of decoding videos encoded with MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 ASP (MPEG-4 Part 2), MPEG-4 AVC (H / DivX 6), VC-1, WMV3/WMV9, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, Xvid / OpenDivX (DivX 4), and DivX 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen codecs, while XvMC is only capable of decoding MPEG-1 and MPEG

There are several dedicated hardware video decoding and encoding solutions.

Video decoding processes that can be accelerated[edit]

The video decoding processes that can be accelerated by today's modern GPU hardware are:

The above operations also have applications in video editing, encoding and transcoding

GPU forms[edit]

Terminology[edit]

In personal computers, there are two main forms of GPUs. Each has many synonyms:[78]

Usage specific GPU[edit]

Most GPUs are designed for a specific usage, real-time 3D graphics or other mass calculations:

  1. Gaming
  2. Cloud Gaming
  3. Workstation
  4. Cloud Workstation
  5. Artificial Intelligence training and Cloud
  6. Automated/Driverless car

Dedicated graphics cards[edit]

Main article: Video card

The GPUs of the most powerful class typically interface with the motherboard by means of an expansion slot such as PCI Express (PCIe) or Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) and can usually be replaced or upgraded with relative ease, assuming the motherboard is capable of supporting the upgrade. A few graphics cards still use Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots, but their bandwidth is so limited that they are generally used only 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen a PCIe or AGP slot is not available.

A dedicated GPU is not necessarily removable, nor does it necessarily interface with the motherboard in a standard fashion. The term "dedicated" refers to the fact that dedicated graphics cards have RAM that is dedicated to the card's use, not to the fact that most dedicated GPUs are removable. Further, this RAM is usually specially selected for the expected serial workload of the graphics card (see GDDR). Sometimes, systems with dedicated, discrete GPUs were called "DIS" systems,[79] as opposed to "UMA" systems (see next section). Dedicated GPUs for portable computers are most commonly interfaced through a non-standard and often proprietary slot due to size and weight constraints. Such ports may still be considered PCIe or AGP in terms of their logical host interface, even if they are not physically interchangeable with their counterparts.

Technologies such as SLI and NVLink by Nvidia and CrossFire by AMD allow multiple GPUs to draw images simultaneously for a single screen, increasing the processing power available for graphics. These technologies, however, are increasingly uncommon, as most games do not fully utilize multiple GPUs, as most users cannot afford them.[80][81][82] Multiple GPUs are still used on supercomputers (like in Summit), on workstations to accelerate video (processing multiple videos at once)[83][84][85][86] and 3D rendering,[87][88][89][90][91] for VFX[92][93] and for simulations,[94] and in AI to expedite training, as is the case with Nvidia's lineup of DGX workstations and servers and Tesla GPUs and Intel's upcoming Ponte Vecchio GPUs.

Integrated graphics processing unit[edit]

The position of an integrated GPU in a northbridge/southbridge system layout
An ASRockmotherboard with integrated graphics, which has HDMI, VGA and DVI outs.

Integrated graphics processing unit (IGPU), Integrated graphics, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, shared graphics solutions, integrated graphics processors (IGP) or unified memory architecture (UMA) 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen a portion of a computer's system RAM rather than dedicated graphics memory. IGPs can be integrated onto the motherboard as part of the (northbridge) chipset,[95] or on the same die (integrated circuit) with the CPU (like AMD APU or Intel HD Graphics). On certain motherboards,[96] AMD's IGPs can use dedicated sideport[clarification needed] memory. This is a separate fixed block of high performance memory that is dedicated for use by the GPU. In earlycomputers with integrated graphics account for about 90% of all PC shipments.[97][needs update] They are less costly to implement than dedicated graphics processing, but tend to be less capable, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen. Historically, integrated processing was considered unfit to play 3D games or run graphically intensive programs but could run less intensive programs such as Adobe Flash. Examples of such IGPs would be offerings from SiS and VIA circa [98] However, modern integrated graphics processors such as AMD Accelerated Processing Unit and Intel HD Graphics are more than capable of handling 2D graphics or low stress 3D graphics.

Since the GPU computations are extremely memory-intensive, integrated processing may find itself competing with the CPU for the relatively slow system RAM, as it has minimal or no dedicated video memory. IGPs can have up to &#;GB/s of memory bandwidth from 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen RAM, whereas a graphics card may have up to &#;GB/s of bandwidth between its RAM and GPU core. This memory bus bandwidth can limit the performance of the GPU, though multi-channel memory can mitigate this deficiency.[99] Older integrated graphics chipsets lacked hardware transform and lighting, but newer ones include it.[][]

Hybrid graphics processing[edit]

This newer class of GPUs competes with integrated graphics in the low-end desktop and notebook markets. The most common implementations of this are ATI's HyperMemory and Nvidia's TurboCache.

Hybrid graphics cards are somewhat more expensive than integrated graphics, but much less expensive than dedicated graphics cards. These share memory with the system and have a small dedicated memory cache, to make up for the high latency of the system RAM. Technologies within PCI Express can make this possible. While these solutions are sometimes advertised as having as much as MB of RAM, this refers to how much can be shared with the system memory.

Stream processing and general purpose GPUs (GPGPU)[edit]

Main articles: GPGPU and Stream processing

It is becoming increasingly common to use a general 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen graphics processing unit (GPGPU) as a modified form of stream processor (or a vector processor), running compute kernels. This concept turns the massive computational power of a modern graphics accelerator's shader pipeline into general-purpose computing power, as opposed to being hardwired solely to do graphical operations. In certain applications requiring massive vector operations, this can yield several orders of magnitude higher performance than a conventional CPU. The two largest discrete (see "Dedicated graphics cards" above) GPU designers, AMD and Nvidia, are beginning to pursue this approach with an array of applications. Both Nvidia and AMD have teamed with Stanford University to create a GPU-based client for the Folding@home distributed computing project, for protein folding calculations. In certain circumstances, the GPU calculates forty times faster than the CPUs traditionally used by such applications.[][]

GPGPU can be used for many types of embarrassingly parallel tasks including ray tracing. They are generally suited to high-throughput type computations that exhibit data-parallelism to exploit the wide vector width SIMD architecture of the GPU.

Furthermore, GPU-based high performance computers are starting to play a significant role in large-scale modelling. Three of the 10 most powerful supercomputers in the world take advantage of GPU acceleration.[]

GPUs support API extensions to the C programming language such as OpenCL and OpenMP. Furthermore, each GPU vendor introduced its own API which only works with their cards, AMD APP SDK and CUDA from AMD and Nvidia, respectively. These technologies allow specified functions called compute kernels from a normal C program to run on the GPU's stream processors. This makes it possible for C programs to take advantage of a GPU's ability to operate on large buffers in parallel, while still using the CPU when appropriate. CUDA is also the first API to allow CPU-based applications to directly access the resources of a GPU for more general purpose computing without the limitations of using a graphics API.[citation needed]

Since there has been interest in using the performance offered by GPUs for evolutionary computation in general, and for accelerating the fitness evaluation in genetic programming in particular. Most approaches compile linear or 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen programs on the host PC and 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen the executable to the GPU to be run. Typically the performance advantage is only obtained by running the single active program simultaneously on many example problems in parallel, using the GPU's SIMD architecture.[][] However, substantial acceleration can also be obtained by not compiling the programs, and instead transferring them to the GPU, to be interpreted there.[][] Acceleration can then be obtained by either interpreting multiple programs simultaneously, simultaneously running multiple example problems, or combinations of both. A modern GPU can readily simultaneously interpret hundreds of thousands of very small programs.

Some modern workstation GPUs, such as the Nvidia Quadro workstation cards using the Volta and Turing architectures, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen dedicating processing cores for tensor-based deep learning applications. In Nvidia's current series of GPUs these cores are called Tensor Cores.[] These GPUs usually have significant FLOPS performance increases, utilizing 4x4 matrix multiplication and division, resulting in hardware performance up to TFLOPS in some applications.[] These tensor cores are also supposed to appear in consumer cards running the Turing architecture, and possibly in the Navi series of consumer cards from AMD.[]

External GPU (eGPU)[edit]

An external GPU is a graphics processor located outside of the housing of the computer, similar to a large external hard drive. External graphics processors are sometimes used with laptop computers. Laptops might have a substantial amount of RAM and a sufficiently powerful central processing unit (CPU), but often lack a powerful graphics processor, and instead have a less powerful but more energy-efficient on-board graphics chip. On-board graphics chips are often not powerful enough for playing video games, or for other graphically intensive tasks, such as editing video or 3D animation/rendering, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen.

Therefore, it is desirable to be able to attach a GPU to some external bus of a notebook. PCI Express is the only bus used for this purpose. The port may be, for example, an ExpressCard or mPCIe port (PCIe ×1, up to 5 or Gbit/s respectively) or a Thunderbolt 1, 2, or 3 port (PCIe ×4, up to 10, 20, or 40 Gbit/s respectively). Those ports are only available on certain notebook systems.[][] eGPU enclosures include their own power supply (PSU), because powerful GPUs can easily consume hundreds of watts.[]

Official vendor support for external GPUs has gained traction recently.&#; One notable milestone was Apple's decision to officially support external GPUs with MacOS High Sierra []&#; There are also several major hardware vendors (HP, Alienware, Razer) releasing Thunderbolt 3 eGPU enclosures.[][][] This support has continued to fuel eGPU implementations by enthusiasts.[]

Sales[edit]

Inmillion GPUs were shipped globally and the forecast for was million.[]

See also[edit]

Hardware[edit]

APIs[edit]

Applications[edit]

References[edit]

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Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen - confirm. All

Talk , Mar 24, (UTC)

That's not exactly correct differentiation. The package was sold on the streets under Turbo Pascal name was a compiler (and IDE) which targeted DOS 16bit real-mode. Borland Pascal street name has a considerably different meaning - it was a cross-platform (well, as cross-platform as Borland can) compiler (and IDE) targeting DOS 16bit real-mode, DOS 16bit protected-mode and Windows 16bit protected-mode, and it has real-mode compiler sold under Turbo Pascal name included in the package. That is, TP7 is a subset of BP7. Windows 16bit compiler which was sold under Turbo Pascal for Windows name was also included within BP7 package. What made BP7 special was multi-target compiler and IDE (which ran under DOS in protected-mode) not sold separately. -- (Wrote someone who didn't sign their comment with ~~~~)
No. It was sold as Turbo Pascal Turbo Pascal and Borland Pascal came way later. -- Derek Ross Talk , 26 April (UTC)

Derek, the Danish product has a command line interface No integrated interactive Wordstar-compatible editor. The key to us Turbo programmers was that fast edit->compile->debug cycle. The compiler produced crappy code. There were no optimizations. In fact people such as myself used to do all development in Turbo and then use an optimizing compiler with a serious code generator to compile the final code So all the emphasis on the compiler being great is a bit absurd. As pro developers, we always disliked that compiler. In fact we couldn't even use overlays for a while. the genius of Turbo Pascal was the "Turbo Development Cycle", not the code generator! -- (unsigned by Anon)

Take a look at the BLS Pascal manual if you doubt the resemblance. The biggest differences of BLS from Turbo were that the built-in editor wasn't Wordstar-compatible and that you had to press Enter after entering the command letter (or command word if you wanted to type the whole command). However the edit->compile->debug cycle was identical for BLS and for Turbo. The "command line interface" was part of the program not part of the host operating system. So Kahn changed the editor to a WS-compatible one and changed the command line interface so that you didn't need to press Enter but that's about it. -- Derek Ross Talk , 12 September (UTC)

IMHO, don't. The product is fully the same base, and "turbo pascal" is also a very differentiated brand (think TP in 7 basic versions, and then with/without extender and -W versions). So simply keep both TP and BP here. -- Marco van de Voort

Turbo Pascal made a historic impact on the early personal computer worldwide. Borland Pascal was essentially a moderately successful attempt to segment the market and sell a similar product form a much higher price. Most programmers around the word have heard about Turbo Pascal, most wouldn't know what Borland Pascal was. In fact Borland itself (now Codegear) relaunched the "Turbo" brands because they are some of the most recognized brands in the developer community.

Bard's Tale[edit]

I removed this comment:

The IBM PC game The Bards Tale was written in Pascal.

from the article, becase:

  1. I've never heard it before
  2. It was out of place—it was in a paragraph by itself with no context
  3. It doesn't specify that it was written in Turbo Pascal, what this article is about
  4. It wasn't even wikilinked correctly (not a big deal, but there are several articles on The Bard's Tale).

To include the factoid in the article, I'm going to insist on a reference. If it was just written in Pascal, the factoid should go in the Pascal article. And lastly, if it was written with Turbo Pascal mention it and try to give it some context—like a bullet in a Trivia section.

I know Wizardry was written in Pascal, but I never heard that the MS-DOS version of The Bard's Tale was. — Frecklefoot Talk , 5 August (UTC)

Turbo Pascal $ + $5 shipping and handling

I think you are thinking of another publisher of low priced languages that advertised a Pascal product for $29 shortly after Borland starting getting press for Turbo Pascal being a great value. The name was "USDC"? I believe they offered other languages too such as Basic and Fortran.

I do not think that this is correct. The original Turbo Pascal ad that ran in the November issue of Byte Magazine has a comparison chart. The two competitive offerings are a cheap one: JRT Pascal, selling for $29,95 and an expensive one, Pascal MT+ (The optimizing compiler that all pros of the time were using) selling for $ The urban legend says that Turbo Pascal was the cheapest. That ad shows that it wasn't. JRT was. It was a decent compiler. In fact the compiler produced as adequate code as Turbo did, but it had no rapid edit->compile->debug cycle with a Wordstar editor that was "pascal-savvy".

See JRT for the reasons why JRT Pascal failed. With JRT out of the way, price was a major factor in TP's mlbjerseyschina.us Burrows , 19 November (UTC)

I checked the JRT page. It's not complete. JRT became Nevada Pascal and then Mystic Pascal. The reason that they failed was more business management than anything. They essentially charged customers and didn't ship products. After months of doing so, they eventually closed shop. Nevada and Mystic Pascal went the same way. So in many ways, Turbo, MT+ were "business-viable". JRT wasn't. That's the general recollection.

UCSD Pascal is a complete different subject and very relevant here. In fact this is a p-code system that was very efficient for interactive development. The compilation to p-code was very quick. UCSD was undoubtedly a key influence in the design of the Turbo development system (not the compiler). Remember that Niklaus Wirth and Philippe Kahn were both associated with these efforts when Anders was in grade school.

Philippe Kahn was not associated with the development of UCSD Pascal, nor have I ever found any evidence whatsoever that he studied under Niklaus Wirth, or made any contribution to the ETH-Zurich Pascal compilers. Kahn studied Maths at ETH - a different department from Wirth's mlbjerseyschina.us Burrows , 19 November (UTC)

That seems quite incorrect Chris. Some of us have seen Niklaus Wirth and Philippe Kahn interacting together first hand. Certainly when "The World of Objects" was filmed and Wirth was on video, he and Kahn were like the old professor and the old student.

You certainly have a vivid imagination, Mr Anon! You seem to be adding 2 and 2 together and getting The video can be seen at mlbjerseyschina.us Niklaus Wirth is not even acknowledged as being the creator of Pascal - "Leading Computer Scientist" indeed! Chris Burrows , 20 November (UTC)

In fact Wirth sees kahn as one of his brightest students. Apparently the ETH requires all first year students to take a programming class, that was true in teh 70s. the choices are the ETH were the traditional Fortran class or the new "Pascal class" with Wirth. That was apparently a very small class and that got involved in using and editing the user manual as well as improving and extending the first compiler.

OK. That is much closer to the truth than the sweeping generalisation "Niklaus Wirth and Philippe Kahn were both associated with these efforts" that could be interpreted as they were equally involved. Wirth's postgraduate students who are officially credited with actually implementing the compilers (not just dissecting them for class exercises) were Edouard Marmier (the first unsuccessful FORTRAN version), Urs Ammann and Rudy Schild (the CDC compiler) and Urs Ammann, Kesav Nori and Christian Jacobi (the P-Code compilers used as the basis for the UCSD Pascal compiler). Ref: "Recollections about the Development of Pascal" by N. Wirth (): mlbjerseyschina.us?id=Chris Burrows , 20 November (UTC)

In the 70s there was no such thing as "computer science". People were mathematicians, Physicists. That makes sense. On UCSD it seems that the connection is with Wirth. That needs to be double-checked.

Double-checking is not difficult. Google for "Ken Bowles ucsd" or mlbjerseyschina.us or mlbjerseyschina.us

Understood. However there is nothing there that confirms or infirms anything. Clearly Kahn spent 3+ years in undergraduate days in Zurich starting in 69/70 and worked under Wirth. So surely an undergraduate student would work with/for the graduate students. that's all pretty reasonable.

IDE[edit]

I still have a copy of the original Nascom cassette based compiler and I have used the Compass compiler for CP/M. I can assure everyone that the user interface design of the IDE was basically the same for them as for Turbo Pascal proper. -- Derek Ross

Talk:Turbo Pascal

"At the time /Z80// machines had limited computing resources"[edit]

Has there ever been a time when computers didn't have limited computing resources? Should probably be re-worded. It's a bit like saying "Back in the 80's, when cars had round tires, " cbmeeks , 21 November (UTC) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Cbmeeks (talk • contribs)

Yes, you have a point. They weren't limited compared to the other PCs of the day. Bubba73You talkin' to me? , 21 November (UTC)
The and Z80 were much more limited than the and I've looked at how to fix that paragraph, but I didn't see what to do. I think it might be best to eliminate that paragraph - it doesn't tie directly into Turbo Pascal. Bubba73You talkin' to me? , 21 November (UTC)

"Turbo Pascal, also known as Borland Pascal"[edit]

I don't think this phrase is quite accurate. At least here in the UK they sold Turbo Pascal (in red box) for one price, and Borland Pascal (in a blue box) for a considerably higher price. I think the difference is that the latter had lots more libraries and other features (it was intended to be the "professional" product). I've not updated the article, as I'm not sure enough about the details to make a worthwhile addition. -- Finlay McWalter

Fundamentals of Chapter 1 Microprocessor and Microcontroller Dr. Farid Farahmand Updated: 4/2/16 A little History n  What is a computer? ¨ [Merriam-Webster Dictionary] one that computes; specifically : programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. ¨ [Wikipedia] A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. n  Classification of Computers (power and price) ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  Personal computers Mainframes Supercomputers Dedicated controllers – Embedded controllers Mainframes n  The First Mainframes ¨  n  Big businesses with big needs required big computers. Economies of scale also favored large, consolidated computer systems. The Second Mainframes ¨  Transistor-based computers were replacing vacuum-tube machines in the late s, spurred developments in hardware and software. Manufacturers commonly built small numbers of each model, targeting narrowly defined markets. Mainframes n  Massive amounts of memory n  Use large data words…64 bits or greater n  Mostly used for military defense and large business data processing n  Examples: IBM , Honeywell DPS8 Personal Computers n  Any general-purpose computer ¨ Intended to be operated directly by an end user n  Range from small microcomputers that work with 4-bit words to PCs working with bit words or more They contain a Processor - called different names n  ¨ Microprocessor – built using Very-Large-Scale Integration technology; the entire circuit is on a single chip ¨ Central Processing Unit (CPU) ¨ Microprocessor Unit (MPU) – similar to CPU mlbjerseyschina.us Supercomputers n  Fastest and most powerful mainframes ¨  ¨  ¨  Contain multiple central processors (CPU) Used for scientific applications, and number crunching Now have teraflops performance n  n  n  FLoating Point Operations Per Second (FLOPS) Used to measure the speed of the computer Examples of special-purpose supercomputers: ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  Belle, Deep Blue, and Hydra, for playing chess Reconfigurable computing machines or parts of machines GRAPE, for astrophysics and molecular dynamics Deep Crack, for breaking the DES cipher MDGRAPE-3, for protein structure computation mlbjerseyschina.usdia.n  Characteristics: ¨ General purpose central processor unit (CPU) ¨ Binary ¨ Register-based ¨ Clock-driven ¨ Programmable Microprocessor-based Systems Microprocessor n  the ¨  ¨  “brains” of the computer its job is to fetch instructions, decode them, and then execute them 8/16/32/etc –bit (how it moves the data n  contains: Arithmetic Logic Unit Register Arrays Control Unit ALU performs computing tasks – manipulates the data/ performs numerical and logical computations Registers are used for temp. storage Control unit is used for timing and other controlling functions – contains a program counter (next instruction’s address and status register) System software: A group of programs that monitors the functions of the entire system Let’s Review a Few Things First… Unsigned Data Format (8-bit) (1 of 4) Signed n  Unsigned Integers: All eight bits (Bit0 to Bit7) represent the magnitude of a number ¨ Range 0 to FF in Hex and 0 to in decimal Unsigned Data Format (8-bit) (2 of 4) Signed n  Signed Integers: Seven bits (Bit0 to Bit6) represent the magnitude of a number. ¨ The 8th bit (Bit7) represents the sign of a number. The number is positive when Bit7 is zero and negative when Bit7 is one. ¨ Positive numbers: 0 to 7F (0 to ) ¨ Negative numbers: 80 to FF (-1 to ) ¨ All negative numbers are represented in 2’s complement Data Format (8-bit) (3 of 4) n  Binary Coded Decimal Numbers (BCD) ¨ 8 bits of a number divided into groups of four, and each group represents a decimal digit from 0 to 9 ¨ Four-bit combinations from A through F in Hex are invalid in BCD numbers n  Example: represents the binary coding of the decimal number 25d which is different in value from 25H. Data Format (8-bit) (4 of 4) n  American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) ¨ Seven-bit alphanumeric code with combinations (00 to 7F) ¨ Represents English alphabet, decimal digits from 0 to 9, symbols, and commands Back to the Main Point… Evolution of CPUs Digital Logic Transistors n  n  Vacuum Tubes: A devise to control, modify, and amplify electric signals Then came transistors ¨  Designed by John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain, scientists at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey – Transistors n  n  n  In September Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX demonstrated the industry's first integrated flip-flop. TI announced Kilby’s germanium “Solid Circuit” concept Robert Noyce had co-founded the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation – he was also working on how to make more of less. Jack Kilby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in for his role as coinventor with Robert Noyce of the integrated circuit. Noyce did not receive the award as he died on June 3, Moore predicted that this trend would continue for the foreseeable future. Evolution of CPUs n  Tukwila ¨ World's First 2-Billion Transistor Microprocessor - Next-generation Intel® Itanium® processors (codenamed Tukwila) Intel Itanium Tukwila MPU, M transistor AMD Operon MPU, transistors Nvidia G80, M transistors Motorola MPU, 2M transistors mlbjerseyschina.us Remember Microprocessor-based Systems Memory n  Memory is a group of registers n  n  16 register – address: – in binary: ; Address lines: A0-A3 Serves two major purposes q  q  storing the binary codes for the sequence of instructions specified by programs (program) storing binary data that the computer needs to execute instructions (data) Microprocessor-based Systems Memory Types ¨  R/W: Read/Write Memory; also called RAM It is volatile (losses information as power is removed) n  Write means the processor can store information n  Read means the processor can receive information from the memory n  Acts like a Blackboard! ¨  ROM: Read-Only memory; n  It is typically non-volatile (permanent) – can be erasable n  It is similar to a Page from your textbook n  Microprocessor-based Systems Memory Classification Basic Technologies: Semiconductor Magnetic Optical (or combination) Expensive Fast/ Cheap Slow Onetime programmable Electronically Erasable PROM Microprocessor-based - one transistor and one Systems capacitor to store a bit Memory Classification - Leakage problem, thus requires refreshing - Used for dynamic data/ program storage - Cheap and slow! Note the directions of busses 2.  What is the width of the address bus? 3.  What is the value of the Address but to access the first register of the R/ WM? You must know how to draw it! Example 2K Registers or bytes of memory What? How many bits How much memory do we have? 2K Registers or bytes of memory What? How many bits Example 2K (2^11 = ) Registers or bytes of memory 2^11 -1=7FF Requires 11 bits 2K (2^11 = ) Registers or bytes of memory FFF Requires 12 bits For a total of bytes Total of 4K bytes of memory: 2^12 (FFF) à 12 bits ; last values 2^ = Example 8 bits 1G bytes of memory 30 bits! 2^30 -1=3FFF FFFF Next number: (in Hex) Example of an 8-bit MPU A15 A0 RAM 2K ROM 2K FFF D7 D0 8-bit So what are microcontrollers? What is a Microcontroller? n  A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing ¨ processor core, ¨ memory, ¨ programmable n  Used input/output peripherals for specific (embedded) applications Embedded controllers n  Used to control smart machines n  Examples: printers, auto braking systems n  Also called microcontrollers or microcontroller units (MCU) Embedded controllers Software Characteristics n  n  n  No operating systems Execute a single program, tailored exactly to the controller hardware Assembly language (vs. High-level language) ¨ Not transportable, machine specific ¨ Programmer need to know CPU architecture ¨ Speed ¨ Program size ¨ Uniqueness Microcontroller Unit (MCU) Block Diagram n  An integrated electronic computing and logic device that includes three major components on a single chip ¨  ¨  ¨  n  Includes support devices ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨  n  Microprocessor Memory I/O ports Timers A/D converter Serial I/O Parallel Slave Port All components connected by common communication lines called the system bus. First Microcontrollers n  n  n  n  IBM started using Intel processors in its PC ¨ Intel started its and (8-bit microcontroller) – using in printers Apple Macintosh used Motorola Intel abandoned microcontroller business By Microchip was a major player in designing microcontrollers ¨ PIC: Peripheral Interface Controller Different Microcontrollers (MCU) mlbjerseyschina.us What is the difference? 8/16/24/32 bits Architecture Package Capability Memory Software (IDE)/cloud ADC ( bit) A more complete list is here: mlbjerseyschina.us:Microcontrollers MCU Architecture n  n  RISC ¨  Reduced instruction set computer ¨  Simple operations ¨  Simple addressing modes ¨  Longer compiled program but faster to execute ¨  Uses pipelining ¨  Most embedded system CISC ¨  Complex instruction set computer ¨  More complex instructions (closer to high-level language support) ¨  x86 standard (Intel, AMD, etc.), but even in the mainframe territory CISC is dominant via the IBM/ chip Bench marks: How to compare MCUs together MIPS: Million Instructions / second (Useful when the compilers are the same) CISC vs RISC CISC Pentium/x86 are CISC-based RISC ARM-based Most mobile-phones Complex instructions require multiple cycles Reduced instructions take 1 cycle Many instructions can reference memory Only Load and Store instructions can reference memory Instructions are executed one at a time Uses pipelining to execute instructions Few general registers Many general registers RISC and CISC architectures are becoming more and more alike. *Read the LINK on the web site!* A Bit About ARMs Architecture (Advanced RISC Machine) n  n  ARM design takes the RISC based computer design approach – Linux –like architecture ARM is a British semiconductor (and software) design company that designs and licenses ARM processor cores to semiconductor manufacturers ¨  ¨  n  They just sell the ARM core Other manufacturers license the core from them and then design microcontrollers around that core by adding in peripherals and memory to suit their design goals There are different cores for different applications ¨  Cortex-M0/M0+, Cortex-M3, or Cortex-M4. 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AVR (Advanced Virtual RISC): TunyAVR, MegAVR, XmegaAVR Freescale Ziglog (Z8) What you Need to Use Microcontrollers n  n  A target - the actual microcontroller A toolchain — this is the software you use to write your code ¨  ¨  n  Most developers use an IDE — integrated development environment — which contains a text editor, plus functionality for compiling and downloading your programs to the target The toolchain can be locally installed or on cloud! A Programmer/debugger — this is the device that connects the computer to the microcontroller to download code to it ¨  ¨  Your PICKIT3! Allows real-time debugging of the program Programming MCUs…. n  Memory devices can store two types of information: ¨ Data (RAM) ¨ Programs (a series of instructions that tell the MPU in the microcontroller what to do!) - ROM Memory n  A semiconductor storage device consisting of registers that store binary bits n  Two major categories ¨ Read/Write Memory (R/WM) ¨ Read-only-Memory (ROM) Storing Bits in Memory n  We can store in different memory types ¨  n  EEPROM, FLASH, RAM, etc. In an 8-bit RAM ¨  ¨  ¨  Each byte is stored in a single memory register Each word is stored in two memory locations (registers) DATA 0x n  0x12àREG11 (High-order byte) ¨  n  0x34àREG10 (Low-order byte) ¨  What if we want store complement) -8? Remember -8à (intotwo’s Symbolic Representation of Program Memory Contents n  Addresses Registers What is the address bus value? CODE: READ PORT A WRITE PORT B STOP Fetch / Decode / Execute PORT A = H PORT B = H So, How Do We Right the Instructions and Tell the MPU What to Do? Microcontrollers vs. Microprocessors MPU-Based Time and Temperature System MCU-Based Time and Temperature System References n  n  n  n  n  n  n  Computer History Museum: mlbjerseyschina.us Read about microcontrollers: mlbjerseyschina.us Lots of good information exist on Wikipedia about microcontrollers mlbjerseyschina.us History of transistors: mlbjerseyschina.us Nice transistor timeline by Intel: mlbjerseyschina.us I used a few slides from here: mlbjerseyschina.us mlbjerseyschina.us ARM related references: ¨  ¨  mlbjerseyschina.us mlbjerseyschina.us - Very good reference ! References - RISC n  n  n  n  mlbjerseyschina.us projects/risc/ mlbjerseyschina.us Complex_instruction_set_computer mlbjerseyschina.us mlbjerseyschina.us pipeliningars/4

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