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Microsoft Visual Studio v / v

Description

The Microsoft Visual Studio Suite is an integrated software development environment (or IDE for short) and is actually a Microsoft programming package used to design and manufacture a variety of Windows software, websites, and web applications. The main focus of this collection is software design under the .NET Framework. This technology includes various programming languages.

The first version of the series was released in and the first official version was released in as Microsoft Visual Studio 97; Until the version, this collection did not support the .NET Framework, and with the release of this version, called Visual Studio .NET ; NET Framework support. done. This set includes several programming languages, including C #, C ++, C, mlbjerseyschina.us, as well as web programming languages ​​such as XML / XSLT, HTML / XHTML, CSS, ASP.

Features of Microsoft Visual Studio :

&#; Writing and developing various types of Windows software under the .NET framework.

&#; Designing dynamic web pages using languages ​​like mlbjerseyschina.us

&#; Production of software for mobile devices such as smartphones, PocketPCs designed with Windows infrastructure

&#; Code analysis and performance testing and loading

&#; Establish communication between languages ​​and the possibility of using each other&#;s capabilities

&#; Has different sections of the code editor, design, and troubleshooting

&#; Complete management of databases

 

See Also:

ProPresenter x64 / macOS

Adobe InCopy v x64 / v macOS

Waterfox G x64 / Classic

Office Version Build / RTM

Microsoft Visual Studio v / v

Microsoft Visual Studio Package Tips :

&#; The embedded version is the original and complete version of Microsoft and is not a trial and downloaded from its site, and also provided without the slightest manipulation.

&#; This collection is usually offered in four main versions, which we offer the most complete version, namely Enterprise (which was in the and earlier versions of Ultimate‌).

required system

Visual Studio will install and run on the following operating systems (64 bit recommended; ARM is not supported):

  • Windows 10 version or higher: Home, Professional, Education, and Enterprise (LTSC and S are not supported)
  • Windows Server Standard and Datacenter
  • Windows Server Standard and Datacenter
  • Windows (with Update  ): Core, Professional, and Enterprise
  • Windows Server R2 (with Update  ): Essentials, Standard, Datacenter
  • Windows 7 SP1 (with latest Windows Updates): Home Premium, Professional, Enterprise, Ultimate

Visual Studio will install and run on the following operating systems:

  • Windows 10 version or higher: Home, Professional, Education, and Enterprise (LTSC and S are not supported)
  • Windows Server Standard and Datacenter
  • Windows (with Update  ): Core, Professional, and Enterprise
  • Windows Server R2 (with Update  ): Essentials, Standard, Datacenter
  • Windows 7 SP1 (with latest Windows Updates): Home Premium, Professional, Enterprise, Ultimate

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Visual Studio

 

Installation guide

The and versions are not released by Microsoft as ISO and are provided only as an online installer; The embedded version has all the versions offline in a special way. The volume of each version is equal to the total set.

Mount the image file in the virtual drive and then run the installation file from the required version folder; For the most complete edit, run the vs_mlbjerseyschina.us file from the vsent folder. Select the required items and in the next step, select the Download all, then install option.

Restart Windows if necessary, then run the program, and if the login window appears, click Not now, maybe later. Finally, from the Help menu, click Register Product and then Unlock with a Product key and register using the serials in the text file.

If you are installing Enterprise and Professional editions, use the following serials. Other edits do not need to be activated.

This version is compressed in a special way and its volume is less than or equal to the volume of a software version.

! In the case of the update package, due to the relatively complex method and the % inefficiency for different versions and editions, we are not able to test and provide support, and we recommend the use of an integrated and complete version.

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History of Germany

Overview of the topic

The concept of Germany as a distinct region in Central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France). The victory of the Germanic tribes in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (AD 9) prevented annexation by the Roman Empire, although the Roman provinces of Germania Superior and Germania Inferior were established along the Rhine. Following the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Franks conquered the other WestGermanic tribes. When the Frankish Empire was divided among Charles the Great's heirs in , the eastern part became East Francia. In , Otto I became the first Holy Roman Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the medieval German state.

In the Late Middle Ages, the regional dukes, princes, and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation within the Catholic Church after , as the northern and eastern states became Protestant, while most of the southern and western states remained Catholic. The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War (–), which was ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both parts. The Thirty Years' War brought tremendous destruction to Germany; more than 1/4 of the population in the German states were killed by the catastrophic war. The estates of the Holy Roman Empire attained a high extent of autonomy in the Peace of Westphalia, some of them being capable of their own foreign policies or controlling land outside of the Empire, the most important being Austria, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony. With the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars from to , feudalism fell away by reforms and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. Thereafter liberalism and nationalism clashed with reaction. The German revolutions of –49 failed. The Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the rapid growth of cities and the emergence of the socialist movement in Germany. Prussia, with its capital Berlin, grew in power. German universities became world-class centers for science and humanities, while music and art flourished. The unification of Germany (excluding Austria and the German-speaking areas of Switzerland) was achieved under the leadership of the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck with the formation of the German Empire in This resulted in the Kleindeutsche Lösung, ("small Germany solution", Germany without Austria), rather than the Großdeutsche Lösung, ("greater Germany solution", Germany with Austria). The new Reichstag, an elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government. Germany joined the other powers in colonial expansion in Africa and the Pacific.

By , Germany was the dominant power on the European continent and its rapidly expanding industry had surpassed Britain's while provoking it in a naval arms race. Germany led the Central Powers in World War I (–) against France, the United Kingdom, Russia, (by ) Italy and (by ) the United States. Defeated and partly occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as of home territory to be ceded to Belgium, France, and Poland, and was banned from uniting with German-settled regions of Austria. The German Revolution of –19 put an end to the federalconstitutional monarchy, which resulted in the establishment of the Weimar Republic, an unstable parliamentary democracy. In the early s, the worldwide Great Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment soared and people lost confidence in the government. In January , Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. His Nazi Party quickly established a totalitarian regime, and Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if they were not met. Remilitarization of the Rhineland came in , then annexation of Austria in the Anschluss and German-speaking regions of Czechoslovakia with the Munich Agreement in , and further territory of Czechoslovakia in On 1 September , Germany initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland. After forming a pact with the Soviet Union in , Hitler and Stalin divided Eastern Europe. After a "Phoney War" in spring , German forces swiftly conquered Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and France, and forced the British army out of Western Europe. In , Hitler's army invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and the Soviet Union.

Racism, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the Nazi regime. In Germany, but predominantly in the German-occupied areas, the systematic genocide program known as the Holocaust killed 17 million, including Jews, German dissidents, disabled people, Poles, Romanies, Soviets (Russian and non-Russian), and others. In , the German invasion of the Soviet Union faltered, and after the United States entered the war, German cities became targets for massive Allied bombing raids. It has been estimated that in all about , German civilians were killed and 9 million left homeless during the Allied bombing raids.[1] Following the Allied invasion of Normandy (June ), the German Army was pushed back on all fronts until the final collapse in May Under occupation by the Allies, German territories were split up, Austria was again made a separate country, denazification took place, and the Cold War resulted in the division of the country into democratic West Germany and communist East Germany, reduced in territory by the establishment of the Oder-Neisse line. Millions of ethnic Germans were deported from pre-war Eastern Germany, Sudetenland, and from all over Eastern Europe, in what is described as the largest scale of ethnic cleansing in history.[2] Germans also fled from Communist areas into West Germany, which experienced rapid economic expansion, and became the dominant economy in Western Europe. West Germany was rearmed in the s under the auspices of NATO but without access to nuclear weapons. The Franco-German friendship became the basis for the political integration of Western Europe in the European Union.

In , the Berlin Wall was opened, the Eastern Bloc collapsed, and East Germany was reunited with West Germany in In –, Germany was one of the founding countries of the eurozone. Germany remains one of the economic powerhouses of Europe, contributing about one-quarter of the eurozone's annual gross domestic product. In the early s, Germany played a critical role in trying to resolve the escalating euro crisis, especially concerning Greece and other Southern European nations. In the middle of the decade, the country faced the European migrant crisis as the main receiver of asylum seekers from Syria and other troubled regions.

Prehistory[edit]

Pre-human ancestors were present in Germany over 11 million years ago.[3] The discovery of the Homo heidelbergensis mandible in affirms archaic human presence in Germany by at least , years ago. The oldest complete set of hunting weapons ever found anywhere in the world was excavated from a coal mine in Schöningen, Lower Saxony. Between and , eight ,year-old wooden javelins between and &#;m ( and &#;ft) in length were eventually unearthed.[5][6]

In the fossilized bones of an extinct human species were salvaged from a limestone grotto in the Neander valley near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia. The archaic nature of the fossils, now known to be around 40, years old, was recognized and the characteristics published in the first-ever paleoanthropologicspecies description in by Hermann Schaaffhausen.[7] The species was named Homo neanderthalensis – Neanderthal man in

The remains of Paleolithicearly modern human occupation uncovered and documented in several caves in the Swabian Jura include various mammoth ivory sculptures that rank among the oldest uncontested works of art and several flutes, made of bird bone and mammoth ivory that are confirmed to be the oldest musical instruments ever found. The 40,year-old Löwenmensch figurine represents the oldest uncontested figurative work of art and the 35,year-old Venus of Hohle Fels has been asserted as the oldest uncontested object of human figurative art ever discovered.[8][9][10][11]

Early cultures[edit]

Celtic pottery vessels from a burial site near the Heuneburg

The first groups of early farmers different from the indigenous hunter-gatherers to migrate into Europe came from a population in western Anatolia at the beginning of the Neolithic period between 10, and 8, years ago.[12]

The settlers of the Corded Ware culture, that had spread all over the fertile plains of Central Europe during the Late Neolithic are of Indo-European ancestry. The Indo-Europeans had, via mass-migration, arrived into the heartland of Europe around 4, years ago.[13]

By the late Bronze Age, the Urnfield culture (c. BC to BC) had replaced the Bell Beaker, the Unetice and Tumulus cultures in central Europe.[14] The Hallstatt culture, which had developed from the Urnfield culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture from the 12th to 8th centuries BC and during the early Iron Age (8th to 6th centuries BC). The people, who had adopted these cultural characteristics are regarded as Celts. How and if the Celts are related to the Urnfield culture remains disputed. However, Celtic cultural centers developed in central Europe during the late Bronze Age (circa BC until BC). Some, like the Heuneburg at the Danube, grew to become important cultural centres of the Iron Age in Central Europe, that maintained trade routes to the Mediterranean. In the 5th century BC the Greek historian Herodotus mentioned a Celtic city at the Danube - Pyrene, that historians attribute to the Heuneburg. Beginning around BC, Germanic peoples from southern Scandinavia and northern Germany expanded south and gradually replaced the Celtic peoples in Central Europe.[15][16][17][18][19][20]

Germanic tribes, BC – AD[edit]

Migration and conquest[edit]

Main articles: Germanic peoples and Germania

Further information: List of Roman governors of Germania Inferior

The expansion of the Germanic tribes &#;BCE – 1&#;CE (after the Penguin Atlas of World History):

&#;&#; Settlements before &#;BCE

&#;&#; New settlements by &#;BCE

&#;&#; New settlements by &#;BCE

&#;&#; New settlements by 1&#;CE

Map of Germania Inferior– settlements and forts accessible via the navigable rivers, as the hinterland escapes Roman control

The ethnogenesis of the Germanic tribes remains debated. However, for author Averil Cameronit is obvious that a steady process has occurred during the Nordic Bronze Age, or at the latest during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.[21] From their homes in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany the tribes began expanding south, east and west during the 1st century BC, and came into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul, as well as with Iranian,Baltic, and Slavic cultures in Central/Eastern Europe.

Factual and detailed knowledge about the early history of the Germanic tribes is rare. Researchers have to be content with the recordings of the tribes' affairs with the Romans, linguistic conclusions, archaeological discoveries and the rather new yet auspicious results of archaeogenetic study. In the mid-1st century BC, Julius Caesar erected the first known bridges across the Rhine during his campaign in Gaul and led a military contingent across and into the territories of the local Germanic tribes. After several days and having made no contact with Germanic troops (who had retreated inland) Caesar returned to the west of the river.[27] The Suebi tribe under chieftain Ariovistus, had around 60 BC conquered lands of the Gallic Aedui tribe to the west of the Rhine. Consequent plans to populate the region with Germanic settlers from the east were vehemently opposed by Caesar, who had already launched his ambitious campaign to subjugate all Gaul. Julius Caesar confronts and beats the Suebi forces in 58 BC in the Battle of Vosges and forces Ariovist to retreat across the Rhine.[28][29]

Collision with the Roman Empire[edit]

Further information: Roman campaigns in Germania (12 BC – AD 16) and Crossing of the Rhine

Emperor Augustus considered conquest beyond the Rhine and the Danube not only regular foreign policy but also necessary to counter Germanic incursions into a still rebellious Gaul. A series of forts and commercial centers were established along the two rivers. Some tribes, such as the Ubii consequently allied with Rome and readily adopted advanced Roman culture. During the 1st century CE Roman legions conducted extended campaigns into Germania magna, the area north of the Upper Danube and east of the Rhine, attempting to subdue the various tribes. Roman ideas of administration, the imposition of taxes and a legal framework were frustrated by the total absence of an infrastructure. The campaigns of Germanicus, for example were almost exclusively characterized by frequent massacres of villagers and indiscriminate pillaging. The tribes, however maintained their elusive identities. In 9 AD a coalition of tribes under the Cherusci chieftain Arminius, who was familiar with Roman tactical doctrines, defeated a sizeable Roman force in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Consequently, Rome resolved to permanently establish the Rhine/Danube border and refrain from further territorial advance into Germania. By AD the frontier along the Rhine and the Danube and the Limes Germanicus was firmly established. Several Germanic tribes lived under Roman rule south and west of the border, as described in Tacitus's Germania. These lands represent the modern states Baden-Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hesse, Saarland and the Rhineland. Austria formed the regular provinces of Noricum and Raetia.[33] The provinces Germania Inferior (with the capital situated at Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, modern Cologne) and Germania Superior (with its capital at Mogontiacum, modern Mainz), were formally established in 85 AD, after long and painful campaigns as lasting military control was confined to the lands surrounding the rivers.

The 3rd century saw the emergence of a number of large West Germanic tribes: the Alamanni, Franks, Bavarii, Chatti, Saxons, Frisii, Sicambri, and Thuringii. By the 3rd century the Germanic speaking peoples began to migrate beyond the limes and the Danube frontier. Several large tribes – the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Burgundians, Lombards, Saxons and Franks – migrated and played their part in the decline of the Roman Empire and the transformation of the old Western Roman Empire.

Christianity was introduced to Roman controlled southwestern Germania and Christian religious structures such as the Aula Palatina of Trier were built during the reign of Constantine I (r. (– AD). By the end of the 4th century the Huns invaded eastern and central Europe. The event triggered the Migration Period.[38] Hunnic hegemony over a vast territory in central and eastern Europe lasted until the death of Attila's son Dengizich in

Stem duchies and marches[edit]

Main article: Stem duchy

Depiction of the German stem duchies and principal states in East Francia and the early Holy Roman Empire.

Stem duchies (German: Stammesherzogtümer) in Germany refer to the traditional territory of the various Germanic tribes. The concept of such duchies survived especially in the areas which by the 9th century would constitute East Francia, which included the Duchy of Bavaria, the Duchy of Swabia, the Duchy of Saxony, the Duchy of Franconia and the Duchy of Thuringia, unlike further west the County of Burgundy or Lorraine in Middle Francia.[44]

The Salian emperors (reigned –) retained the stem duchies as the major divisions of Germany, but they became increasingly obsolete during the early high-medieval period under the Hohenstaufen, and Frederick Barbarossa finally abolished them in in favour of more numerous territorial duchies.

Successive kings of Germany founded a series of border counties or marches in the east and the north. These included Lusatia, the North March (which would become Brandenburg and the heart of the future Prussia), and the Billung March. In the south, the marches included Carniola, Styria, and the March of Austria that would become Austria.

Frankish Empire[edit]

Main article: Francia

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, the Franks, like other post-Roman Western Europeans, emerged as a tribal confederacy in the Middle Rhine-Weser region, among the territory soon to be called Austrasia (the "eastern land"), the northeastern portion of the future Kingdom of the MerovingianFranks. As a whole, Austrasia comprised parts of present-day France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Unlike the Alamanni to their south in Swabia, they absorbed large swaths of former Roman territory as they spread west into Gaul, beginning in Clovis I of the Merovingian dynasty conquered northern Gaul in and in the Battle of Tolbiac in the Alemanni tribe in Swabia, which eventually became the Duchy of Swabia.

By , Clovis had united all the Frankish tribes, ruled all of Gaul and was proclaimed King of the Franks between and [46] Clovis, unlike most Germanic rulers of the time, was baptized directly into Roman Catholicism instead of Arianism. His successors would cooperate closely with papal missionaries, among them Saint Boniface. After the death of Clovis in , his four sons partitioned his kingdom including Austrasia. Authority over Austrasia passed back and forth from autonomy to royal subjugation, as successive Merovingian kings alternately united and subdivided the Frankish lands.

During the 5th and 6th centuries the Merovingian kings conquered the Thuringii ( to ), the Kingdom of the Burgundians and the principality of Metz and defeated the Danes, the Saxons and the Visigoths.[48] King Chlothar I ( to ) ruled the greater part of what is now Germany and undertook military expeditions into Saxony, while the South-east of what is modern Germany remained under the influence of the Ostrogoths. Saxons controlled the area from the northern sea board to the Harz Mountains and the Eichsfeld in the south.[49]

The Merovingians placed the various regions of their Frankish Empire under the control of semi-autonomous dukes – either Franks or local rulers, and followed imperial Roman strategic traditions of social and political integration of the newly conquered territories.[51] While allowed to preserve their own legal systems, the conquered Germanic tribes were pressured to abandon the Arian Christian faith.

In Charles Martel waged war against the Saxons in support of the Neustrians. In his son Carloman in his role as Mayor of the Palace renewed the war against the Saxons, who had allied with and aided the duke Odilo of Bavaria.[55] The Catholic Franks, who by controlled a vast territory in Gaul, north-western Germany, Swabia, Burgundy and western Switzerland, that included the alpine passes allied with the Curia in Rome against the Lombards, who posed a permanent threat to the Holy See. Pressed by Liutprand, King of the Lombards, a Papal envoy for help had already been sent to the de facto ruler Charles Martel after his victory in over the forces of the Umayyad Caliphate at the Battle of Tours, however a lasting and mutually beneficial alliance would only materialize after Charles' death under his successor Duke of the Franks, Pepin the Short.

In Pippin III, Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian king, himself assumed the title of king and was anointed by the Church. Pope Stephen II bestowed him the hereditary title of Patricius Romanorum as protector of Rome and St. Peter[57] in response to the Donation of Pepin, that guaranteed the sovereignty of the Papal States. Charles the Great (who ruled the Franks from to ) launched a decades-long military campaign against the Franks' heathen rivals, the Saxons and the Avars. The campaigns and insurrections of the Saxon Wars lasted from to The Franks eventually overwhelmed the Saxons and Avars, forcibly converted the people to Christianity, and annexed their lands to the Carolingian Empire.

Middle Ages[edit]

Further information: East Francia, Holy Roman Empire, and Kingdom of Germany

Foundation of the Holy Roman Empire[edit]

See also: Charlemagne

After the death of Frankish king Pepin the Short in , his oldest son "Charlemagne" ("Charles the Great") consolidated his power over and expanded the Kingdom. Charlemagne ended years of Royal Lombard rule with the Siege of Pavia, and in he installed himself as King of the Lombards. Loyal Frankish nobles replaced the old Lombard aristocracy following a rebellion in The next 30 years of his reign were spent ruthlessly strengthening his power in Francia and on the conquest of the Slavs and Pannonian Avars in the east and all tribes, such as the Saxons and the Bavarians.[60] On Christmas Day, AD, Charlemagne was crowned Imperator Romanorum (Emperor of the Romans) in Rome by Pope Leo III.[60]

Fighting among Charlemagne's three grandsons over the continuation of the custom of partible inheritance or the introduction of primogeniture caused the Carolingian empire to be partitioned into three parts by the Treaty of Verdun of [61]Louis the German received the Eastern portion of the kingdom, East Francia, all lands east of the Rhine river and to the north of Italy. This encompassed the territories of the German stem duchies – Franks, Saxons, Swabians, and Bavarians – that were united in a federation under the first non-Frankish king Henry the Fowler, who ruled from to The royal court permanently moved in between a series of strongholds, called Kaiserpfalzen, that developed into economic and cultural centers. Aachen Palace played a central role, as the local Palatine Chapel served as the official site for all royal coronation ceremonies during the entire Medieval period until [60][63]

The Holy Roman Empire, maps

Otto the Great[edit]

See also: Otto the Great

Equestrian monument, probably Otto the Great, Magdeburg, around

In , Otto I was crowned German king at Aachen, in King of Italy in Pavia and crowned emperor by Pope John XII in Rome in The tradition of the German King as protector of the Kingdom of Italy and the Latin Church resulted in the term Holy Roman Empire in the 12th century. The name, that was to identify with Germany continued to be used officially, with the extension added: Nationis Germanicæ (of the German nation) after the last imperial coronation in Rome in until its dissolution in Otto strengthened the royal authority by re-asserting the old Carolingian rights over ecclesiastical appointments. Otto wrested from the nobles the powers of appointment of the bishops and abbots, who controlled large land holdings. Additionally, Otto revived the old Carolingian program of appointing missionaries in the border lands. Otto continued to support celibacy for the higher clergy, so ecclesiastical appointments never became hereditary. By granting lands to the abbots and bishops he appointed, Otto actually turned these bishops into "princes of the Empire" (Reichsfürsten).[65] In this way, Otto was able to establish a national church. Outside threats to the kingdom were contained with the decisive defeat of the Hungarian Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in The Slavs between the Elbe and the Oder rivers were also subjugated. Otto marched on Rome and drove John XII from the papal throne and for years controlled the election of the pope, setting a firm precedent for imperial control of the papacy for years to come.[66][67]

During the reign of Conrad II's son, Henry III ( to ), the empire supported the Cluniac reforms of the Church, the Peace of God, prohibition of simony (the purchase of clerical offices), and required celibacy of priests. Imperial authority over the Pope reached its peak. However, Rome reacted with the creation of the College of Cardinals and Pope Gregory VII's series of clerical reforms. Pope Gregory insisted in his Dictatus Papae on absolute papal authority over appointments to ecclesiastical offices. The subsequent conflict in which emperor Henry IV was compelled to submit to the Pope at Canossa in , after having been excommunicated came to be known as the Investiture Controversy. In a temporary reconciliation was reached between Henry V and the Pope with the Concordat of Worms. With the conclusion of the dispute the Roman church and the papacy regained supreme control over all religious affairs.[68][69] Consequently the imperial Ottonian church system (Reichskirche) declined. It also ended the royal/imperial tradition of appointing selected powerful clerical leaders to counter the Imperial secular princes.[70]

Between and the various campaigns of the crusades to the Holy Land took place. Knightly religious orders were established, including the Knights Templar, the Knights of St John (Knights Hospitaller), and the Teutonic Order.[71][72]

The term sacrum imperium (Holy Empire) was first used officially by Friedrich I in ,[73] but the words Sacrum Romanum Imperium, Holy Roman Empire, were only combined in July and would never consistently appear on official documents from onwards.

Hanseatic League[edit]

Main article: Hanseatic League

Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive alliance of the merchant guilds of towns and cities in northern and central Europe that dominated marine trade in the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and along the connected navigable rivers during the Late Middle Ages ( 12th to 15th centuries ). Each of the affiliated cities retained the legal system of its sovereign and, with the exception of the Free imperial cities, had only a limited degree of political autonomy. Beginning with an agreement of the cities of Lübeck and Hamburg, guilds cooperated in order to strengthen and combine their economic assets, like securing trading routes and tax privileges, to control prices and better protect and market their local commodities. Important centers of commerce within the empire, such as Cologne on the Rhine river and Bremen on the North Sea joined the union, which resulted in greater diplomatic esteem. Recognized by the various regional princes for the great economic potential, favorable charters for, often exclusive, commercial operations were granted.[77] During its zenith the alliance maintained trading posts and kontors in virtually all cities between London and Edinburgh in the west to Novgorod in the east and Bergen in Norway. By the late 14th century the powerful league enforced its interests with military means, if necessary. This culminated in a war with the sovereign Kingdom of Denmark from to Principal city of the Hanseatic League remained Lübeck, where in the first general diet was held and its official structure was announced. The league declined after due to a number of factors, such as the 15th-century crisis, the territorial lords' shifting policies towards greater commercial control, the silver crisis and marginalization in the wider Eurasian trade network, among others.[78][79]

Eastward expansion[edit]

Main article: Ostsiedlung

The Ostsiedlung (lit. Eastern settlement) is the term for a process of largely uncoordinated immigration and chartering of settlement structures by ethnic Germans into territories, already inhabited by Slavs and Balts east of the Saale and Elbe rivers, such as modern Poland and Silesia and to the south into Bohemia, modern Hungary and Romania during the High Middle Ages from the 11th to the 14th century.[80][81] The primary purpose of the early imperial military campaigns into the lands to the east during the 10th and 11th century, was to punish and subjugate the local heathen tribes. Conquered territories were mostly lost after the troops had retreated, but eventually were incorporated into the empire as marches, fortified borderlands with garrisoned troops in strongholds and castles, who were to ensure military control and enforce the exaction of tributes. Contemporary sources do not support the idea of policies or plans for the organized settlement of civilians.[82]

Emperor Lothair II re-established feudal sovereignty over Poland, Denmark and Bohemia from and appointed margraves to turn the borderlands into hereditary fiefs and install a civilian administration. There is no discernible chronology of the immigration process as it took place in many individual efforts and stages, often even encouraged by the Slavic regional lords. However, the new communities were subjected to German law and customs. Total numbers of settlers were generally rather low and, depending on who held a numerical majority, populations usually assimilated into each other. In many regions only enclaves would persist, like Hermannstadt, founded by the Transylvanian Saxons in the medieval Hungarian Kingdom(today in Romania) who called on by Geza II. in [Saxons called those part of Transylvania as "Altland" to distinguish it from later immigrant Saxon settlements what established about by Teutonic Order][83][84]

Main article: State of the Teutonic Order

In the Catholic monastic order of the Teutonic Knights launched the Prussian Crusade. The campaign, that was supported by the forces of Polish duke Konrad I of Masovia, initially intended to Christianize the Baltic Old Prussians, succeeded primarily in the conquest of large territories. The order, emboldened by imperial approval, quickly resolved to establish an independent state, without the consent of duke Konrad. Recognizing only papal authority and based on a solid economy, the order steadily expanded the Teutonic state during the following years, engaging in several land disputes with its neighbors. Permanent conflicts with the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Novgorod Republic, eventually led to military defeat and containment by the midth century. The last Grand MasterAlbert of Brandenburg converted to Lutheranism in and turned the remaining lands of the order into the secular Duchy of Prussia.[86]

Church and state[edit]

Henry V (–), great-grandson of Conrad II, who had overthrown his father Henry IV became Holy Roman Emperor in Hoping to gain greater control over the church inside the Empire, Henry V appointed Adalbert of Saarbrücken as the powerful archbishop of Mainz in the same year. Adalbert began to assert the powers of the Church against secular authorities, that is, the Emperor. This precipitated the "Crisis of " as yet another chapter of the long-term Investiture Controversy.[87] In the prince-electors turned back to the Hohenstaufen family for a candidate, Conrad III. Conrad tried to divest his rival Henry the Proud of his two duchies—Bavaria and Saxony—that led to war in southern Germany as the empire was divided into two powerful factions. The faction of the Welfs or Guelphs (in Italian) supported the House of Welf of Henry the Proud, which was the ruling dynasty in the Duchy of Bavaria. The rival faction of the Waiblings or Ghibellines (in Italian) pledged allegiance to the Swabian House of Hohenstaufen. During this early period, the Welfs generally maintained ecclesiastical independence under the papacy and political particularism (the focus on ducal interests against the central imperial authority). The Waiblings, on the other hand, championed strict control of the church and a strong central imperial government.[88]

During the reign of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), an accommodation was reached in between the two factions. The Duchy of Bavaria was returned to Henry the Proud's son Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, who represented the Guelph party. However, the Margraviate of Austria was separated from Bavaria and turned into the independent Duchy of Austria by virtue of the Privilegium Minus in [89]

Having become wealthy through trade, the confident cities of Northern Italy, supported by the Pope, increasingly opposed Barbarossa's claim of feudal rule (Honor Imperii) over Italy. The cities united in the Lombard League and finally defeated Barbarossa in the Battle of Legnano in The following year a reconciliation was reached between the emperor and Pope Alexander III in the Treaty of Venice.[90] The Peace of Constance eventually settled that the Italian cities remained loyal to the empire but were granted local jurisdiction and full regal rights in their territories.[91]

In , Henry the Lion was outlawed, Saxony was divided, and Bavaria was given to Otto of Wittelsbach, who founded the Wittelsbach dynasty, which was to rule Bavaria until )

From to , the empire under Frederick I Barbarossa reached its cultural peak with the Diet of Pentecost held at Mainz and the marriage of his son Henry in Milan to the Norman princess Constance of Sicily.[92] The power of the feudal lords was undermined by the appointment of ministerials (unfree servants of the Emperor) as officials. Chivalry and the court life flowered, as expressed in the scholastic philosophy of Albertus Magnus and the literature of Wolfram von Eschenbach.[93]

Between and , Frederick II established a modern, professionally administered state from his base in Sicily. He resumed the conquest of Italy, leading to further conflict with the Papacy. In the Empire, extensive sovereign powers were granted to ecclesiastical and secular princes, leading to the rise of independent territorial states. The struggle with the Pope sapped the Empire's strength, as Frederick II was excommunicated three times. After his death, the Hohenstaufen dynasty fell, followed by an interregnum during which there was no Emperor (). This interregnum came to an end with the election of a small Swabian count, Rudolf of Habsburg, as emperor.[94][95]

The failure of negotiations between Emperor Louis IV and the papacy led to the Declaration at Rhense by six princes of the Imperial Estate to the effect that election by all or the majority of the electors automatically conferred the royal title and rule over the empire, without papal confirmation. As result, the monarch was no longer subject to papal approbation and became increasingly dependent on the favour of the electors. Between and Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg, king of Bohemia, sought to restore imperial authority. The decree of the Golden Bull stipulated that all future emperors were to be chosen by a college of only seven – four secular and three clerical – electors. The secular electors were the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony, and the Margrave of Brandenburg, the clerical electors were the Archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne.[96]

Between and Germany and almost the entire European continent were consumed by the most severe outbreak of the Black Deathpandemic. Estimated to have caused the abrupt death of 30 to 60% of Europe's population, it led to widespread social and economic disruption and deep religious disaffection and fanaticism. Minority groups, and Jews in particular were blamed, singled out and attacked. As a consequence, many Jews fled and resettled in Eastern Europe.[97][98]

Change and reform[edit]

The early-modern European society gradually developed after the disasters of the 14th century as religious obedience and political loyalties declined in the wake of the Great Plague, the schism of the Church and prolonged dynastic wars. The rise of the cities and the emergence of the new burgher class eroded the societal, legal and economic order of feudalism.[99] The commercial enterprises of the mercantile patriciate family of the Fuggers of Augsburg generated unprecedented financial means. As financiers to both the leading ecclesiastical and secular rulers, the Fuggers fundamentally influenced the political affairs in the empire during the 15th and 16th century.[] The increasingly money based economy also provoked social discontent among knights and peasants and predatory "robber knights" became common. The knightly classes had traditionally established their monopoly through warfare and military skill. However, the shift to practical mercenary infantry armies and military-technical advances led to a marginalization of heavy cavalry.[]

From the Habsburg dynasty, who had acquired control in the south-eastern empire over the Duchy of Austria, Bohemia and Hungary after the death of King Louis II in , managed to permanently occupy the position of the Holy Roman Emperor until (with the exception of the years between and ). However, this strict policy of dynastic rule over a vast multi-ethnic territory, prevented the development of concepts of patriotism and unity among the empire's territorial rulers and a national identity as in France and England.

During his reign from to , Maximilian I tried to reform the empire. An Imperial supreme court (Reichskammergericht) was established, imperial taxes were levied, and the power of the Imperial Diet (Reichstag) was increased. The reforms, however, were frustrated by the continued territorial fragmentation of the Empire.[]

Towns and cities[edit]

Total population estimates of the German territories range around 5 to 6 million by the end of Henry III's reign in and about 7 to 8 million after Friedrich Barabarossa's rule in [][] The vast majority were farmers, typically in a state of serfdom under feudal lords and monasteries.[88] Towns gradually emerged and in the 12th century many new cities were founded along the trading routes and near imperial strongholds and castles. The towns were subjected to the municipal legal system. Cities such as Cologne, that had acquired the status of Imperial Free Cities, were no longer answerable to the local landlords or bishops, but immediate subjects of the Emperor and enjoyed greater commercial and legal liberties.[] The towns were ruled by a council of the – usually mercantile – elite, the patricians. Craftsmen formed guilds, governed by strict rules, which sought to obtain control of the towns; a few were open to women. Society had diversified, but was divided into sharply demarcated classes of the clergy, physicians, merchants, various guilds of artisans, unskilled day labourers and peasants. Full citizenship was not available to paupers. Political tensions arose from issues of taxation, public spending, regulation of business, and market supervision, as well as the limits of corporate autonomy.[]

Cologne's central location on the Rhine river placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west and was the basis of Cologne's growth.[] The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne were characterized by the city's status as a major harbor and transport hub upon the Rhine. It was the seat of an archbishop, under whose patronage the vast Cologne Cathedral was built since The cathedral houses sacred Christian relics and it has since become a well known pilgrimage destination. By the city had secured its independence from the archbishop (who relocated to Bonn), and was ruled by its burghers.[]

Towns and cities of the Medieval and Early Modern Holy Roman Empire

Women[edit]

From the early medieval period and continuing through to the 18th century, Germanic law assigned women to a subordinate and dependent position relative to men. Salic (Frankish) law, from which the laws of the German lands would be based, placed women at a disadvantage with regard to property and inheritance rights. Germanic widows required a male guardian to represent them in court. Unlike Anglo-Saxon law or the Visigothic Code, Salic law barred women from royal succession. Social status was based on military and biological roles, a reality demonstrated in rituals associated with newborns, when female infants were given a lesser value than male infants. The use of physical force against wives was condoned until the 18th century in Bavarian law.[][]

Some women of means asserted their influence during the Middle Ages, typically in royal court or convent settings. Hildegard of Bingen, Gertrude the Great, Elisabeth of Bavaria (–), and Argula von Grumbach are among the women who pursued independent accomplishments in fields as diverse as medicine, music composition, religious writing, and government and military politics.

Learning and culture[edit]

Benedictine abbess Hildegard von Bingen (–) wrote several influential theological, botanical, and medicinal texts, as well as letters, liturgical songs, poems, and arguably the oldest surviving morality play, Ordo Virtutum, while supervising brilliant miniature Illuminations. About years later, Walther von der Vogelweide (c. – c. ) became the most celebrated of the Minnesänger, who were Middle High German lyric poets.

Around , Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz, used movable type printing and issued the Gutenberg Bible. He was the global inventor of the printing press, thereby starting the Printing Revolution. Cheap printed books and pamphlets played central roles for the spread of the Reformation and the Scientific Revolution.

Around the transition from the 15th to the 16th century, Albrecht Dürer from Nuremberg established his reputation across Europe as painter, printmaker, mathematician, engraver, and theorist when he was still in his twenties and secured his reputation as one of the most important figures of the Northern Renaissance.

The addition Nationis Germanicæ (of German Nation) to the emperor's title appeared first in the 15th century: in a law decreed by Frederick III and in in reference to the Imperial Diet in Cologne by Maximilian I. By then, the emperors had lost their influence in Italy and Burgundy. In , the Heilbronn reform plan – the most advanced document of the German Peasants' War (Deutscher Bauernkrieg) – referred to the Reich as von Teutscher Nation (of German nation).

influential German speaking authors, artists and scholars of the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance

  • Hildegard von Bingen (–), Benedictine abbess, philosopher, author, artist and visionary naturalist

  • Johannes Gutenberg (c. –), pioneering user of the printing press with movable types

Early modern Germany[edit]

Main articles: Early Modern history of Germany and 18th century history of Germany

See List of states in the Holy Roman Empire for subdivisions and the political structure

Protestant Reformation[edit]

In order to manage their ever growing expenses, the Renaissance Popes of the 15th and early 16th century promoted the excessive sale of indulgences and offices and titles of the Roman Curia.

In , the monk Martin Luther published a pamphlet with 95 Theses that he posted in the town square of Wittenberg and handed copies to feudal lords. Whether he nailed them to a church door at Wittenberg remains unclear. The list detailed 95 assertions, he argued, represented corrupt practice of the Christian faith and misconduct within the Catholic Church. Although perhaps not Luther's chief concern, he received popular support for his condemnation of the sale of indulgences and clerical offices, the pope's and higher clergy's abuse of power and his doubts of the very idea of the institution of the Church and the papacy.[]

The Protestant Reformation was the first successful challenge to the Catholic Church and began in as Luther was outlawed at the Diet of Worms after his refusal to repent. The ideas of the reformation spread rapidly, as the new technology of the modern printing press ensured cheap mass copies and distribution of the theses and helped by the Emperor Charles V's wars with France and the Turks.[] Hiding in the Wartburg Castle, Luther translated the Bible into German, thereby greatly contributing to the establishment of the modern German language. This is highlighted by the fact that Luther spoke only a local dialect of minor importance during that time. After the publication of his Bible, his dialect suppressed others and constitutes to a great extent what is now modern German. With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Imperial Diet of Speyer in and the acceptance and adoption of the Lutheran Augsburg Confession by the Lutheran princes beginning in , the separate Lutheran church was established.[]

The /25 German Peasants' War, that began in the southwest in Alsace and Swabia and spread further east into Franconia, Thuringia and Austria, was a series of economic and religious revolts of the rural lower classes, encouraged by the rhethoric of various radical religious reformers and Anabaptists against the ruling feudal lords. Although occasionally assisted by war-experienced noblemen like Götz von Berlichingen and Florian Geyer (in Franconia) and the theologian Thomas Müntzer (in Thuringia), the peasant forces lacked military structure, skill, logistics and equipment and as many as , insurgents were eventually defeated and massacred by the territorial princes.[]

The Catholic Counter-Reformation, initiated in at the Council of Trent was spearheaded by the scholarly religious Jesuit order, that was founded just five years prior by several clerics around Ignatius of Loyola. Its intent was to challenge and contain the Protestant Reformation via apologetic and polemical writings and decrees, ecclesiastical reconfiguration, wars and imperial political maneuverings. In emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League, a military alliance of Protestant rulers.[] The Peace of Augsburg decreed the recognition of the Lutheran Faith and religious division of the empire. It also stipulated the ruler's right to determine the official confession in his principality (Cuius regio, eius religio). The Counter-Reformation eventually failed to reintegrate the central and northern German Lutheran states. In / the Protestant Union and the Catholic League were formed.

Thirty Years' War, –[edit]

Main article: Thirty Years' War

The to Thirty Years' War, that took place almost exclusively in the Holy Roman Empire has its origins, that remain widely debated, in the unsolved and recurring conflicts of the Catholic and Protestant factions. The Catholic emperor Ferdinand II attempted to achieve the religious and political unity of the empire, while the opposing Protestant Union forces were determined to defend their religious rights. The religious motive served as the universal justification for the various territorial and foreign princes, who over the course of several stages joined either of the two warring parties in order to gain land and power.[][]

The conflict was sparked by the revolt of the Protestant nobility of Bohemia against emperor Matthias' succession policies. After imperial triumph at the Battle of White Mountain and a short-lived peace, the war grew to become a political European conflict by the intervention of King Christian IV of Denmark from to , Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden from to and France under Cardinal Richelieu from to The conflict increasingly evolved into a struggle between the French House of Bourbon and the House of Habsburg for predominance in Europe, for which the central German territories of the empire served as the battleground.[]

The war ranks among the most catastrophic in history as three decades of constant warfare and destruction had left the land devastated. Marauding armies incessantly pillaged the countryside, seized and levied heavy taxes on cities and indiscriminately plundered the food stocks of the peasantry. There were also the countless bands of murderous outlaws, sick, homeless, disrupted people and invalid soldiery. Overall social and economic disruption caused a dramatic decline in population as a result of pandemic murder and random rape and killings, endemic infectious diseases, crop failures, famine, declining birth rates, wanton burglary, witch-hunts and the emigration of terrified people. Estimates vary between a 38% drop from 16 million people in to 10 million by and a mere 20% drop from 20 million to 16 million. The Altmark and Württemberg regions were especially hard hit, where it took generations to fully recover.[][]

The war was the last major religious struggle in mainland Europe and ended in with the Peace of Westphalia. It resulted in increased autonomy for the constituent states of the Holy Roman Empire, limiting the power of the emperor. Most of Alsace was ceded to France, Western Pomerania and Bremen-Verden were given to Sweden as Imperial fiefs, and the Netherlands officially left the Empire.[]

Culture and literacy[edit]

Bible translated into Modern High German by Luther,

The population of Germany reached about twenty million people by the midth century, the great majority of whom were peasant farmers.[]

The Protestant Reformation was a triumph for literacy and the new printing press. Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive impulse for the increase of literacy and stimulated printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. From onward religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe. The Reformation instigated a media revolution as by over 10, individual works are published with a total of ten million copies. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church. It soon became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas. Reform writers used pre-Reformation styles, clichés, and stereotypes and changed items as needed for their own purposes.[] Especially effective were Luther's Small Catechism, for use of parents teaching their children, and Larger Catechism, for pastors.[] Using the German vernacular they expressed the Apostles' Creed in simpler, more personal, Trinitarian language. Illustrations in the newly translated Bible and in many tracts popularized Luther's ideas. Lucas Cranach the Elder (–), the great painter patronized by the electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience. He dramatized Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments, while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper and improper uses of visual imagery.[]

Luther's German translation of the Bible was also decisive for the German language and its evolution from Early New High German to Modern Standard. His bible promoted the development of non-local forms of language and exposed all speakers to forms of German from outside their own area.[]

Science[edit]

The German astronomical community played a modest role in the early modern period.[] Astronomer Johannes Kepler from Weil der Stadt was one of the pioneering minds of empirical and rational research. Through rigorous application of the principles of the Scientific method he construed his laws of planetary motion. His ideas influenced contemporary Italian scientist Galileo Galilei and provided fundamental mechanical principles for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.[]

Scientists, scholars and artists of the Early modern period in Germany

    –[edit]

    Rise of Prussia[edit]

    Prussia became a European great power after and Austria's greatest rival in Germany

    In , Frederick William, also called the Great Elector, became ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia and immediately threw off his vassalage under the Kingdom of Poland and reorganized his loose and scattered territories.[]

    In he acquired East Pomerania via the Peace of Westphalia. King Frederick William I, known as the Soldier King, who reigned from to , established the structures for the highly centralized Prussian state and raised a professional army, that was to play a central role.[] In order to address the demographic problem of Prussia's largely rural population of about three million, the king attracted the immigration and settlement of French Huguenots in urban areas. Many became craftsmen and entrepreneurs.[] The total population of Germany (in its territorial extent) grew from 16 million in to 17 million in and reached 24 million in The 18th-century economy noticeably profited from widespread practical application of the Scientific method as greater yields and a more reliable agricultural production and the introduction of hygienic standards positively affected the birth rate – death rate balance.

    Wars[edit]

    Main articles: Nine Years' War, Great Turkish War, and Austro-Turkish War of –18

    Louis XIV of France waged a series of successful wars in order to extend the French territory. He conquered Alsace and Lorraine (–) that included the free imperial city of Straßburg and invaded the Electorate of the Palatinate

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    • Go to Get a handle on Panel from Start Selection or by pressing (Windows Logo Key + I).
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    • Substance the Key which you ripped from over and then clicked on Next.

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    Activate Windows During Installation

    In the initial technique, you have to enter the key during the installation. When you deploy new Windows, then you might find the screen expressing “Enter Your Product Key” enter the copy the key over and enter it. But when you have missed that throughout the installation, then you need certainly to activate it differently.

    Let us now proceed to the next technique, which is a tiny bit different.

    Method 2:

    Activate Windows After Installation

    • Go to Get a handle on Panel from Start Selection or by pressing (Windows Logo Key + I).
    •  From Getting a handle on Panel, you will need to open Improvements and Security.
    •  Today you can see there’s the “Activation” option situated on the left side. Click on that, and you might find Activation Menu.
    • In this screen, you can see the option “Modify Keys” click that and a new screen will pop-up.
    • Substance the Key which you ripped from over and then clicked on Next.

    Note: It’ll now get a couple of seconds to confirm your key. The computer must be connected to the web since in Windows 10 activation process is performed by examining key online. Activation time differs on your web speed, so do not worry if it takes longer.

    How To Find Windows 10 Product Key

    When you have acquired a copy of Windows, nevertheless, you missing the tag wherever your key was written. Then there’s the strategy to find the Windows 10 Product Key By using NotePad. This technique is simple, and you will get the product key within seconds.

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    ByGermany was the dominant power on the European continent and its rapidly expanding industry had surpassed Britain's while provoking it in a naval arms race. Germany led the Central Powers in World War I (–) against France, the United Kingdom, Russia, (by ) Italy and (by ) the United States. Defeated and partly occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as of home territory to be ceded to Belgium, France, and Poland, and was banned from uniting with German-settled regions of Austria. The German Revolution of –19 put an end to the Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 monarchy, which resulted in the establishment of the Weimar Republic, an unstable parliamentary democracy. In the early s, the worldwide Great Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment soared and people lost confidence in the government. In JanuaryAdolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. His Nazi Party quickly established a totalitarian regime, and Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if they were not met. Remilitarization of the Rhineland came inthen annexation of Austria in the Anschluss and German-speaking regions of Czechoslovakia with the Munich Agreement inand further territory of Czechoslovakia in On 1 SeptemberGermany initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland. After forming a pact with the Soviet Union inHitler and Stalin divided Eastern Europe. After a "Phoney War" in springGerman forces swiftly conquered Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and France, and forced the British army out of Western Europe. InHitler's army invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and the Soviet Union.

    Racism, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the Nazi regime. In Germany, but predominantly in the German-occupied areas, the systematic genocide program known as the Holocaust killed 17 million, including Jews, German dissidents, disabled people, Poles, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, Romanies, Soviets (Russian and non-Russian), and others. Inthe German invasion of the Soviet Union faltered, and after the United States entered the war, German cities became targets for massive Allied bombing raids. It has been estimated that in all aboutGerman civilians were killed Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 9 million left homeless during the Allied bombing raids.[1] Following the Allied invasion of Normandy (June ), the German Army was pushed back on all fronts until the final collapse in May Under occupation by the Allies, German territories were split up, Austria was again made a separate country, denazification took place, and the Cold War resulted in the division of the country into democratic West Germany and communist East Germany, reduced in territory by the establishment of the Oder-Neisse line. Millions of ethnic Germans were deported from pre-war Eastern Germany, Sudetenland, and from all over Eastern Europe, in what is described as the largest scale of ethnic cleansing in history.[2] Germans also fled from Communist areas into West Germany, which experienced rapid economic expansion, and became the dominant economy in Western Europe. West Germany was rearmed in the s under the auspices of NATO but without access to nuclear weapons. The Franco-German friendship became the basis for the political integration of Western Europe in the European Union.

    Inthe Berlin Wall was opened, the Eastern Bloc collapsed, and East Germany was reunited with West Germany in In –, Germany was one of the founding countries of the eurozone. Germany remains one of the economic powerhouses of Europe, contributing about one-quarter of the eurozone's annual gross domestic product. In the early s, Germany played a critical role in trying to resolve the escalating euro crisis, especially concerning Greece and other Southern European nations. In the middle of the decade, the country faced the European migrant crisis as the main receiver of asylum seekers from Syria and other troubled regions.

    Prehistory[edit]

    Pre-human ancestors were present in Germany over 11 million years ago.[3] The discovery of the Homo heidelbergensis mandible in affirms archaic human presence in Germany by at leastyears ago, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020. The oldest complete set of hunting weapons ever found anywhere in the world was excavated from a coal mine in Schöningen, Lower Saxony. Between andeight ,year-old wooden javelins between and &#;m ( and &#;ft) in length were eventually unearthed.[5][6]

    In the fossilized bones of an extinct human species were salvaged from a limestone grotto in the Neander valley near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia. The archaic nature of the fossils, now known to be around 40, years old, was recognized and the characteristics published in the first-ever paleoanthropologicspecies description in by Hermann Schaaffhausen.[7] The species was named Homo neanderthalensis – Neanderthal man in

    The remains of Paleolithicearly modern human occupation uncovered and documented in several caves in the Swabian Jura include various mammoth ivory sculptures that rank among the oldest uncontested works of art and several flutes, made of bird bone and mammoth ivory that are confirmed to be the oldest musical instruments ever found. The 40,year-old Löwenmensch figurine represents the oldest uncontested figurative work of art and the 35,year-old Venus of Hohle Fels has been asserted as the oldest uncontested object of human figurative art ever discovered.[8][9][10][11]

    Early cultures[edit]

    Celtic pottery vessels from a burial site near the Heuneburg

    The first groups of early farmers different from the indigenous hunter-gatherers to migrate into Europe came from a population in western Anatolia at the beginning of the Neolithic period between 10, and 8, years ago.[12]

    The settlers of the Corded Ware culture, that had spread all over the fertile plains of Central Europe during the Late Neolithic are of Indo-European ancestry. The Indo-Europeans had, via mass-migration, arrived into the heartland of Europe around 4, years ago.[13]

    By the late Bronze Age, the Urnfield culture (c. BC to BC) had replaced the Bell Beaker, the Unetice and Tumulus cultures in central Europe.[14] The Hallstatt culture, which had developed from the Urnfield culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture from the 12th to 8th centuries BC and during the early Iron Age (8th to 6th centuries BC). The people, who had adopted these cultural characteristics are regarded as Celts. How and if the Celts are related to the Urnfield culture remains disputed. However, Celtic cultural centers developed in central Europe during the late Bronze Age (circa BC until BC). Some, like the Heuneburg at the Danube, grew to become important cultural centres of the Iron Age in Central Europe, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, that maintained trade routes to the Mediterranean. In the 5th century BC the Greek historian Herodotus mentioned a Celtic city at the Danube - Pyrene, that historians attribute to the Heuneburg. Beginning around BC, Germanic peoples from southern Scandinavia and northern Germany expanded south and gradually replaced the Celtic peoples in Central Europe.[15][16][17][18][19][20]

    Germanic tribes, BC – AD[edit]

    Migration and conquest[edit]

    Main articles: Germanic peoples and Germania

    Further information: List of Roman governors of Germania Inferior

    The expansion of the Germanic tribes &#;BCE – 1&#;CE (after the Penguin Atlas of World History):

    &#;&#; Settlements before &#;BCE

    &#;&#; New settlements by &#;BCE

    &#;&#; New settlements by &#;BCE

    &#;&#; New settlements by 1&#;CE

    Map of Germania Inferior– settlements and forts accessible via the navigable rivers, as the hinterland escapes Roman control

    The ethnogenesis of the Germanic tribes remains debated. However, for author Averil Cameronit is obvious that a steady process has occurred during the Nordic Bronze Age, or at the latest during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.[21] From their homes in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany the tribes began expanding south, east and west during the 1st century BC, and came into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul, as well as Windows XP SP3 Product Keys for Activation [Latest 2021] Download Iranian,Baltic, and Slavic cultures in Central/Eastern Europe.

    Factual and detailed knowledge about the early history of the Germanic tribes is rare. Researchers have to be content with the recordings of the tribes' affairs with the Romans, linguistic conclusions, archaeological discoveries and the rather new yet auspicious results of archaeogenetic study. In the mid-1st century BC, Julius Caesar erected the first known bridges across the Rhine during his campaign in Gaul and led a military contingent across and into the territories of the local Germanic tribes. After several days and having made no contact with Germanic troops (who had retreated inland) Caesar returned to the west of the river.[27] The Suebi tribe under chieftain Ariovistus, had around 60 BC conquered lands of the Gallic Aedui tribe to the west of the Rhine. Consequent plans to populate the region with Germanic settlers from the east were vehemently opposed by Caesar, who had already launched his ambitious campaign to subjugate all Gaul. Julius Caesar confronts and beats the Suebi forces in 58 BC in the Battle of Vosges and forces Ariovist to retreat across the Rhine.[28][29]

    Collision with the Roman Empire[edit]

    Further information: Roman campaigns in Germania (12 BC – AD 16) and Crossing of the Rhine

    Emperor Augustus considered conquest beyond the Rhine and the Danube not only regular foreign policy but also necessary to counter Germanic incursions into a still rebellious Gaul. A series of forts and commercial centers were established along the two rivers. Some tribes, such as the Ubii consequently allied with Rome and readily adopted advanced Roman culture. During the 1st century CE Roman legions conducted extended campaigns into Germania magna, the area north of the Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 Danube and east of the Rhine, attempting to subdue the various tribes. Roman ideas of administration, the imposition of taxes and a legal framework were frustrated by the total absence of an infrastructure. The campaigns of Germanicus, for example were almost exclusively characterized by frequent massacres of villagers and indiscriminate pillaging. The tribes, however maintained their elusive identities. In 9 AD a coalition of tribes under the Cherusci chieftain Arminius, who was Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 with Roman tactical doctrines, defeated a sizeable Roman force in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Consequently, Rome resolved to permanently establish the Rhine/Danube border and refrain from further territorial advance into Germania. By AD the frontier along the Rhine and the Danube and the Limes Germanicus was firmly established. Several Germanic tribes lived under Roman rule south and west of the border, as described in Tacitus's Germania. These lands represent the modern states Baden-Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hesse, Saarland and the Rhineland. Austria formed the regular provinces of Noricum and Raetia.[33] The provinces Germania Inferior (with the capital situated at Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, modern Cologne) and Germania Superior (with its capital at Mogontiacum, modern Mainz), were formally established in 85 AD, after long and painful campaigns as lasting military control was confined to the lands surrounding the rivers.

    The 3rd century saw the emergence of a number of large West Germanic tribes: the Alamanni, Franks, Bavarii, Chatti, Saxons, Frisii, Sicambri, and Thuringii. By the 3rd century the Germanic speaking peoples began to migrate beyond the limes and the Danube frontier. Several large tribes – the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Burgundians, Lombards, Saxons and Franks – migrated and played their part in the decline of the Roman Empire and the transformation of the old Western Roman Empire.

    Christianity was introduced to Roman controlled southwestern Germania and Christian religious structures such as the Aula Palatina of Trier were built during the reign of Constantine I (r. (– AD). By the end of the 4th century the Huns invaded eastern and central Europe. The event triggered the Migration Period.[38] Hunnic hegemony over a vast territory in central and eastern Europe lasted until the death of Attila's son Dengizich in

    Stem duchies and marches[edit]

    Main article: Stem duchy

    Depiction of the German stem duchies and principal states in East Francia and the early Holy Roman Empire.

    Stem duchies (German: Stammesherzogtümer) in Germany refer to the traditional territory of the various Germanic tribes. The concept of such duchies survived especially in the areas which by the 9th century would constitute East Francia, which included the Duchy of Bavaria, the Duchy of Swabia, the Duchy of Saxony, the Duchy of Franconia and the Duchy of Thuringia, unlike further west the County of Burgundy or Lorraine in Middle Francia.[44]

    The Salian emperors (reigned –) retained the stem duchies as the major divisions of Germany, but they became increasingly obsolete during the early high-medieval period under the Hohenstaufen, and Frederick Barbarossa finally abolished them in in favour of more numerous territorial duchies.

    Successive kings of Germany founded a series of border counties or marches in the east and the north. These included Lusatia, the North March (which would become Brandenburg and the heart of the future Prussia), and the Billung March. In the south, the marches included Carniola, Styria, and the March of Austria that would become Austria.

    Frankish Empire[edit]

    Main article: Francia

    After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 5th century, the Franks, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, like other post-Roman Western Europeans, emerged as a tribal confederacy in the Middle Rhine-Weser region, among the territory soon to be called Austrasia (the "eastern land"), the northeastern portion of the future Kingdom of the MerovingianFranks. As a whole, Austrasia comprised parts of present-day France, Germany, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Unlike the Alamanni to their south in Swabia, they absorbed large swaths of former Roman territory as they spread west into Gaul, beginning in Clovis I of the Merovingian dynasty conquered northern Gaul in and in the Battle of Tolbiac in the Alemanni tribe in Swabia, which eventually became the Duchy of Swabia.

    ByClovis had united all the Frankish tribes, ruled all of Gaul and was proclaimed King of the Franks between and [46] Clovis, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, unlike most Germanic rulers of the time, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, was baptized directly into Roman Catholicism instead of Arianism. His successors would cooperate closely with papal missionaries, among them Saint Boniface. After the death of Clovis inhis four sons partitioned his kingdom including Austrasia. Authority over Austrasia passed back and forth from autonomy to royal subjugation, as successive Merovingian kings alternately united and subdivided the Frankish lands.

    During the 5th and 6th centuries the Merovingian kings conquered the Thuringii ( to ), the Kingdom of the Burgundians and the principality of Metz and defeated the Danes, the Saxons and the Visigoths.[48] King Chlothar I ( to ) ruled the greater part of what is now Germany and undertook military expeditions into Saxony, while the South-east of what is modern Germany remained under the influence of the Ostrogoths. Saxons controlled the area from the northern sea board to the Harz Mountains and the Eichsfeld in the south.[49]

    The Merovingians placed the various regions of their Frankish Empire under the control of semi-autonomous dukes – either Franks or local rulers, and followed imperial Roman strategic traditions of social and political integration of the newly conquered territories.[51] While allowed to preserve their own legal systems, the conquered Germanic tribes were pressured to abandon the Arian Christian faith.

    In Charles Martel waged war against the Saxons in support of the Neustrians. In his son Carloman in his role as Mayor of the Palace renewed the war against the Saxons, who had allied with and aided the duke Odilo of Bavaria.[55] The Catholic Franks, who by controlled a vast territory in Gaul, north-western Germany, Swabia, Burgundy and western Switzerland, that included the alpine passes allied with the Curia in Rome against the Lombards, who posed a permanent threat to the Holy See. Pressed by Liutprand, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, King of the Lombards, a Papal Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 for help had already been sent to the de facto ruler Charles Martel after his victory in over the forces of the Umayyad Caliphate at the Battle of Tours, however a lasting and mutually beneficial alliance would only materialize after Charles' death under his successor Duke of the Franks, Pepin the Short.

    In Pippin III, Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian king, himself assumed the title of king and was anointed by the Church. Pope Hdclone keygen,serial,crack,generator,unlock,key II bestowed him the hereditary title of Patricius Romanorum as protector of Rome and St. Peter[57] in response to the Donation of Pepin, that guaranteed the sovereignty of the Papal States. Charles the Great (who ruled the Franks from to ) launched a decades-long military campaign against the Franks' heathen rivals, the Saxons and the Avars. The campaigns and insurrections of the Saxon Wars lasted from to The Franks eventually overwhelmed the Saxons and Avars, forcibly converted the people to Christianity, and annexed their lands to the Carolingian Empire.

    Middle Ages[edit]

    Further information: East Francia, Holy Roman Empire, and Kingdom of Germany

    Foundation of the Holy Roman Empire[edit]

    See also: Charlemagne

    After the death of Frankish king Pepin the Short inhis oldest son "Charlemagne" ("Charles the Great") consolidated his power over and expanded the Kingdom. Charlemagne ended years of Royal Lombard rule with the Siege of Pavia, and in he installed himself as King of the Lombards. Loyal Frankish nobles replaced the old Lombard aristocracy following a rebellion in The next 30 years of his reign were spent ruthlessly strengthening his power in Francia and on the conquest of the Slavs and Pannonian Avars in the east and all tribes, such as the Saxons and the Bavarians.[60] On Christmas Day, AD, Charlemagne was crowned Imperator Romanorum (Emperor of the Romans) in Rome by Pope Leo III.[60]

    Fighting among Charlemagne's three grandsons over the continuation of the custom of partible inheritance or the introduction of primogeniture caused the Carolingian empire to be partitioned into three parts by the Treaty of Verdun of [61]Louis the German received the Eastern portion of the kingdom, East Francia, all lands east of the Rhine river and to the north of Italy. This encompassed the territories of the German stem duchies – Franks, Saxons, Swabians, and Bavarians – that were united in a federation under the first non-Frankish king Henry the Fowler, who ruled from to The royal court permanently moved in between a series of strongholds, called Kaiserpfalzen, that developed into economic and cultural centers. Aachen Palace played a central role, as the local Palatine Chapel served as the official site for all royal coronation ceremonies during the entire Medieval period until [60][63]

    The Holy Roman Empire, maps

    Otto the Great[edit]

    See also: Otto the Great

    Equestrian monument, probably Otto the Great, Magdeburg, around

    InOtto I was crowned German king at Aachen, in King of Italy in Pavia and crowned emperor by Pope John XII in Rome in The tradition of the German King as protector of the Kingdom of Italy and the Latin Church resulted in the term Holy Roman Empire in the 12th century. The name, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, that was to identify with Germany continued to be used officially, with the extension added: Nationis Germanicæ (of the German nation) after the last imperial coronation in Rome in until its dissolution in Otto strengthened the royal authority by re-asserting the old Carolingian rights over ecclesiastical appointments. Otto wrested from the nobles the powers of appointment of the bishops and abbots, who controlled large land holdings. Additionally, Otto revived the old Carolingian program of appointing missionaries in the border lands. Otto continued to support celibacy for the higher clergy, so ecclesiastical appointments never became hereditary. By granting lands to the abbots and bishops he appointed, Otto actually turned these bishops into "princes of the Empire" (Reichsfürsten).[65] In this way, Otto was able to establish a national church. Outside threats to the kingdom were contained with the decisive defeat of the Hungarian Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in The Slavs between the Elbe and the Oder rivers were also subjugated. Otto marched on Rome and drove John XII from the papal throne and for years controlled the election of the pope, setting a firm precedent for imperial control of the papacy for years to come.[66][67]

    During the reign of Conrad II's son, Henry III ( to ), the Sidify Music Converter Crack 2.3.2 + Serial Key 2021 Torrent Latest supported the Cluniac reforms of the Church, the Peace of God, prohibition of simony (the purchase of clerical offices), and required celibacy of priests. Imperial authority over the Pope reached its peak. However, Rome reacted with the creation of the College of Cardinals and Pope Gregory VII's series of clerical reforms. Pope Gregory insisted in his Dictatus Papae on absolute papal authority over appointments to ecclesiastical offices. The subsequent conflict in which emperor Henry IV was compelled to submit to the Pope at Canossa inafter having been excommunicated came to be known as the Investiture Controversy. In a temporary reconciliation was reached between Henry V and the Pope with the Concordat of Worms. With the conclusion of the dispute the Roman church and the papacy regained supreme control over all religious affairs.[68][69] Consequently the imperial Ottonian church system (Reichskirche) declined. It also ended the royal/imperial tradition of appointing selected powerful clerical leaders to counter the Imperial secular princes.[70]

    Between and the various campaigns of the crusades to the Holy Land took place. Knightly religious orders were established, including the Knights Templar, the Knights of St John (Knights Hospitaller), and the Teutonic Order.[71][72]

    The term sacrum imperium (Holy Empire) was first used officially by Friedrich I in ,[73] but the words Sacrum Romanum Imperium, Holy Roman Empire, were only combined in July and would never consistently appear on official documents from onwards.

    Hanseatic League[edit]

    Main article: Hanseatic League

    Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League

    The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive alliance of the merchant guilds of towns and cities in northern and central Europe that dominated marine trade in the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and along the connected navigable rivers during the Late Middle Ages ( 12th to 15th centuries ). Each of the affiliated cities retained the legal system Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 its sovereign and, with the exception of the Free imperial cities, had only a limited degree of political autonomy. Beginning with an agreement of the cities of Lübeck and Hamburg, guilds cooperated in order to strengthen and combine their economic assets, like securing trading routes and tax privileges, to control prices and better protect and market their local commodities. Important centers of commerce within the empire, such as Cologne on the Rhine river and Bremen on the North Sea joined the union, which resulted in greater diplomatic esteem. Recognized by the various regional princes for the great economic potential, favorable charters for, often exclusive, commercial operations were granted.[77] During its zenith the alliance maintained trading posts and kontors in virtually all cities between London and Edinburgh in the west to Novgorod in the east and Bergen in Norway. By the late 14th century the powerful league enforced its interests with military means, if necessary. This culminated in a war with the sovereign Kingdom of Denmark from to Principal city of the Hanseatic League remained Lübeck, where in the first general diet was held and its official structure was announced. The league declined after due to a number of factors, such as the 15th-century crisis, the territorial lords' shifting policies towards greater commercial control, the silver crisis and marginalization in the wider Eurasian trade network, among others.[78][79]

    Eastward expansion[edit]

    Main article: Ostsiedlung

    The Ostsiedlung (lit. Eastern settlement) is the term for a process of largely uncoordinated immigration and chartering of settlement structures by ethnic Germans into territories, already inhabited by Slavs and Balts east of the Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 and Elbe rivers, such as modern Poland and Silesia and to the south into Bohemia, modern Hungary and Romania during the High Middle Ages from the 11th to the 14th century.[80][81] The primary purpose of the early imperial military campaigns into the lands to the east during the 10th and 11th century, was to punish and subjugate the local heathen tribes. Conquered territories were mostly lost after the troops had retreated, but eventually were incorporated into the empire as marches, fortified borderlands with garrisoned troops in strongholds and castles, who were to ensure military control and enforce the exaction of tributes. Contemporary sources do not support the idea of policies or plans for the organized settlement of civilians.[82]

    Emperor Lothair II re-established feudal sovereignty over Poland, Denmark and Bohemia from and appointed margraves to turn the borderlands into hereditary fiefs and install a civilian administration. There is no discernible chronology of the immigration process as it took place in many individual efforts and stages, often even encouraged by the Slavic regional lords. However, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 new communities were subjected to German law and customs. Total numbers of settlers were generally rather low and, depending on who held a numerical majority, populations usually assimilated into each other. In many regions only enclaves would persist, like Hermannstadt, founded by the Transylvanian Saxons in the medieval Hungarian Kingdom(today in Romania) who called on by Geza II. in [Saxons called those part of Transylvania as "Altland" to distinguish it from later immigrant Saxon settlements what established about by Teutonic Order][83][84]

    Main article: State of the Teutonic Order

    In the Catholic monastic order of the Teutonic Knights launched the Prussian Crusade. The campaign, that was supported by the forces of Polish duke Konrad I of Masovia, initially intended to Christianize the Baltic Old Prussians, succeeded primarily in the conquest of large territories. The order, emboldened by imperial approval, quickly resolved to establish an independent state, without the consent of duke Konrad. Recognizing only papal authority and based on a solid economy, the order steadily expanded the Teutonic state during the following years, engaging in several land disputes with its neighbors. Permanent conflicts with the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Novgorod Republic, eventually led to military defeat and containment by the midth century. The last Grand MasterAlbert of Brandenburg converted to Lutheranism in and turned the remaining lands of the order into the secular Duchy of Prussia.[86]

    Church and state[edit]

    Henry V (–), great-grandson of Conrad II, who had overthrown his father Henry IV became Holy Roman Emperor in Hoping to gain greater control Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 the church inside the Empire, Henry V appointed Adalbert of Saarbrücken as the powerful archbishop of Mainz in the same year. Adalbert began to assert the powers of the Church against secular authorities, that is, the Emperor. This precipitated the "Crisis of " as yet another chapter of the long-term Investiture Controversy.[87] In the prince-electors turned back to the Hohenstaufen family for a candidate, Conrad III. Conrad tried to divest his rival Henry the Proud of his two duchies—Bavaria and Saxony—that led to war in southern Germany as the empire was divided into two powerful factions. The faction of the Welfs or Guelphs (in Italian) supported the House of Welf of Henry the Proud, which was the ruling dynasty in the Duchy of Bavaria. The rival faction of the Waiblings or Ghibellines (in Italian) pledged allegiance to the Swabian House of Hohenstaufen. During this early period, the Welfs generally maintained ecclesiastical independence under the papacy and political particularism (the focus on ducal interests against the central imperial authority). The Waiblings, on the other hand, championed strict control of the church and a strong central imperial government.[88]

    During the reign of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), an accommodation was reached in between the two factions. The Duchy of Bavaria was returned to Henry the Proud's son Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, who represented the Guelph party. However, the Margraviate of Austria was separated from Bavaria and turned into the independent Duchy of Austria by virtue of the Privilegium Minus in [89]

    Having become wealthy through trade, the confident cities of Northern Italy, supported by the Pope, increasingly opposed Barbarossa's claim of feudal rule (Honor Imperii) over Italy. The cities united in the Lombard League and finally defeated Barbarossa in the Battle of Legnano in The following year a reconciliation was reached between the emperor and Pope Alexander III in the Treaty of Venice.[90] The Peace of Constance eventually settled that the Italian cities remained loyal to the empire but were granted local jurisdiction and full regal rights in their territories.[91]

    InHenry the Lion was outlawed, Saxony was divided, and Bavaria was given to Otto of Wittelsbach, who founded the Wittelsbach dynasty, which was to rule Bavaria until )

    From tothe empire under Frederick I Barbarossa reached its cultural peak with the Diet of Pentecost held at Mainz and the marriage of his son Henry in Milan to the Norman princess Constance of Sicily.[92] The power of the feudal lords was undermined by the appointment of ministerials (unfree servants of the Emperor) as officials. Chivalry and the court life flowered, as expressed in the scholastic philosophy of Albertus Magnus and the literature of Wolfram von Eschenbach.[93]

    Between andFrederick II established a modern, professionally administered state from his base in Sicily. He resumed the conquest of Italy, leading to further conflict with the Papacy, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020. In the Empire, extensive sovereign powers were granted to ecclesiastical and secular princes, leading to the rise of independent territorial states. The struggle with the Pope sapped the Empire's strength, as Frederick II was excommunicated three times. After his death, the Hohenstaufen dynasty fell, followed by an interregnum during which there was no Emperor (). This interregnum came to an end with the election of a small Swabian count, Rudolf of Habsburg, as emperor.[94][95]

    The failure of negotiations between Emperor Louis IV and the papacy led to the Declaration at Rhense by six princes of the Imperial Estate to the effect that election by all or the majority of the electors automatically conferred the royal title and rule over the empire, without papal confirmation. As result, the monarch was no longer subject to papal approbation and became increasingly dependent on the favour of the electors. Between and Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg, king of Bohemia, sought to restore imperial authority. The decree of the Golden Bull stipulated that all future emperors were to be chosen by a college of only seven – four secular and three clerical – electors. The secular electors were the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony, and the Margrave of Brandenburg, the clerical electors were the Archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne.[96]

    Between and Germany and almost the entire European continent were consumed by the most severe outbreak of the Black Deathpandemic. Estimated to have caused the abrupt death of 30 to 60% of Europe's population, it led to widespread social and economic disruption and deep religious disaffection and fanaticism. Minority groups, and Jews in particular were blamed, singled out and attacked. As a consequence, many Jews fled and resettled in Eastern Europe.[97][98]

    Change and reform[edit]

    The early-modern European society gradually developed after the disasters of the 14th century as religious obedience and political loyalties declined in the wake of the Great Plague, the schism of the Church and prolonged dynastic wars. The rise of the cities and the emergence of the new burgher class eroded the societal, legal and economic order of feudalism.[99] The commercial enterprises of the mercantile patriciate family of the Fuggers of Augsburg generated unprecedented financial means. As financiers to both the leading ecclesiastical and secular rulers, the Fuggers fundamentally influenced the political affairs in the empire during the 15th and 16th century.[] The increasingly money based economy also provoked social discontent among knights and peasants and predatory "robber knights" became common. The knightly classes had Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 established their monopoly through warfare and military skill. However, the shift to practical mercenary infantry armies and military-technical advances led to a marginalization of heavy cavalry.[]

    From the Habsburg dynasty, who had acquired control in the south-eastern empire over the Duchy of Austria, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, Bohemia and Hungary after the death of King Louis II inmanaged to permanently occupy the position of the Holy Roman Emperor until (with the exception of the years between and ). However, this strict policy of dynastic rule over a vast multi-ethnic territory, prevented the development of concepts of patriotism and unity among the empire's territorial rulers and a national identity as in France and England.

    During his reign from toMaximilian I tried to reform the empire. An Imperial supreme court (Reichskammergericht) was established, imperial taxes were levied, and the power of the Imperial Diet (Reichstag) was increased. The reforms, however, were frustrated by the continued territorial fragmentation of the Empire.[]

    Towns and cities[edit]

    Total population estimates of the German territories range around 5 to 6 million by the end of Henry III's reign in and about 7 to 8 million after Friedrich Barabarossa's rule in [][] The vast majority were farmers, typically in a state of serfdom under feudal lords and monasteries.[88] Towns gradually emerged and in the 12th century many new cities were founded along the trading routes and near imperial strongholds and castles. The towns were subjected to the municipal legal system. Cities such as Cologne, that had acquired the status of Imperial Free Cities, were no longer answerable to the local landlords or bishops, but immediate subjects of the Emperor and enjoyed greater commercial and legal liberties.[] The towns were ruled by a council of the – usually mercantile – elite, the patricians. Craftsmen formed guilds, governed by strict rules, which sought to obtain control of the towns; a few were open to women. Society had diversified, but was divided into sharply demarcated classes of the clergy, physicians, merchants, various guilds of artisans, unskilled day labourers and peasants. Full citizenship was not available to paupers. Political tensions arose from issues of taxation, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, public spending, regulation of business, and market supervision, as well as the limits of corporate autonomy.[]

    Cologne's central location on the Rhine river placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west and was the basis of Cologne's growth.[] The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne were characterized by the city's status as a major harbor and transport hub upon the Rhine, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020. It was the seat of an archbishop, under whose patronage the vast Cologne Cathedral was built since The cathedral houses sacred Christian relics and it has since become a well known pilgrimage destination. By the city had secured its independence from the archbishop (who relocated to Bonn), and was ruled by its burghers.[]

    Towns and cities of the Medieval and Early Modern Holy Roman Empire

    Women[edit]

    From the early medieval period and continuing through to the 18th century, Germanic law assigned women to a subordinate and dependent position relative to men. Salic (Frankish) law, from which the laws of the German lands would be based, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, placed women at a disadvantage with regard to property and inheritance rights. Germanic widows required a male guardian to represent them in court, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020. Unlike Anglo-Saxon law or the Visigothic Code, Salic law barred women from royal succession. Social status was based on military and biological roles, a reality demonstrated in rituals associated with newborns, when female infants were given a lesser value than male infants. The use of physical force against wives was condoned until the 18th century in Bavarian law.[][]

    Some women of means asserted their influence during the Middle Ages, typically in royal court or convent settings. Hildegard of Bingen, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, Gertrude the Great, Elisabeth of Bavaria (–), and Argula von Grumbach are among the women who pursued independent accomplishments in fields as diverse as medicine, music composition, religious writing, and government and military politics.

    Learning and culture[edit]

    Benedictine abbess Hildegard von Bingen (–) wrote several influential theological, botanical, and medicinal texts, as well as letters, liturgical songs, poems, and arguably the oldest surviving morality play, Ordo Virtutum, while supervising brilliant miniature Illuminations. About years later, Walther von der Vogelweide (c. – c. ) became the most celebrated of the Minnesänger, who were Middle High German lyric poets.

    AroundJohannes Gutenberg of Mainz, used movable type printing and issued the Gutenberg Bible. He was the global inventor of the printing press, thereby starting the Printing Revolution. Cheap printed books and pamphlets played central roles for the spread of the Reformation and the Scientific Revolution.

    Around the transition from the 15th to the 16th century, Albrecht Dürer from Nuremberg established his reputation across Europe as painter, printmaker, mathematician, engraver, and theorist when he was still in his twenties and secured his reputation as one of the most important figures of the Northern Renaissance.

    The addition Nationis Germanicæ (of German Nation) to the emperor's title appeared first in the 15th century: in a law decreed by Frederick III and in in reference to the Imperial Diet in Cologne by Maximilian I, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020. By then, the emperors had lost their influence in Italy and Burgundy, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020. Inthe Heilbronn reform plan – the most advanced document of the German Peasants' War (Deutscher Bauernkrieg) – referred to the Reich as von Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 Nation (of German nation).

    influential German speaking authors, artists and scholars of the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance

    • Hildegard von Bingen (–), Benedictine abbess, philosopher, author, artist and visionary naturalist

    • Johannes Gutenberg (c. –), pioneering user of the printing press with movable types

    Early modern Germany[edit]

    Main articles: Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 Modern history of Germany and 18th century history of Germany

    See List of states in the Holy Roman Empire for subdivisions and the political structure

    Protestant Reformation[edit]

    In order to manage their ever growing expenses, the Renaissance Popes of the 15th and early 16th century promoted the excessive sale of indulgences and offices and titles of the Roman Curia.

    Inthe monk Martin Luther published a pamphlet with 95 Theses that he posted in the town square of Wittenberg and handed copies to feudal lords. Whether he nailed them to a church door at Wittenberg remains unclear. The list detailed 95 assertions, he argued, represented corrupt practice of the Christian faith and misconduct within the Catholic Church. Although perhaps not Luther's chief concern, he received popular support for his condemnation of the sale of indulgences and clerical offices, the pope's and higher clergy's abuse of power and his doubts of the very idea of the institution of the Church and the papacy.[]

    The Protestant Reformation was the first successful challenge to the Catholic Church and began in as Luther was outlawed at the Diet of Worms after his refusal to repent. The ideas of the reformation spread rapidly, as the new technology of the modern printing press ensured cheap mass copies and distribution of the theses and helped by the Emperor Charles V's wars with France and the Turks.[] Hiding in the Wartburg Castle, Luther translated the Bible into German, thereby greatly contributing to the establishment of the modern German language. This is highlighted by the fact that Luther spoke only a local dialect of minor importance during that time. After the publication of his Bible, his dialect suppressed others and constitutes to a great extent what is now modern German. With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Imperial Diet of Speyer in and the acceptance and adoption of the Lutheran Augsburg Confession by the Lutheran princes beginning inthe separate Lutheran church was established.[]

    The /25 German Peasants' War, that began in the southwest in Alsace and Swabia and spread further east into Franconia, Thuringia and Austria, was a series of economic and religious revolts of the rural lower classes, encouraged by the rhethoric of various radical religious reformers and Anabaptists against the ruling feudal lords. Although occasionally assisted by war-experienced noblemen like Götz von Berlichingen and Florian Geyer (in Franconia) and the theologian Thomas Müntzer (in Thuringia), the peasant forces lacked military structure, skill, logistics and equipment and as many asinsurgents were eventually defeated and massacred by the territorial princes.[]

    The Catholic Counter-Reformation, initiated in at the Council of Trent was spearheaded by the scholarly religious Jesuit order, that was founded just five years prior by several clerics around Ignatius of Loyola. Its intent was to challenge and contain the Protestant Reformation via apologetic and polemical writings and decrees, ecclesiastical reconfiguration, wars and imperial political maneuverings. In emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, a military alliance of Protestant rulers.[] The Peace of Augsburg decreed the recognition of the Lutheran Faith and religious division of the empire. It also stipulated the ruler's right to determine the official confession in his principality (Cuius regio, eius religio). The Counter-Reformation eventually failed to reintegrate the central and northern German Lutheran states. In / the Protestant Union and the Catholic League were formed.

    Thirty Years' War, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, –[edit]

    Main article: Thirty Years' War

    The to Thirty Years' War, that took place almost exclusively in the Holy Roman Empire has its origins, that remain widely debated, in the unsolved and recurring conflicts of the Catholic and Protestant factions. The Catholic emperor Ferdinand II attempted to achieve the religious and political unity of the empire, while the opposing Protestant Union forces were determined to defend their religious rights. The religious motive served as the universal justification for the various territorial and foreign princes, who over the course of several stages joined either of the two warring parties in order to gain land and power.[][]

    The conflict was sparked by the revolt of the Protestant nobility of Bohemia against emperor Matthias' succession policies. After imperial triumph at the Battle of White Mountain and a short-lived peace, the war grew to become a political European conflict by the intervention of King Christian IV of Denmark from toGustavus Adolphus of Sweden from to and France under Cardinal Richelieu from to The conflict increasingly evolved into a struggle between the French House of Bourbon and the House of Habsburg for predominance in Europe, for which the central German territories of the empire served as the battleground.[]

    The war ranks among the most catastrophic in history as three decades of constant warfare and destruction had left the land devastated. Marauding armies incessantly pillaged the countryside, seized and levied heavy taxes on cities and indiscriminately plundered the food stocks of the peasantry. There were also the countless bands of murderous outlaws, sick, homeless, disrupted people Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 invalid soldiery. Overall social and economic disruption caused a dramatic decline in population as a result of pandemic murder and random rape and killings, endemic infectious diseases, crop failures, famine, declining birth rates, wanton burglary, witch-hunts and the emigration of terrified people. Estimates vary between a 38% drop from 16 million people in to 10 million by and a mere 20% drop from 20 million to 16 million. The Altmark and Württemberg regions were especially hard hit, where it took generations to fully recover.[][]

    The war was the last major religious struggle in mainland Europe and ended in with the Peace of Westphalia. It resulted in increased autonomy for the constituent states of the Holy Roman Empire, limiting the power of the emperor. Most of Alsace was ceded to France, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, Western Pomerania and Bremen-Verden were given to Sweden as Imperial fiefs, and the Netherlands officially left the Empire.[]

    Culture and literacy[edit]

    Bible translated into Modern High German by Luther,

    The population of Germany reached about twenty million people by the midth century, the great majority of whom were peasant farmers.[]

    The Protestant Reformation was a triumph for literacy and the new printing press. Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive impulse for the increase of literacy and stimulated printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. From onward religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe. The Reformation instigated a media revolution as by over 10, individual works are published with a total of ten million copies. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church. It soon became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas. Reform writers used pre-Reformation styles, clichés, and stereotypes and changed items as needed for their own purposes.[] Especially effective were Luther's Small Catechism, for use of parents teaching their children, and Larger Catechism, for pastors.[] Using the German vernacular they expressed the Apostles' Creed in simpler, more personal, Trinitarian language. Illustrations in the newly translated Bible and in many tracts popularized Luther's ideas. Lucas Cranach the Elder (–), the great painter patronized by the electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience. He dramatized Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments, while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper and improper uses of visual imagery.[]

    Luther's German translation of the Bible was also decisive for the German language and its evolution from Early New High German to Modern Standard. His bible promoted the development of non-local forms of language and exposed all speakers to forms of German from outside their own area.[]

    Science[edit]

    The German astronomical community played a modest role in the early modern period.[] Astronomer Johannes Kepler from Weil der Stadt was one of the pioneering minds of empirical and rational research. Through rigorous application of the principles of the Scientific method he construed his laws of planetary motion. His ideas influenced contemporary Italian scientist Galileo Galilei and provided fundamental mechanical principles for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.[]

    Scientists, scholars and artists of the Early modern period in Germany

      –[edit]

      Rise of Prussia[edit]

      Prussia became a European great power after and Austria's Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 rival in Germany

      InFrederick William, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, also called the Great Elector, became ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia and immediately threw off his vassalage under the Kingdom of Poland and reorganized his loose and scattered territories.[]

      In he acquired East Pomerania via the Peace of Westphalia. King Frederick William I, known as the Soldier King, who reigned from toAdvanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020, established the structures for the highly centralized Prussian state and raised a professional army, that was to play a central role.[] In order to address the demographic problem of Prussia's largely rural population of about three million, the king attracted the immigration and settlement of French Huguenots in urban areas. Many became craftsmen and entrepreneurs.[] The total population of Germany (in its territorial extent) grew from 16 million in to 17 million in and reached 24 million in The 18th-century economy noticeably profited from widespread practical application of the Scientific method as greater yields and a more reliable agricultural production and the introduction of hygienic standards positively affected the birth rate – death rate balance.

      Wars[edit]

      Main articles: Nine Years' War, Great Turkish War, and Austro-Turkish War of –18

      Louis XIV of France waged a series of successful wars in order to extend the French territory, Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020. He conquered Alsace and Lorraine (–) that included the free imperial city of Straßburg and Advanced Installer Architect 16 Crack 16.8.1 Full 2020 the Electorate of the Palatinate

      Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

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