Virtual Reality - Emerging Technologies - Libraries, Archives, Museums at Alaska State Library

Virtual Reality Archives

Virtual Reality Archives

Purpose This paper aims to explore the opportunities and challenges that immersive virtual reality (VR) technologies pose for archival theory and practice. That is in a nutshell, what design firm Synergique and developer Orb Amsterdam did for the Amsterdam City Archives. Augmented reality was. Virtual Reality Archives - The View. Chris McCammon, '20 on Virtual Reality, Game Development, and Studying Abroad in Montreal.

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What if you would take a bunch of year-old, illegible books about Rembrandt, place them in an exhibition space usually frequented by people over the age of 60, and give them some tech they wouldn’t know how to use?

That is in a nutshell, what design firm Synergique and developer Orb Amsterdam did for the Amsterdam City Archives. Augmented reality was used to bring alive 17th century documents about Rembrandt van Rijn, the greatest Dutch master of the Golden Age, in our exhibition The Private Life of Rembrandt.

Rembrandt Augmented Reality

During , The Rembrandt Year, which marks the th anniversary of Rembrandt van Rijn’s passing, many museums throughout the Netherlands dedicated an exhibition to Rembrandt. The Rijksmuseum, Rembrandthuis, both in Amsterdam, and the Mauritshuis in The Hague displayed all the Rembrandt paintings in their collections.

The collection of Amsterdam City Archive calls for a different approach. The shelves of the archive, with a combined length of about 50 kilometers, hold over 60 documents touching on Rembrandt’s life. They consist mainly of archival documents, signed by the painter himself, his wife or children, and notary documents about his inventory or work.

During The Private Life of Rembrandt, 29 of these documents were on display at the Amsterdam City Archives. The exhibition took place at the very beginning of the Rembrandt Year, and rightfully so, as it is a wonderful introduction to the active life of Rembrandt van Rijn.

“It’s a hard-core archival exhibition.” the Head of Presentations of Amsterdam City Archives Ludger Smit repeats like a mantra. However a hard-core archival exhibition faces unique challenges, when exhibiting 17th-century documents, handwritten in old Dutch. The average visitor is incapable of transcribing and translating them. Therefore additional materials are necessary when displaying the seemingly boring documents; however, there is nothing boring about the stories that are hidden within them. The challenge was to bare the unboring.

The main focus of the exhibition was to tell the beautiful and interesting stories that are written in these + year-old documents. But to achieve that, we had to help visitors reading and understanding the documents. And since we’re relatively young and very cool, ordinary translations wouldn’t suffice.

We wanted to make the documents come to life, enlarge certain passages, emphasise others, dive deep into some of the signatures and show relevant paintings next to the document as large as possible. That wasn’t possible because of the limited exhibition space. And due to the Rembrandt Year, most other museums already scheduled the paintings from their collections to be a part of their own exhibition. So there wouldn’t be any physical paintings to work with, but that wouldn’t matter as much, as the unique collection holds enough stories by itself.

The documents are often found in thick bound books so visitors needed some help to decipher the texts. in the past, archivists stumbling upon the Rembrandt documents proudly marked the pages, either with an X in the corner using a bright red pencil, or with an archive stamp. Those destructive methods are unimaginable today, but back then it was acceptable practice. For this exhibition, we still wanted to be able to mark the documents to emphasise where to look. But surely not on the document physically.

So… we wanted to show paintings we didn’t have, and mark pages without actually marking them. What could go wrong?

augmented reality archives

If only there was another reality to be put on top of the one we live in, one where we could digitally manipulate the carefully protected documents. Together with the Amsterdam City Archives, we came up with the idea to use Augmented Reality (AR).

AR was chosen over VR to keep the beautiful documents in sight and to prevent shutting visitors off from the exhibition space. Just add a digital layer on top of the physical layers without touching them. This technique is real and accessible, though it hasn’t often been used in museums. And certainly not in museums where the average visitor is 60 years old.

It needed to be an extremely robust and user-friendly Augmented Reality experience, so we built a custom viewer that we called The Rembrandtviewer. It consists of an iPad in custom-made wooden case with custom-made AR-software installed.

When entering the exhibition space, visitors were able to pick up one of the Rembrandtviewers. The app allowed them to watch the documents via the camera of the viewer. When they pointed the Rembrandtviewer to a document, the AR content started to appear around the document, along with a voiceover that tells the story behind the document.

AR was being used in different ways to enrich the documents. With eight documents, the AR consisted of animations that appeared around the physical document and audio explanations in two languages. The animations contained paintings and drawings from Rembrandt of people close to him. A 17th century map showed where he lived and where he went in Amsterdam and handwriting and signatures were enlarged and recreated.

For three other documents, different types of AR-experiences were implemented. While one of them reconstructed a life-size version of Rembrandt’s work shop, another opened a portal to the 17th-century version of Amsterdam North where we join Rembrandt on a trip to the gallows fields. The last one allows you to physically walk down a timeline where you see Rembrandt gradually getting older, based on his own self-portraits.

Most visitors would be experiencing AR for the very first time. Even though many of the elderly visitors are accustomed to touch screens and iPads by now, exploring virtual content isn’t a part of their daily life yet. The last thing we wanted was to shadow the essence of the exhibition with some geeky tech. Therefore, the AR had to be as effortless and intuitive as possible.

Synergique and Orb created the augmented reality-app simultaneously with the spatial design of the physical space; rather than as a later-on addition to the exhibition. This allowed making choices on both sides, and improve the overall experience.

One of many choices to be made was about the physical space. The documents with AR-content, contained enough physical moving space, so people wouldn’t bump into another display or each other while taking a step back to see the document with the AR content floating around.

For our situation, AR works best against a dark background, so the exhibition space was lined with free-standing anthracite walls. Furthermore, to give the sense of imagery that isn’t actually there (like in AR) semi-transparent wall-dividers scattered the floor with Rembrandt’s work printed upon. Based on your position and the lighting, these images seemed to appear or disappear. Confusing? Well, you kinda had to be there.

Another important decision was about the colour of the display lining. The AR app needed as much reference points as possible for the best tracking and the space is rather dark. So the documents were placed on a light coloured display lining to contrast with the overly dark exhibition space. This helped the app tremendously in knowing what the edges of the display were.

Extensive visitor research has been conducted by the Archives. Combined with the analytics gathered from the usage of the application we have a clear indication of how the visitor experienced the exhibition. Overall, 95% of the visitors rated the exhibition as a whole as ‘positive’ or ‘very positive’. We know that 88% of the visitors picked up an iPad and used Augmented Reality during the exhibition and over 90% of those visitors scanned the first document. The average ‘scans’ per session is about 12, where the augmented reality experiences are scanned the most, which indicates that the iconography in the exhibition space was clear enough. People who used the application rated the addition on the exhibition with an average  of 8 out of

augmented reality museums

The elderly visitor did have some trouble with handling the Rembrandtviewer. This was the most voiced critique which taught us to work with either a lighter material, or a smaller action radius in which the visitor has to use the device. The guestbook provides some interesting and sometimes flattering feedback from visitors, like: ‘Very good, other museums could learn from this’ or ‘The documents are poorly lit’, ‘Beautiful how his life is made visual, like you’re watching over the shoulder of the artist’ and ‘I found it very moving’.

What was interesting is that some visitors wrote how much they hated the used technology, and other visitors commented on that specific critique saying that they loved it and want more of it.

Lastly, someone wrote: ’Interesting exhibition, but since I’m deaf, I couldn’t really use the iPad’, so adding the option of a subtitle in addition to the spoken voiceover would be highly recommended.

We learned a lot during this project. We found out that everyone, even your (grand-)father is fully capable of using the latest technology as long as you instruct him well enough. We learned that LED lighting, which is more and more common in exhibition spaces, acts up weird with iPad camera’s if you’re using it wrong, and we found that we can make a seemingly boring old book interesting and burst into life, as long as you know how to tell the right story right. And as with every technology: some people just want printed text on paper, so always keep a couple of handouts as a fallback.

Your average visitor might have heard of virtual reality by now, some even know the term augmented reality, but few have experienced either one of them. We’re still in the early stages of these technologies and need to educate our visitors. But if we do so, slowly but steady, there’s a new world opening up that can make your collection shine in a completely new way.

About the author – Pepijn Borgwat & Doruk Eker

Pepijn Borgwat is co-founder of multidisciplinary design firm Synergique, which focusses on exhibition concepts, activation and motion graphic design. 

Doruk Eker is on a journey as a creative developer at Orb Amsterdam. AR, VR and public space installations form his current playground. He enjoys collaborating with other creators to bring engaging experiences to life. 

The Amsterdam City Archives is the largest – and many say, most beautiful – city archive in the world. Located in the historic De Bazel building, it houses a historical topographical collection that includes millions of maps, drawings and pictures, a library and extensive audio, film and photo archives. Visitors can delve into Amsterdam’s history and learn more about how today’s city was made in the past. The Archives also offer guided tours and put on temporary and permanent exhibitions.

Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]
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Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

Archiving experience: an exploration of the challenges of preserving virtual reality

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the opportunities and challenges that immersive virtual reality (VR) technologies pose for archival theory and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper reviews research on VR adoption in information institutions and the preservation challenges of VR to identify ways in which VR has the potential to disrupt existing archival theory and practice.

Findings

Existing archival approaches are found to be disrupted by the multi-layered structural characteristics of VR, the part–whole relationships between the technological elements of VR environments and the three-dimensional content they contain and the immersive, experiential nature of VR experiences. This paper argues that drawing on perspectives from phenomenology and digital materiality is helpful for addressing the preservation challenges of VR.

Research limitations/implications

The findings extend conceptualizations of preservation by identifying gaps in existing preservation approaches to VR and stressing the importance of “experience” as a central element of archival practice and by emphasizing the embodied dimensions of interpreting archival records and the multiple scales of materiality that archival researchers and practitioners should consider to preserve VR.

Practical implications

These findings provide guidance for digital curators and preservationists by outlining the current thinking on VR preservation and the impact of VR on digital preservation strategies.

Originality/value

This paper gives new insight into VR as an emerging area of concern to digital curation and preservation and expands archival thinking with new conceptualizations that disrupt existing paradigms.

Keywords

Citation

Lischer-Katz, Z. (), "Archiving experience: an exploration of the challenges of preserving virtual reality", Records Management Journal, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp. mlbjerseyschina.us

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © , Emerald Publishing Limited

Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]
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Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

Imagine being able to visit your local archives from your couch.  Or have unmediated access to 18th century manuscripts half the world away. Virtual reality (VR) technology has incredibly exciting possibilities for archives. The technology allows humans to explore beyond their grasp, to immerse themselves in different environments. Although it may not be as exhilarating as hurtling down a VR slide, there are really exciting opportunities for archives to simulate the reference experience to enable patrons to &#;physically&#; explore their holdings.

Nothing will ever substitute that feeling of touching a piece of the past, but what if the records have been lost or the archives destroyed? How can we reconnect with a past that has been lost?

Reconstructing the past

Beyond is one of the most ambitious projects I have ever come across and it offers a glimpse of how virtual reality technology could be incredibly useful for archives in the future.

On June 30, mines exploded in the basement of the Public Records Office in Ireland, destroying the building and the entirety of the records contained within it that documented Irish administration from the 13th to 19th century. The loss included census records, wills, and parish registers that recorded baptisms, marriages, and burials. It was devastating for the country and has resulted in a kind of historical amnesia. For more info on the event, see this article in the Irish Times.

With the hundredth anniversary of the event looming, Trinity College Dublin is collaborating with the National Archives (Ireland), the National Archives (UK), the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, and the Irish Manuscripts Commission, with funding from the Irish Research Council.

Beyond Ireland&#;s Virtual Record Treasurywill reconstruct seven centuries of lost history. The video below provides a fascinating introduction to the project:

&#;Experience what it would have been like to wander through the archive. The public will be able to explore the archive, go to a shelf where they know a record is stored, identify that record on the shelf&#;&#;  It just gives me chills.

The vast network of partners involved in this project is inspiring. I am also blown away by the fact that plans survive that detail, down to the shelf location, how the Public Records Office was organized at the time of its destruction. This will enable the project partners to create an authentic virtual experience for patrons. Creating an immersive virtual reality environment is a phenomenally ambitious undertaking and I cannot wait to see the results. For more information, and for a preview of the reconstruction, visit Beyond

Travel the world, one library at a time

I had the pleasure of experiencing The Library at Nighta few years ago. It is not quite as ambitious as Beyond , but it is certainly an incredible immersive experience. Bibliothèque et archives national du Québec (BANQ) has developed a total VR experience in their main branch in Montreal. Visitors are welcomed into a simulated personal library space and provided with instructions on how to use the tech. They are then led into a darkened space with a series of library tables and swivel chairs. The moment you put on the VR headset, you are transported to an international library of your choosing. The VR tech in this instance is fairly basic and you can&#;t really move around in the space, but you can turn and look at the world you find yourself in.  The experience takes visitors  &#;from Sarajevo&#;s National and University Library, magically risen from the ashes, to Mexico City’s Megabibliotheca, the stunning digital-age Biblioteca Vasconcelos, and from the legendary city of Alexandria to the bottom of the sea aboard Captain&#;s Nemo Nautilus. There are a total of 10 famous places, both real and imaginary, to be visited on a one-of-a-kind journey.&#;

 

A second life for photographs

As part of the celebrations of the Olympic Games in Rio back in , the New York Times mined their photographic archives for a virtual reality film experience called&#;The Modern Games.&#;By downloading the New York Times VR App, users can &#;travel through time to some of the most unforgettable moments in Olympic history.&#; The project &#;transformed archival imagery into historical settings&#; that can be visited by viewers. I love that projects like this help to raise awareness of the  treasure trove of historical records that exist. I would love to see an archives explore this kind of partnership to bring their holdings to life. For more information, or to download the app, visit this site. 

Could the future of access be completely virtual?

There seem to be many examples of archival records being used to animate VR experiences, but Beyond is the only project I have found that uses virtual reality technology to actually simulate the experience of consulting records in an archives. Imagine the possibilities of motion capture and haptic feedback (e.g. the Teslasuit) for discovering archival records in virtual reality. This technology could completely change how we think about providing access.

While we wait for this brave new future, I&#;ll leave you with these lions:

 

I would love to hear about other virtual reality projects being undertaken by archives &#; drop me a line if you know of any.

 

Cover Photo

&#;Explosion at Four Course, 30th June &#; (T.J. Byrne Collection, South Dublin Libraries,mlbjerseyschina.us)

 

Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

Imagine being able to visit your local archives from your couch.  Or have unmediated access to 18th century manuscripts half the world away. Virtual reality (VR) technology has incredibly exciting possibilities for archives. The technology allows humans to explore beyond their grasp, Virtual Reality Archives, to immerse themselves in different environments. Although it may not be as exhilarating as hurtling down a VR slide, there are really exciting opportunities for archives to simulate the Virtual Reality Archives experience to enable patrons to &#;physically&#; explore their holdings.

Nothing will ever substitute that feeling of touching a piece of the past, but what if the records have been lost or the archives destroyed? How can we reconnect with a past that has been lost?

Reconstructing the past

Beyond is one of the most ambitious projects I have ever come across and it offers a glimpse of how virtual reality technology could be incredibly useful for archives in the future.

On June 30, mines exploded in the basement of the Public Records Office in Ireland, destroying the building and the entirety of the records contained within it that documented Irish administration from the 13th to 19th century. The loss included census records, wills, and parish registers that recorded baptisms, marriages, and burials. It was devastating for the country and has resulted in a kind of historical amnesia. For more info on the event, see this article in the Irish Times.

With the hundredth anniversary of the event looming, Trinity College Dublin is collaborating with the National Archives (Ireland), the National Archives (UK), the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, and the Irish Manuscripts Commission, with funding from the Irish Research Virtual Reality Archives Ireland&#;s Virtual Record Treasurywill reconstruct seven centuries of lost history. The video below provides a fascinating introduction to the project:

&#;Experience what it would have been like to wander through the archive. The public will be able to explore the archive, Virtual Reality Archives, go to a shelf where they know a record is stored, identify that record on the shelf&#;&#;  It just gives me chills.

The vast network of partners involved in this project is inspiring. I am also blown away by the fact that plans survive that Virtual Reality Archives, down to the shelf location, how the Public Records Office was organized at the time of its destruction. This will enable the project partners to create an authentic virtual experience for patrons. Creating an immersive virtual reality environment is a phenomenally ambitious undertaking and I cannot wait to see the results. For more information, and for a preview of the reconstruction, visit Beyond

Travel the world, one library at a time

I had the pleasure of experiencing The Library at Nighta few years ago. It is not quite as ambitious as Beyondbut it is certainly an incredible immersive experience, Virtual Reality Archives. Bibliothèque et archives national du Québec (BANQ) has developed a total VR experience in their main branch in Montreal. Visitors are welcomed into a simulated personal library space and provided with instructions on how to use the tech. They are then led into a darkened space with a series of library tables and swivel chairs. The moment you put on the VR headset, you are transported to an international library of your choosing. The VR tech in this instance is fairly basic and you can&#;t really move around in the space, but you can turn and look at the world you find yourself in.  The experience takes visitors  &#;from Sarajevo&#;s National and University Library, magically risen from the ashes, to Mexico City’s Megabibliotheca, the stunning digital-age Biblioteca Vasconcelos, and from the legendary city of Alexandria to the bottom of the sea aboard Captain&#;s Nemo Nautilus. There are a total of 10 famous places, both real and imaginary, to be visited on a one-of-a-kind journey.&#;

 

A second life for photographs

As part of the celebrations of the Olympic Games in Rio back inthe New York Times mined their photographic archives for a virtual reality film experience called&#;The Modern Games.&#;By downloading the New York Times VR App, users can &#;travel through time to some of the most unforgettable moments in Olympic history.&#; The project &#;transformed archival imagery into historical settings&#; that can be visited by viewers. I love that projects like this help to raise awareness of the  treasure trove of historical records that exist. I would love to see an archives explore this kind of partnership to bring their holdings to life. For more information, or to download the app, visit this site. 

Could the future of access be completely virtual?

There seem to be many examples of archival records being used to animate VR experiences, but Beyond is the only project I have found that uses virtual reality technology to actually simulate the experience of consulting records in an archives. Imagine the possibilities of motion capture and haptic feedback (e.g. the Teslasuit) for discovering archival records in virtual reality. This technology could completely change how we think about providing access.

While we wait for this brave new future, I&#;ll leave you with these lions:

 

I would love to hear about other virtual reality projects being undertaken by archives &#; drop me a line if you know of any.

 

Cover Photo

&#;Explosion at Four Course, 30th June &#; (T.J. Byrne Collection, South Dublin Libraries,mlbjerseyschina.us)

 

Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

SCARLET: Augmented Reality in Special Collections

Illuminated manuscript of Dante and Beatrice

© Image courtesy of John Rylands Library, The University of Manchester

In June the University of Manchester and Mimas (which runs the Archives Hub) were awarded Jisc funding to develop an Augmented Reality application for special collections, based upon the outstanding rare books, manuscripts and archives housed in the John Rylands Library.

What is Augmented Virtual Reality Archives

Augmented Reality (AR), as the name implies, is a way of enhancing our perception and understanding of the ‘real’ world by blending it with digital resources such as audio, video, graphics and textual data in real time; unlike Virtual Reality, it does not seek to replace the analogue world, but to supplement and enrich it. It does this by using visual cues to trigger the uploading of information onto a mobile device such as a 3G phone or tablet PC. We are all now familiar with QR codes – those little boxes that look like a cross between a barcode and a chess board, which appear on everything from magazines to cornflakes packets – but in fact any visual object can serve as a trigger: a Virtual Reality Archives cover, a picture, an architectural feature or even a landscape. Using AR for the first time can be quite a mind-blowing experience, as the device ‘grabs’ the object and manipulates it in real time, moving it as you move the mobile device.

Beyond the text seminar

© Image courtesy of Mimas, The University of Manchester

The SCARLET Project

The SCARLET project (Special Collections using Augmented Reality to Enhance Learning and Teaching) addresses one of the main obstacles to Virtual Reality Archives use of special collections in teaching and learning – the fact that students are required to consult archives, manuscripts and rare books within the controlled conditions of reading-rooms or search-rooms, isolated from much of the secondary, supporting materials and a growing mass of related digital assets. This is an unfamiliar experience for students who are accustomed to an information-rich wireless world, and it is therefore perceived to be a barrier to their use of special collections.

Dante's La Commedia

© Image courtesy of John Rylands Library, The University of Manchester

Studies in SCARLET

The project is a Virtual Reality Archives partnership between Mimas, the John Rylands Library and academics within the University of Manchester’s Faculty of Humanities. The involvement of three award-winning teachers has ensured that the applications are rooted in pedagogical needs and that the technology facilitates learning, rather than being just an end itself. The SCARLET ‘app’ now enables students to Virtual Reality Archives early editions of Dante’s Divine Comedy, for example, while simultaneous viewing catalogue data, digital images, webpages and online learning resources on their tablet devices and phones. Feedback from the students has been really positive: they see the benefits of being able to videos produced by their tutor, digitised images and catalogue information while simultaneously handling the real thing.

iPad

© Image courtesy of Mimas, The University of Manchester

Moving Forward

AR has never before been used to enhance the Virtual Reality Archives of using special collections material for teaching and learning. It has potential to revolutionise practice in this field, helping students to engage with primary source materials and linking fragile and rare objects with online resources. The SCARLET project could also be highly influential in demonstrating how institutions could use AR to enhance the learning experience across the curriculum. It also has obvious potential for engaging schools groups. One issue that needs to be addressed is that fact that not everyone (this writer included) has a suitable mobile device. For the SCARLET project the Library invested in a suite of iPads, which are lent out to students during seminars.

The SCARLET blog provides an engaging record of the project development process from the diverse perspectives of librarians, archivists, Virtual Reality Archives, academics and learning technologists. Ultimately the blog will provide access to an online toolkit, enabling other libraries and archives to develop similar applications.

John Hodgson

Collections and Research Support Manager (Manuscripts, Archives and Visual Collections)



Highlights from the blog include a blog post by Matt Ramirez of Mimas with a link to a video Mapping out a User Journey; this is using the prototype as of September Also a blog post by John Hodgson of John Rylands University Library Special Collections titled Blowing the dust off Special Collections explaining how augmented reality is allowing special collections to be brought "into adobe acrobat 11 pro [03 june 2017]  ❌ age of the app".

Explore all the Special Collections of the John Rylands Library.

Beyond the text seminarLa CommediaiPad and deskVirtual Reality Archives width="81" height="" alt="Dante and Beatrice">

© Images courtesy of Mimas and John Rylands Library, The University of Manchester

Collections

  • Dante Alighieri, The divine comedy: sheets containing the manuscript of Dante Alighieri's The divine comedy: a new verse translation by C.H. Sisson. Virtual Reality Archives manuscript includes the entire text of his translation of the Inferno, Purgatorio and Paradiso.
  • William Warren Vernon's Dante Collection: Vernon Dante Collection comprises two manuscript parts of Readings on the Inferno of Dante chiefly based on the commentary of Benevenuto da Imola () and part of the first edition of Readings on the Purgatorio of Dante chiefly based on the commentary ().
  • Transcript of an Early Version of Wyclif's New Testament: a transcript by Lea Wilson of a late 14th-century manuscript English New Testament.
  • New Testament: as part of the Copinger-Hartland Manuscripts Collection, this is a two volume manuscript of the New Testament, excluding the Gospels.
  • Papers relating to The Twentieth Century New Testament: six folders of papers relating to The Twentieth Century New Testament. A translation into Modern English, made from the original Greek, Westcott and Hort's text (London,etc.). The papers include circulars, official papers relating to the preparation of ths work, groups of letters and notes on the history of the undertaking.
  • Wycliffe Gospels: one volume containing the four Gospels of Luke, John, Matthew and Mark. The manuscript was, according to the nineteenth-century title page, presented to Queen Elizabeth I.

 

Copac

If you are interested in finding secondary source material on this topic then you can search Copac for related materials. Copac includes the catalogue of John Rylands Library collections.

Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

Tangible Augmented Reality for Archival Research: Using Augmented Reality to Research Cultural Heritage Items

Daniella Kalinda, Ryerson University, Canada, Lucas Hrynyshyn, Ryerson University, Canada, Gabby Resch, Ryerson University; University of Toronto, Canada, Anitha Nathan, Ryerson, Canada, Ravit David, Scholars Portal, Virtual Reality Archives, Univ. of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Ali Mazalek, Ryerson University, Virtual Reality Archives, Canada

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate how innovative technologies in the field of cultural heritage, particularly augmented reality, can be used Virtual Reality Archives advance research in a highly digitized era. We will describe advancements in digital recreations of cultural heritage. We will also describe a formative study we undertook to understand current challenges in cultural heritage research, as well as to understand current practices in research and insights gained from interaction with physical cultural heritage materials. We then propose two designs based on analysis of data from the formative study, Virtual Reality Archives. Finally, we conclude with possible directions for the integration of augmented reality in cultural heritage research.

Keywords: augmented reality, cultural heritage, tangible augmented reality

Introduction

Cultural heritage items can be interacted with in novel ways using emerging digital technologies like augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR). The rise in popularity of augmented reality, in particular, shows promising opportunities for integration of this media for people from all walks of life- including cultural heritage researchers. With respect to cultural heritage research practices, current methods for presenting digital archival content often lack the richness, Virtual Reality Archives, versatility, and longevity that is necessary for researching physical artifacts or ephemera (Champion & Rahaman, ). Our project aims to address some of the challenges that scholars face when working with ephemera and memorabilia collections, and to enhance scholarly engagement with cultural artifacts by enabling research and discovery through emerging technologies, and augmented reality in particular.

In this paper, we describe advancements in digital recreations of cultural heritage and present a formative study we undertook to understand current challenges in cultural heritage research, as well as to understand current practices in research and insights gained Virtual Reality Archives interaction with physical cultural Virtual Reality Archives materials. We then present the design of a mobile augmented reality Virtual Reality Archives based on analysis of data from the formative study. We conclude with possible directions for the integration of augmented reality in cultural heritage research. 

Background and Related Work

This section provides an overview of the roles, value, and challenges of cultural heritage preservation, Virtual Reality Archives, and an assessment of how Virtual Reality Archives reality can be used in cultural heritage research.

Cultural Heritage

Cultural heritage refers to the traditions (tangible and intangible) that are transferred from one generation to another. Tangible heritage includes objects such as artifacts, ephemera, and buildings, whereas intangible heritage involves norms, practices, and stories (Brumann, ; Kenderdine, ).

 Tangible objects such as artifacts (three-dimensional cultural heritage objects) and ephemera (paper-based cultural heritage) are kept in archives, libraries, and museums where they are preserved and can be used for research. However, with limitations in storage and access to these archives, the cultural heritage field has recently shifted toward digital methods and emerging technologies to improve access.

Challenges Facing Cultural Heritage Access and Interactions

First-hand public access to cultural heritage is limited by several factors. For travel and tourism, cultural heritage centres are attempting to increase their number of visitors, improve the visitor experience, and reimagine public perception of cultural heritage sites as exciting, innovative, and entertaining (Chung, Han and Joun, ). One of the ways the industry has achieved this is by incorporating emerging technology as part of the visitor experience, with a specific focus on augmented reality. Methods for preserving cultural heritage have also evolved with the advancement of technology. Many libraries are Virtual Reality Archives initiatives to digitize their collections and increase access to their historical items so as to remain relevant Virtual Reality Archives a digital world and to keep the library as the center for knowledge acquisition (Jones, ).

Some heritage researchers assert that ephemera are most meaningfully understood in a collection, posing another challenge to visualization and representation of ephemera through technology (See Appendix D; Table ). For example, a single postcard with &#;John&#; as the sender&#;s name does not illustrate any sort of need for privacy or identity protection, until the viewer of the collection understands that numerous postcards sent from concentration camps all use this same name as an alias for their personal protection. Therefore, the value of ephemera as understood as a part of a whole collection makes them both unique and difficult to work with. 

The cataloguing of donated special collections can often be non-linear. Items in a collection may be randomly assorted in a scrapbook, carefully selected by an experienced collector, or inherited by a family member (Anghelescu, ). While a collection can provide valuable insights on a collector and the motivations behind the collections, librarians and archivists often struggle to classify these special collections in a meaningful way that supports the research process.

A Collaborative Preservation Initiative 

Various libraries have taken the initiative to digitize their archives (Smith, ). The Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library at the University of Toronto, which holds part of the Mernick Farley collection of Jewish Ephemera, is currently seeking to digitize its collection in an innovative way that will help heritage researchers undertake insightful research of primary source cultural heritage from remote places. Our project is being conducted in partnership with this initiative. Our goal is to create intuitive and engaging interfaces for meaningful digital research experiences. In order to do so, Virtual Reality Archives, we investigated ways that innovative technologies have been used for the dissemination and preservation of cultural heritage, including which modern technological methods were most appropriate for this task.

Augmented Reality

Augmented reality is an enhanced digital visualization technique that superimposes virtual objects onto a physical environment, through handheld or wearable display, giving the appearance of being integrated in the physical environment (Milgram et al.,; Wu, Lee, Chang and Liang, ). This dynamic interaction with the physical environment may be the reason augmented reality has become increasingly popular in many areas including entertainment and education  (Kim, Kang, Choi, Choi and Hong, ). 

In a systematic review of augmented reality for educational purposes, Akcayir and Akcayir () reported sixty percent of augmented reality applications are built for mobile devices, twenty-four percent for desktops, Virtual Reality Archives, and sixteen percent are created for head mounted devices specifically designed for augmented reality. The authors argue that there are five factors that may make mobile devices more prominent: they are more cost-effective, Virtual Reality Archives, easier to learn to use, portable, more likely to encourage social collaboration, and built for independent operability (one&#;s own ability to utilize the physical hardware). Furthermore, it is possible that the dynamic interaction between the physical and virtual environment may improve processing and problem-solving skills, critical thinking and on-the-spot decision making (Akcayir and Akcayir, ). The growing prevalence of augmented reality also demonstrates that the Red Alert 2 1.00 crack serial keygen is maturing and will become easier to use. This trend suggests that augmented reality could be applied beyond the field of entertainment and used in areas such as education, training, and research. 

Some of the commonly reported challenges with augmented reality are &#;lagginess&#; (a term indicating a delay between player action and the action&#;s digital result) and issues with rendering visualizations using trigger (or target) recognition (Wu, Lee, Chang and Liang, ; Akcayir and Akcayir, ). Improvements in wireless connections may decrease these challenges. However, most studies of augmented reality have been short-term and some researchers suggest that more assessment protocols should be taken to analyze long-term effects of AR usage (Botden and Jakimowicz, ).  

Design and Implementation of Augmented Reality

The integration of PTC&#;s Vuforia plug-in with Unity 3D has helped novice developers build augmented reality applications fairly easily. They can quickly prototype different applications and test them using this game engine, Virtual Reality Archives. For example, researchers with little to no programming experience built a mobile augmented reality application for children with obesity and tested its effectiveness in decreasing obesity and iterating as necessary (Kim, Suk, Kang, Jung, Laine and Westin, ). Game engines such as Unity 3D have increased access to developing mobile augmented reality applications for less experienced developers. Furthermore, this game engine can also be used to interact with tangible objects in a virtual environment.

Annexing Reality, a toolkit developed by Hettiarachchi and Wigdor () on Unity3D, enables designers and Virtual Reality Archives to match augmented virtual objects to similarly-shaped physical objects in one&#;s environment. An AR user can grab a physical object and see the corresponding virtual object move Virtual Reality Archives the simulated environment. The developers and designers who assessed this toolkit found it easy to learn and were satisfied with the tool overall. However, they reported that it was difficult to predict the weight of physical objects. Furthermore, for the AR Virtual Reality Archives, erroneous head movements led to lagging, making interactions more difficult. Overall, despite some challenges, AR users found interacting with physical objects in the simulated environment to be more realistic.

Augmented Reality in Cultural Heritage and Tourism

Augmented reality applications have been used in the tourism industry to help improve the visitor experience. These applications are generally location-based and often intended for guided tours (Jung and tom Dieck, ; Dow et al., ). Augmented reality has successfully been integrated in creating innovative experiences in institutions like museums and heritage sites. Examples include integrating augmented reality with outdoor heritage in parks for sustainable tours (Ciolfi, ) and cultural visits (Kenderdine, Virtual Reality Archives, ), incorporating natural interaction in augmented reality in museums (Kyriakou and Herman, ), and interactive and context-based applications in Egyptian museums (Nofal, ). Such designs may be useful for increasing public engagement, making the site experience more engaging for the modern visitor. They also point to interesting research applications, including the use of augmented reality for the interpretation of archaeological sites (Amin et al., ). These various examples suggest that augmented reality may be a relevant medium for academic cultural heritage research.

Formative Study

Methodology

The goal of this study was to discover the current working procedures researchers use, and to identify challenges in the interactions for researching cultural heritage. We hypothesized that researchers are looking for more intuitive and interactive ways of researching artifacts. We expected the interviews to provide insights into the areas where heritage researchers are lacking intuitive and interactive opportunities for engaging with digital artifacts. All the interviews were conducted in person and were audio-recorded, Virtual Reality Archives. This ongoing research is in partnership with the Thomas Fisher Library at the University of Toronto, Virtual Reality Archives. These findings are used to inform the design of an augmented reality prototype for research purposes.

Data Collection

The method for data collection used was open-ended interviewing (Yin,p. ). Excluding demographic questions, the questions were open-ended and followed a qualitative interview format. A questionnaire was used as a guide for the interview but the order and phrasing of the questions differed depending on the context of the interview (Yin,p). Conversational-style interviews are suggested to help researchers recollect their work candidly (Yin,p. ). Finally, data was analyzed using a five-step process: compiling, disassembling, reassembling, interpreting, and concluding (Yin,Virtual Reality Archives, p. ). These approaches are reviewed in the data analysis.

Participant Recruitment

We recruited participants using snowball sampling. All participants were sent a consent form to review once they had agreed to join the study through email response. They were offered compensation of $10 for their participation, Virtual Reality Archives. Participation in this study included both senior and junior researchers with a graduate degree, as well as those currently working on their graduate degree who work with cultural heritage items. Researchers without a graduate degree and who do not work with cultural heritage items were excluded from participation. 

Interview

A total of 8 participants were involved in this study. This includes 4 curators, Virtual Reality Archives, 2 history professors, and 2 digital archaeologists. The study was conducted in either the participant&#;s office or in a booked meeting room to ensure privacy and an audio-recording of high fidelity. The study lasted between 30 to 50 minutes. The signed copy was kept by the investigator and a copy of the consent form was given to the participant. The investigator used the questionnaire as a guide for the interview. Virtual Reality Archives of the 37 available questions (see Appendix A), a total of 14 interview questions and five demographic questions were used between interviews. Any follow-up question was assigned to its original interview question. For example, Virtual Reality Archives, questions 22 to 26, under the insights category of the questionnaire (see Appendix B), Virtual Reality Archives, were all placed under question 22 for data analysis. Asking each question during the interview separately became redundant whereas grouping such questions into one question facilitated candid answers on the part of the interviewee (heritage researcher). These &#;grouped&#; questions (having a total of 14) were analyzed to find trends (see Appendix B).

Data Analysis

To analyze our findings, audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and, once verified, the recordings were deleted. Each interviewee was assigned an alphanumeric code. The questions were numbered to correspond to the questionnaire. The interview answers for each participant were reorganized into a new spreadsheet. Answers to a question that appeared twice or more were highlighted and summarized in an &#;emergent themes&#; section for that answer. The themes found across various answers were summarized to find common trends (see Appendix D). These steps were repeated as necessary.

All participants&#; answers for each question were used to find trends in the workflows, desired insights, and common challenges during cultural heritage research. In the next section, the results will be discussed, Virtual Reality Archives, then they will be interpreted in the following discussion section.

Results

After conducting our data analysis, we categorized our findings into three main sections: common practices in research, practices in tangible versus digital search, and researchers&#; proposed solutions for Virtual Reality Archives research.

Research Workflow: Advantages and Disadvantages

The reported tools researchers use during research include pen, paper, Virtual Reality Archives, laptops and desktops for note-taking. The software used include Excel, Word, Virtual Reality Archives, Dropbox (Appendix D; Table ; T7 and T8), and email applications. Only digital archaeologists in our study reported using 3D scanners (Table ).

The motivations for research varied between researchers. While three curators and both digital archaeologists claimed to work collaboratively (Table ; A4-A8) on projects as opportunities came, the history professors and one curator reported that their work was self-driven and they selected what they researched based on their area of specialty (Table ; A1-A3). Therefore, while the ways that researchers Virtual Reality Archives vary, collaboration generally happens for the identification of miscatalogued items, for advice and clarification as part of a larger project, or to get another expert&#;s take on a topic they are less familiar with (Table ; T20, T32 and T33), Virtual Reality Archives. These conversations may take place by email as they analyze the cultural heritage item, or in person, about the general topic overall.

Pre-visit: Researchers reported starting their research online to find cultural heritage items (whether ephemera Wondershare Filmora Scrn 2.0.1 mac Archives artifacts) that are relevant to their project (Table ; T4). During the pre-visit phase, Virtual Reality Archives, researchers do as much preparatory work before the archival visit, Virtual Reality Archives. This Virtual Reality Archives accessing various databases online, usually on a museum, library, or another archival institution website. It is reported to be more  efficient due to time and budget constraints (Table ; T15), but less reliable because the available information online is not &#;necessarily accurate&#; (Table ; T8). The researcher will also generally contact colleagues within their network iTube Studio 7.4.9 Crack Archives clarification on whether certain collections are in their institution although not visible online (Table ; T33 &T20). During this time, they begin organizing their findings in Excel spreadsheets, Dropbox folders or Word documents (Table ; T7 and T10). They may also collaborate with colleagues either in person, over the phone or via email to decipher the provenance of an ephemeral item, Virtual Reality Archives. However, researchers mentioned that not all cultural heritage items that are in an archive are available online (Table ; T12), which can lead to a necessary archival visit for the researcher to find the archives onsite (Table ; T2, T3A, T3B, T11 and T25). During the pre-visit stage, they decide which archive is worthwhile visiting and make preparations accordingly. Therefore, the pre-archival visit stage is used by the researcher to gather general data about their project themes and to find relevant archives for further research.

Archival visit: A researcher sifts through various boxes of data to find archives relevant to their research. Here, researchers take an &#;exploratory&#; approach to sort through the archives and analyze each item and create their own filing system for reference. Researchers generally take photos Virtual Reality Archives items in the collection with their own mobile devices and create their own database for items that are relevant to their topic of research (Table ; T18). They note details such as the box number, date, and object number of the collection. This way, they may easily refer back to the physical collection and know how to Virtual Reality Archives each item easily.

Researchers use either an object and device-centric focus or a narrative focus to studying cultural heritage. Some researchers were more interested in the history of the object and its implications in society while others were more focused on the individual lives impacted by these objects. For example, one researcher studied the introduction of consumer cameras on social life, whereas another researcher studied the letters of a photojournalist at different stages of her career. Virtual Reality Archives both used cultural heritage to make inferences, they took different focal points to arrive at their conclusions. All researchers, therefore, agree that the story behind the object is what Virtual Reality Archives most important, Virtual Reality Archives, but they do so according to different focal points (Table ; TT14). Therefore, the purpose of studying any item of cultural heritage is not only to study the physical EaseUS Partition Master 12.10 Technician Full Version Download but to draw implications about its significance.

Post-visit: Once researchers have visited the archives, they use their new-found insights to either redirect or reinforce the stories they are telling about these objects. They link the items to greater social structures and address the implications of the items carried within their historical context.

Heritage researchers who are professors use the photos they took Virtual Reality Archives an archive for use in their publications (TableT10; TableT18; TableT10). Curators generally opt to use the physical objects themselves in their exhibitions (Table ; T19). In other cases, the research is ongoing and can lead to other Virtual Reality Archives visits for long-term projects, such as books.

Research Search Methodology

One of the main reported advantages of visiting archives and working with cultural heritage objects is that it offers researchers a more meaningful research experience (Table ; T2, T3A, T3B, T11 and T25). The primary motivating factor for visiting archival institutions is to find ephemeral cultural heritage that is of relevance to a participant&#;s/researcher&#;s topic of study, Virtual Reality Archives. Generally, a collection is sought out because it is unique, relevant to one&#;s research, Virtual Reality Archives, and/or inaccessible online. This visit may be a part of collaborative work or a self-driven project. The visit to the archival institution was considered pivotal to most researchers and as the moment in their research that either solidifies their hypotheses or challenges them. Depending on their research specialization, researchers travelled either within the country or overseas Game Development Archives - Page 2 of 3 see these artifacts (Table ; T3A and T3B). Although central to their research, most reported that one visit was enough for their research. Whether one&#;s work is more self-driven or collaborative seemed to be contingent on the researcher&#;s style. Some curators preferred the collaborative approach and worked mainly on requested items. However, other curators were more self-driven and enjoyed an independent research process. Professors tend to be more self-driven having a few collaborations on occasion.

Neither historians, nor digital archaeologists or curators, visited archives only out of curiosity or interest. However, they did mention visiting public exhibitions out of curiosity or interest. That is, while each researcher is personally motivated and curious about their work and tends to work on self-driven projects, the visits to an archival institution tend to be driven by a strong external motivation such as an upcoming publication or curated exhibition.

The archival visit is considered very important and researchers strategize (through researching online and contacting their network) to ensure their visit is worthwhile (Table ; T4). Physical archives give the researcher the opportunity to make conclusions about the special collections that they have limited ability to make prior.

Participants stated that the majority of their research was conducted online because of ease, access, and vastness of directed search (Table ; T27 and T29). Furthermore, it is considered to be more resourceful as it requires less time Ableton Live 10 registration key Archives a smaller budget (Table ; T5). As a participant stated, &#;the find function is very valuable.&#; That is, being able to type pointed keywords in the search function helps researchers navigate copious amounts of information in a directed and efficient way. Online research, therefore, is considered a necessary precursor to archival research (Table ; T4). This helps prepare the researcher with as much background information about the artifact in order to prepare for the tangible search. Further, while the archival search may be copious, the tangible analysis is considered more meaningful and more rewarding for their research.

Another advantage of visiting archives is that researchers have access to all the cultural heritage that is not available online. Further, the way that the collections are organized, researchers can make uncanny connections between items that usually are not possible online. Therefore, currently miscatalogued cultural heritage items in special collections can be beneficial for making unexpected Virtual Reality Archives. From the benefits of online and tangible research, as well as their disadvantages, researchers reported the solutions they thought would work best for their research.

Reported Possible Solutions for Current Challenges

The most common proposed solution was to have more cultural heritage items accessible and available online (Table ; T12, T). The second proposed area for improvement was to have a more accurate cataloguing system. The third suggested solution was to have one common platform for researching cultural heritage across multiple institutions. Many found that pictures online of the object in all angles sufficed for what they were working with. As long as they had the option to zoom Virtual Reality Archives and out and see the recto and verso of documents and other two-dimensional ephemeral items, they found it sufficient for their pre- and post-research. For three-dimensional cultural heritage items such as artifacts, they found that the physical visit is necessary if the item is indeed relevant to their research. Some agreed that three-dimensional imaging of the artifact could be helpful but maintained that it would probably not replace the physical visit. One mentioned, &#;I&#;m very comfortable dealing with materials.&#;

Researchers were aware of how augmented reality has been used for cultural heritage. Most only saw a use for it for exhibitive or teaching purposes. None had used augmented reality for their own work but understood how it worked. Even less experience was reported about the use of virtual reality. One curator mentioned, &#;my imagination is probably better than VR.&#; When commenting on the use of augmented reality or virtual reality in their research they reported that they only saw a use for it in exhibitions or for teaching purposes, but not for research. One curator had incorporated AR in one of their exhibitions, portraying the exhibition in three different Virtual Reality Archives stages. She stated that the project was &#;successful and beautiful&#; but, with a large group using one provided mobile device, the quality of the experience diminished as people waited longer Virtual Reality Archives expected to use the application. However, another curator found that using Virtual Reality Archives for her exhibitions on African art pieces Virtual Reality Archives be less appropriate for her audience. She found that the AR &#;looked too much like a video game&#; and would take away from the experience she was trying to create.  They were unsure how AR or VR could be vocalign pro Archives to researching cultural heritage. However, researchers remained open to the possibility of such technologies for research because, &#;it could be a generational thing.&#; Another mentioned, &#;I started my career before there was an online.&#; While most participants who are experts in their field do not envision using a different technology to do their research, they have adapted to researching online even though they started their careers only researching through physical archives. The possibilities afforded by this reality are explored further in the prototype design.

Mobile Augmented Reality Prototype

From our study, we found that researchers were looking to have greater access and better information about cultural heritage items. While doing large digitization projects and item-by-item re-cataloguing of the items were beyond the scope of this project, we decided to start our development by tackling a different angle of the project. We sought to make the pre-archival visit digital search more meaningful by adding tangibility to the digital search Virtual Reality Archives, as well as adding features for collaboration and recommendations for an easier cross-platform search. In this section, the design of an augmented reality application for researchers is discussed. We call the application TARA, for &#;Tangible Augmented Reality Archives.&#; The design explores how virtual objects that represent artifacts from a cultural heritage archive can be superimposed over a tangible cube using a mobile augmented reality application. For simplicity, the cultural heritage in the applications only include artifacts and not ephemera.

Design

TARA (see Appendix C) consists of an augmented reality Virtual Reality Archives on a mobile device that is coupled with a tangible paper cube with one QR code on each of the sides. The purpose of this interactive cube is to offer researchers a tangible experience during their digital search. In the application, the camera on a mobile device detects one side of the QR code and a three-dimensional visualization of an artifact is then activated. The digital artifact covers the cube so that turning the cube around in the physical environment also turns the artifact in the virtual environment (Figure 1). In this way, users can manipulate the virtual artifact by performing the corresponding Virtual Reality Archives manipulation on the cube, e.g., turning the cube upside down to see the bottom side of the virtual artifact, or bringing the cube closer to zoom in on the virtual artifact. Users also have the option to scroll between artifacts, get more information about an artifact, share or save the artifact, get recommendations of similar artifacts, and search through a database (Figure 2 and 3).

Scanning an interactive cube with a smartphone
side by side images of iphone screens, one showing the artifact, one showing a description
Knockout For Win v2 0 crack serial keygen user scanning the cube, then searching the database" width="" height="">

 

Low accessibility and inaccurate cataloguing were often mentioned as needs for improvement in the digital search. Therefore, this application is intended to be used by researchers during the pre-archival visit stage. We expect this to give them a better visualization of the cultural heritage they are researching, so that this may help them decide whether or not Virtual Reality Archives make the archival visits. However, some questions we still found ourselves with were: how do we help make more cultural heritage accessible digitally? How can we help both researchers and librarians with their cataloguing of data? 

Our next steps with this prototype involve user testing with cultural researchers and investigating if, and how, this application would be useful for research.

Future Directions

We aim to finalize the implementation of the Tangible Augmented Reality Archives (TARA) application and conduct user studies, Virtual Reality Archives. From these studies, we will be able to learn how researchers might integrate TARA in their work. Future iterations of the TARA application could include the archival visit in its user experience—namely, helping with accessibility and cataloguing. During their archival visit, researchers would be able to use their mobile device with the augmented reality application and could take a three-dimensional scan of the artifact or ephemera they are interested in evaluating, Virtual Reality Archives. With this, they would have the option of saving it to their own gallery and/or adding it to the repository. Virtual Reality Archives could then create their own catalogue for each artifact, Virtual Reality Archives, take notes, and with smart recognition of these notes, the application itself could detect keywords found in the researcher&#;s analysis and automatically create categories (or tags) to facilitate finding this artifact for future research on multiple platforms. Users could write their own artifact description and request changes in the current cataloguing of the artifact to be sent to the archivist of the Virtual Reality Archives. This application could be useful for librarians as well in the digitization of their files.

Conclusion

In this paper, we investigated the value of using emerging digital technologies like augmented reality in cultural heritage research. We presented a formative study investigating current practices and challenges in archival research of artifacts and ephemera. Results of this study influenced the design of an augmented reality application called TARA (Tangible Augmented Reality Archives) that, we propose, might Virtual Reality Archives with cultural heritage research. In our formative study, researchers in the heritage field were interviewed about their workflow, insights, and challenges during their research. We found that there are 3 Topaz Studio 2.3.1 Crack Full Version Free Download (2021) stages in research, Virtual Reality Archives, the pre-archival visit, the archival visit, and the post-archival visit. Each stage has a focus, namely, directed research in the pre-archival visit, exploratory search when visiting archives, and the post-archival search brings together the insights from the previous stages for an exhibition or publication. While the archival visit tends to only happen once, it was considered especially valuable for studying the cultural heritage item. Researchers noted that working with Virtual Reality Archives tangible object allowed them to draw insights about the item that is not possible through a two-dimensional, primarily visual, digital search. Researchers suggested improvements centered around availability and accessibility of archives online, and they expressed skepticism about the relevance of AR for research. However, they also acknowledged the way in which online search has transformed their research practices, Autodesk 3DS Max 2020 crack serial keygen were optimistic that AR has the potential to be used in cultural heritage research. More broadly, the reported desire for greater access to information about cultural heritage items online, as well as the reported importance of tangibility and online visualization of cultural heritage items, together suggest that emerging technologies like AR may present promising approaches for online cultural heritage research. 

Acknowledgements 

We thank Loryl MacDonald and Brock Silversides from the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library for their collaboration and extending the usage of the collection of Jewish ephemera. We would also like to thank student collaborators Ben Ashley, Zeeanna Ibrahim, and Milad Monavvarian for their work on this project.

References

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Appendix

Appendix A: Questionnaire

DEMOGRAPHIC:

  1. Name
  2. Research institution/University
  3. Research specialization?
  4. Expertise – number of years as researcher/specialist?
  5. What gender do you identify with?
    DEFINITION:
  6. Do you know what ephemera and archives are?
  7. How would you define both terms?
    MOTIVATION:
  8. [For researchers], what are the determining factors that motivate you to visit a distant library to see its ephemera?
    PROCESS: [For researchers, librarians, and metadata specialists]
  9. Could you give us a ratio of how often you handle physical ephemera versus how often you search online through online publications? For example, ejournals, and museum&#;s websites
  10. Can Jogos de Nature de Graça para Baixar explain what a typical research session [for a Virtual Reality Archives looks like on any given day? (Get case studies).
  11. When researching, Virtual Reality Archives, are you generally looking for one specific ephemera or do you search by another category? (E.g. era, location, usage, evolution in technology)
  12. If there were no limitations to how you&#;d research, what would a research session look like? (E.g. start with geographical map to pick location, timeline, etc.)
  13. What would you imagine are the benefits of working with physical ephemera?
  14. What do you think are the benefits of researching digitally?
  15. What would you say are the top 3 problems you have when researching about ephemera through online publications?
    COLLABORATION: [For researchers]
  16. How do you collaborate with other researchers while doing your own research? / How do you discuss what you discover from literature reviews or Virtual Reality Archives findings from the physical collections?VISUALIZATIONS: [For all]
  17. [For researchers], how is the data you are working with currently presented to you? (E.g.  open-source linked data vs. library&#;s search engines).
    1. What are the benefits of the current publications?
    2. What are their constraints?
  18. [For librarians], if a researcher is unable to make it to your library but Virtual Reality Archives interested in one of your objects, what would make it possible for them to access it remotely?
  19. [For metadata specialists], what is the current categorization process for the ephemera at your institution?
  20. [For metadata specialists], Can you break down the digitization process in steps from archives to final digital platform?
  21. [For all], how do you visualize the data you are working with?
    INSIGHTS: [For researchers]
  22. What insights are you looking for when researching through a specific collection of ephemera?
  23. Do you look Virtual Reality Archives more information about the context the ephemera was in? If so, what contextual information are you looking for?
  24. What physical properties are important for a researcher to know- especially if they cannot access the object in person but only digitally?
  25. Are you interested in knowing the meaningfulness of the object to the original owner? The collector?
  26. How do you make the relation between a piece of ephemera and contemporary society? Through literature reviews? Discussions? Are there other means?
    TECHNOLOGY: [For researchers]
  27. How Virtual Reality Archives you record your research findings? This includes note-taking, database management, etc.
    1. What technologies Virtual Reality Archives you used to using?
      1. E.g. Hardware: e.g. laptop and mouse, archaeological tools;
      2. E.g. software: Excel, MySQL, Omeka, Islandora, etc.
  28. How do you approach various ephemera during the digitization process?
  29. What are the visualizations you encounter for metadata? (e.g. digital repositories, open-source linked data visual representations, etc.)
    1. How have these visualizations helped your research?
    2. Do you have any struggles with the current visualization techniques?
    3. If so, what do you Virtual Reality Archives could help with this process?
  30. Is Virtual Reality Archives a different way of working with the data that you would find more suitable for research on ephemera?
      1. What functions and features would you want to have that would make the tool valuable in your research?
      2. For example, would you want the interface to work differently? To use different kinds of technology or tools to interact with digitized ephemera?
  31. What is your experience with AR/VR?
  32. Do you think an AR/VR experience will benefit or inhibit your research process? How do you imagine this would happen?
  33. Would you be interested in incorporating new or different technologies in your research process that can help simplify working with digital ephemera?

Appendix B: Analyzed Interview Questions

1) How do you define ephemera, archives, and artifacts?

2) What are the determining or motivating factors for you to visit ephemera or artifacts at an archival institution?

3) How often do you handle physical ephemera or artifacts compared to how often do you research online?

4) Can you explain what a typical research session looks like for you (in preparation of a publication or exhibition)?

5) What are the benefits of working with physical ephemera or artifacts?

6) What would you say are the top 3 problems you have when researching about ephemera through online publications?

7) How do you collaborate with other researchers while doing your own research?

8) How is the data you are working with Virtual Reality Archives presented to you? What is the cataloguing like? What are the benefits and constraints of this system?

9) How do you organize or visualize the data you are working with?

10) What kind of insights are you looking for when researching through a specific collection of ephemera?

11) How do you record your research findings? What tools do you use? This includes note-taking, data management, and the digital hardwares and softwares Virtual Reality Archives Is there a different way of working with the data that you would find more suitable for research on ephemera?

13) What is your how to download windows 10 cracked version Archives - Windows Activator with augmented reality and virtual reality?

14) Would you be interested in incorporating new or different technologies in Virtual Reality Archives research process that can help simplify working with digital ephemera?

Appendix C: Figure of User Journey with the TARA application

 

Appendix D: Results Tables with Emergent Themes

Participant IdentifierParticipant&#;s Definition of EphemeraParticipant&#;s Definition of ArtifactParticipant&#;s Definition of Archive
A1T0B: Unaware of this term in relation to HCIsT1: Physical/3D Object

T2: Important to CHIs

T3: A Representation of Time

T4: Context of Item/Location/Culture is Important

T0A: No Response
A2T5: Impermanent and Disposable

T6: Paper Based

T1: Physical/3D Object

T7: More Durable than Ephemera

T8: Place to Keep Documents

T Archives hold document and ephemera

A3T5: Impermanent and Disposable

T6: Paper Based

T1: Physical/3D ObjectT8: Place to Keep Documents

T Holds items like Paper, Prints, Newspapers, Artworks, Photos

T Archive Contents convey important information over aesthetics

A4T5: Impermanent and Disposable

T Examples such as Paper, Prints, Newspapers, Brochures

T4: Context of Item/Location/Culture is Important

T6: Paper Based

T4: Context of Item/Location/Culture is Important

T Sometimes Preserved

T5: Sometimes impermanent / disposable

T Museums hold artifacts

T Archives hold document and ephemera

A5T Archives hold document and ephemeraT1: Physical/3D Object

T4: Context of Item/Location/Culture is Important

T0A: No Response
A6T Archives hold document and ephemera

 T Importance of item only realized after passage of time

T5: Impermanent and Disposable

T0A: No ResponseT Archives hold document and ephemera

 

A7T Archives hold document and ephemera

T Items like Paper, Prints, Newspapers, Artworks, Virtual Reality Archives, Photos

T6: Paper Based

T Museums hold artifactsT Museums hold artifacts

T Archives hold document and ephemera

A8T4: Context of Item/Location/Culture is ImportantT0A: No ResponseT Holds items like Paper, Prints, Newspapers, Artworks, Photos

Table Participant Definitions of the Terms &#;Ephemera,&#; &#;Artifacts,&#; and &#;Archives&#;

 

Participant IdentifierWhat is your motivating factor/reason for visiting a site?How often do you visit a site versus researching online?What does a typical research session involve (process)?Are there benefits to physical ephemera?How do you collaborate when researching (if at all)?
A1T1: To Identify Activities Virtual Reality Archives, Time Period and Other Information contained within artifactsT Doesn&#;t visit sites anymore

T Physical Literature and Site Visits were used more often than finding information in a digital catalogue

T Personal Research involved digitizing physical objects

T Layout a grid to map out locations of artifacts 

T Identify Artifacts after excavation

T Personal Research involved digitizing physical objects

T0A: No ResponseT0A: No Response
A2T2: Would visit the site if information couldn&#;t be found elsewhere

T3A: Sites in Canada make up majority of visits

T4: Pre-visit analysis like searching online catalogue before an in-person visit is necessary

T0A: No ResponseT4: Pre-visit analysis like searching online catalogue before an in-person visit is necessary

T Large Virtual Reality Archives of research done online

T Photography exhibits/analysis are of primary concern

T Online artifacts may be of lower quality than in-person

T Online artifacts may contain a smaller selection of a collection than in-person

T No collaboration occurs normally. If it does, it is a simple idea exchange between colleagues.
A3T5: Would visit archives for primary research

T6: Important to physically see a research object in person

T7: Best or Only way to access artifacts is in-person sometimes

T8: Viewing exhibits as an interest

T Doesn&#;t visit sites anymore

T Large portion of research done online

T0A: No ResponseT6: Important to physically see a research object in person

T Tangible properties like weight, shape, engravings, etc are best appreciated and studied in person

T Some online information may be less credible/erroneous than visiting a reputable site in person

T Photography exhibits/analysis are of primary concern

T Discuss research prompts with colleagues in pre-visit stage

T Conferences and speaking events between peers are the main form of collaboration
A4T5: Would visit archives for primary research

T8: Viewing exhibits as an interest

T3B: Sites in Africa and Europe make up majority of visits instead of Canada

T0A: No ResponseT4: Pre-visit analysis like searching online catalogue before an in-person visit is necessary

T7: Best or Only way to access artifacts is in-person sometimes

T6: Important to physically see a research object in person

T Tangible properties like weight, shape, engravings, etc are best appreciated and studied in person

T Online artifacts may contain a smaller Virtual Reality Archives of a collection than in-person

T No Benefit to Digitizing ephemera, in person is vastly superior

T Frequent collaboration with curators of exhibits or collections if information is misorganized or if more access is needed, Virtual Reality Archives, etc
A5T1: To Identify Activities Performed, Time Period and Other Information contained within artifacts

T6: Important to physically see a research object in person

T Doesn&#;t visit sites anymore

T Virtual Reality Archives portion of research done online

T Started out by doing site visits, now finds research through literature and online

T0A: No ResponseT Discuss research prompts with colleagues in pre-visit stage

T6: Important to physically see a research object in person

T1: To Identify Activities Performed, Time Period and Other Information contained within artifacts

T Very collaborative process between colleagues and research specialists
A6T5: Would visit archives for primary research

T8: Viewing exhibits as an interest

T9: External factors/ clients motivate a visit

T Physical Literature and Site Visits were used more often than finding GlassWire 2.2.291 Crack with Activation Key Free Download Latest 2021 in a digital catalogue

T Started out by doing site visits, now finds research through literature and online

T4: Pre-visit analysis like searching online catalogue before an in-person visit is necessary

T As a curator, participant is in charge of rotating exhibits 

T1: To Identify Activities Performed, Time Period and Other Information contained within artifacts

T9: External factors/ clients motivate a visit

T0A: No ResponseT Frequent collaboration with curators of exhibits or collections

T Very collaborative process between colleagues and research specialists

A7T5: Would visit archives for primary research

T7: Best or Only way to access artifacts is in-person sometimes

T4: Pre-visit analysis like searching online catalogue before an in-person visit is necessary

T Started out by doing site visits, now finds research through literature and online

T Large portion of research done online

T0A: No ResponseT Easier to access and more convenient to use online artifact collections

T Ephemera and 2d documents are fine to view online but 3D artifacts would be useful to view in-person

T Mostly a solitary effort, but collaboration is used when studying an area that is not familiar or difficult to approach
A8T5: Would visit archives for primary research

T6: Important to physically see a research object in person

T1: To Identify Activities Performed, Time Period and Other Information contained within artifacts

T4: Pre-visit analysis like searching online catalogue before an in-person visit is necessary

T Large portion of research done online

T Detriments of site visits such as budget, time it takes, etc

T Photography exhibits/analysis are of primary concern

T4: Pre-visit analysis like searching online catalogue before an in-person visit is necessary

T Discuss research prompts with colleagues in pre-visit stage

T5: Would visit archives for primary research

T Research would be demonstrated through academic talks or curation of exhibits

T Easier to access and more convenient to use online artifact collections

T6: Important to physically see a research object in person

T Tangible properties like weight, shape, engravings, etc are best appreciated and studied in person

T Organization of items in folders and a hierarchy as well as saving on money is also a benefit of online archives

T Mostly a solitary effort, Virtual Reality Archives, but collaboration is used when studying an area that is not familiar or difficult to approach

Table Emergent Themes for Participants Collaboration, Motivations and Process

 

Participant IdentifierHow is the data you Virtual Reality Archives presented to you?How do you visualize/ analyze data you are working with?What insights are you looking for?
A1T0A: No ResponseT7: Use a graphical or spreadsheet database to define relationships and identify patterns

T8: Scanning and Digitization of ephemera occurs

T Object Centric &#; Looking for who created and who used certain tools, as well as their location of origin, time period, etc.
A2T1: Inconsistency in cataloguing – sometimes fully done and sometimes not

T2: Rarely, information is incorrectly recorded for a catalogue

T9: Mostly primary research, archival books and making notes on descriptions and relevant informationT Device Centric &#; Looking for how certain early devices functioned, Virtual Reality Archives, the inventor, etc.
A3T0A: No ResponseT0A: No ResponseT0A: No Response
A4T0A: No ResponseT Dropbox/Shared Drive used to organize groups of photos and information between researchers and colleagues

T7: Use a graphical or spreadsheet database to define relationships and identify patterns

T0A: No Response
A5T0A: No ResponseT Projects organized according to a &#;production pipeline&#; model with budget, schedules, file organization.T Narrative Centric – Focused on the story/author&#;s life behind an artifact
A6T4: Files are encountered that are filled with clippings and various types of ephemeraT0A: No ResponseT Object Centric &#; Looking for who created and who used certain tools, as well as their location of origin, time period, etc.
A7T5: Data process begins by searching internal repository

T4: Files are encountered that are filled with clippings and various types of ephemera

T6: Collaborators and Curators of other exhibits and archives often aid in data collection process.

T Dropbox/Shared Drive used to organize groups of photos and information between researchers and colleagues

T7: Use a graphical or spreadsheet database to define relationships and identify patterns

T Object Centric &#; Looking for who created and who used certain tools, as well as their location of origin, time period, etc.
A8T1: Inconsistency in cataloguing – sometimes fully done and sometimes not

T6: Collaborators and Curators of other exhibits and archives often aid in data collection process.

T0A: No ResponseT Narrative Centric – Focused on the story/author&#;s life behind an artifact

Table Methods that Participants use for Visualization and Insights

 

Participant IdentifierWhat kinds of technology and tools are you using throughout your Virtual Reality Archives would be your preferred way of dealing with data/ artifacts?What is your experience with AR/VR?Would you like to add new or different technologies to your research?
A1T0A: No ResponseT8: In Person is the main way to experience ephemera, digital makes it harder to replicate the collection accurately

T9: AR/VR would be promising for visualizing ephemera

T 3D Printing at a very high degree of quality and accuracy has promise.

T9: AR/VR would be promising for visualizing ephemeraT0A: No Response
A2T1: Computer, Keyboard and Mouse

T2: Antique Cameras and associated analysis technologies

T Print Catalogues and Collections are primary media usedT Researcher sees little use for VR/AR and has limited experience dealing with VR/ART0A: No Response
A3T3: Archaeological Tools – Carbon Dating, Microscopes and Ultraviolet light systemsT It would be beneficial if more artifacts, photos and their associated information and metadata appeared online.T 3D Imaging, AR and VR have potential, but in certain instances the effort isn&#;t worth it for particularly plain ephemera or artifacts or basic itemsT High degree of detail, zoom and photo manipulation would vastly improve online catalogues and would be very exciting to this researcher
A4T0A: No Virtual Reality Archives In Person is the main way to experience ephemera, digital makes Virtual Reality Archives harder to replicate the collection accurately T It would be beneficial if more artifacts, photos and their Virtual Reality Archives information and metadata appeared online.

T In-depth examination of artifacts should appear in person but some online information and basic visualizations are still useful

T Researcher sees little use for VR/AR and has limited experience dealing with VR/ART Researcher is very &#;old school&#; and doesn&#;t feel the need to add new technologies to their arsenal
A5T4: Book Research

T1: Computer, Keyboard and Mouse

T5: 3D Scans, Drone scans and Radar Scans

T Important to get differing perspectives, Virtual Reality Archives, the ideal method of data analysis involves working closely with cultures and people who have lived experience Virtual Reality Archives this areaT Researcher has a lot of experience developing for VR and see promise, but believes AR still has a long way to go before being available and viable on a large scaleT Technologies that pair with AR/VR and specifically focus on smell and sound would vastly improve ephemera and artifact collections by delivering a heightened sensory experience that is currently unavailable with traditional research methods
A6T6: Excel Spreadsheets and Shared Online Drives

T1: Computer, Keyboard and Mouse

T Having a variety of artifacts in Virtual Reality Archives more centralized and accessible location is important, no matter the technology utilized for this.T Researcher sees little use for VR/AR and has limited experience dealing with VR/ART0A: No Response
A7T1: Computer, Keyboard and MouseT8: Virtual Reality Archives Person is the main way to experience ephemera, digital makes it harder to replicate the collection accurately

T9: AR/VR would be promising for visualizing ephemera

T Must have a tangible way to rotate and interact with ephemera to simulate holding the artifact in real life

T9: AR/VR would be promising for visualizing ephemera

T 3D Imaging, AR and VR have potential, but in certain instances the effort isn&#;t worth it for particularly plain ephemera or artifacts or Virtual Reality Archives items

T It would be beneficial if more artifacts, photos and their associated information and metadata appeared online.
A8T7: Tripod, Camera and Associated EquipmentT Multiple databases accessible online via a unified platform with universal keywordingT Researcher sees little use for VR/AR and has limited experience dealing with VR/ART0A: No Response

Table Participants Opinions on Emerging and Preferred Technologies for Research


Cite as:
Kalinda, Daniella, Hrynyshyn, Lucas, Resch, Gabby, Nathan, Anitha, David, Ravit and Mazalek, Ali. "Tangible Augmented Reality for Archival Research: Using Augmented Reality to Research Cultural Heritage Items." MW MW . Published January Hotspot Shield Crack VPN 10.4.0 With Premium Keygen [Latest], Consulted .
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