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First, Last, and Only

The AMC Museum is proud to be home to a number of especially significant vintage aircraft. All of the museum’s aircraft are relevant to our American heritage, but the following planes stand out as historically important.

C-5A Galaxy

The museum's C-5A Galaxy, serial number , was the first and only aircraft in history that launched an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) in flight. In October , air dropped an 86,lb ICBM from 20, feet over the Pacific Ocean to add one more option to the strategic missile inventory of the United States. In , was the first factory new C-5A assigned to Dover AFB, Delaware, and on 20 October it retired to the AMC Museum marking the first time a C-5 was retired to a museum.

CA Starlifter

The museum's CA Starlifter, serial number , was the first of Cs manufactured. It first flew on 17 December , 60 years to the day from the Wright Brothers first flight. It was the first jet aircraft specifically designed as a cargo plane. It is one of only two remaining A models and the only known four-engine jet used to tow a glider. It was also used by NASA to test different space shuttle launch options.

CB Starlifter

The museum's CB Starlifter, serial number , was the very last C stationed at Dover AFB, Delaware, retiring in February After leaving Dover AFB it was transferred to McGuire AFB, New Jersey. A crack in the main landing gear trunnion was discovered when it passed through Dover AFB on a mission and it was retired in place and transferred to the museum.

C-9A Nightingale

The museum's C-9A Nightingale, serial number , was the first C-9 accepted for the Military Airlift Command. The C-9s were the first purpose-built aeromedical evacuation aircraft in the U.S. Air Force. This C-9 served for 37 years before being retired in

VC-9C

The museum's VC-9C, serial number , was the first to be Air Force Two. It was the first VC-9 configured with a special radio communications package so it could serve as Air Force One or Two, although usually it served as Air Force Two or for transport of America's First Ladies and other dignitaries.

CB Cargomaster

The museum's CB Cargomaster, serial number , was the last of 50 Cs built in and retired in when it was replaced by the C-5A Galaxy. It is the largest turbo-prop aircraft in the U.S. powered by the largest turbo-prop engines ever built, the Pratt & Whitney T

BG Flying Fortress

The museum's BG Flying Fortress, serial number , was the last to drop bombs. While assigned to Eglin AFB, Florida, in a test squadron in the late s it was used to drop bombs during public airpower demonstrations to compare it with modern bombers. It is also the only surviving veteran of the Flying Bomb Project as a MBG, where it was used as a remote controlled aircraft flying bombs.

KCE Stratotanker

The museum's KCE Stratotanker, serial number , was the first all jet tanker assigned to the Air National Guard (ANG) in April While assigned to the th Air Refueling Wing, New Jersey ANG, it flew the last operational mission for any KCE on 14 July

CM Skymaster

The museum's CM Skymaster, serial number , is the only surviving M model Skymaster. It was one of 38 aircraft that was specially modified to haul coal during the Berlin Airlift. It served in the Pacific during World War II (WWII) and was retired in It then served as a ground trainer at the FBI Training Academy in the Sky Marshal program. It has been restored to its original WWII markings.

CA Globemaster II

The museum's CA Globemaster II, serial number , is the only surviving A model Globemaster II, making it also the oldest C in the world. It was assigned to the Strategic Air Command (SAC), the Tactical Air Command, (TAC), the Military Air Transport Service (MATS) and the Air Force Reserve (AFRES) during its long career. To our knowledge no other type of cargo aircraft served in all four of these commands.

FA Delta Dart

The museum's FA Delta Dart, serial number , is the only surviving F Delta Dart that was actually stationed at Dover AFB. More than Fs were built for air defense of the U.S.. The 95th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Dover AFB flew 16 aircraft from to including serial number It was transferred to the New Jersey Air National Guard in and retired in to become one of over flying target drones. This aircraft is one of six that survived the program.

CG Expeditor

The museum's CG Expeditor, serial number , was the first C (Beech 18) obtained by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). It was used to transport agents in Southeast Asia from to Originally built in as an AT Trainer, it was then rebuilt in as a CG and then turned over to the CIA in with civilian registration NC.

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THE 12 TYPES OF CYBER CRIME

There are literally a dozen ways in which a cybercrime can be perpretrated, and you need to know what they are

In order to protect yourself you need to know about the different ways in which your computer can be compromised and your privacy infringed. In this section, we discuss a few common tools and techniques employed by the cyber criminals. This isn’t an exhaustive list by any means, but will give you a comprehensive idea of the loopholes in

networks and security systems, which can be exploited by attackers, and also their possible motives for doing so.

1. Hacking

In simple words, hacking is an act committed by an intruder by accessing your computer system without your permission. Hackers (the people doing the ‘hacking’) are basically computer programmers, who have an advanced understanding of computers and commonly misuse this knowledge for devious reasons. They’re usually technology buffs who have expert-level skills in one particular software program or language. As for motives, there could be several, but the most common are pretty simple and can be explained by a human tendancy such as greed, fame, power, etc. Some people do it purely to show-off their expertise – ranging from relatively harmless activities such as modifying software (and even hardware) to carry out tasks that are outside the creator’s intent, others just want to cause destruction.

Greed and sometimes voyeuristic tendancies may cause a hacker to break into systems to steal personal banking information, a corporation’s financial data, etc. They also try and modify systems so hat they can execute tasks at their whims. Hackers displaying such destructive conduct are also called “Crackers” at times. they are also called “Black Hat” hackers On the other hand, there are those who develop an interest in computer hacking just out of intellectual curiosity. Some companies hire these computer enthusiasts to find flaws in their security systems and help fix them. Referred to as “White Hat” hackers, these guys are against the abuse of computer systems. They attempt to break into network systems purely to alert the owners of flaws. It’s not always altruistic, though, because many do this for fame as well, in order to land jobs with top companies, or just to be termed as security experts. “Grey Hat” is another term used to refer to hacking activities that are a cross between black and white hacking.

 

Some of the most famous computer geniuses were once hackers who went on to use their skills for constructive technological development. Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson, the creators of the UNIX operating system (Linux’s predecessor), were two of them. Shawn Fanning, the developer of Napster, Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook fame, and many more are also examples. The first step towards preventing hackers from gaining access to your systems is to learn how hacking is done. Of course it is beyond the scope of this Fast Track to go into great details, but we will cover the various techniques used by hackers to get to you via the internet.

a. SQL Injections: An SQL injection is a technique that allows hackers to play upon the security vulnerabilities of the software that runs a web site. It can be used to attack any type of unprotected or improperly protected SQL database. This process involves entering portions of SQL code into a web form entry field – most commonly usernames and passwords – to give the hacker further access to the site backend, or to a particular

user’s account. When you enter logon information into sign-in fields, this information is typically converted to an SQL command. This command checks the data you’ve entered against the relevant table in the database. If your input data matches the data in the table, you’re granted access, if not, you get the kind of error you would have seen when you put in a wrong password. An SQL injection is usually an additional command that when inserted into the web form, tries to change the content of the database to reflect a successful login. It can also be used to retrieve information such as credit card numbers or passwords from unprotected sites.

b. Theft of FTP Passwords: This is another very common way to tamper with web sites. FTP password hacking takes advantage of the fact that many webmasters store their website login information on their poorly protected PCs. The thief searches the victim’s system for FTP login details, and then relays them to his own remote computer. He then logs into the web site via the remote computer and modifies the web pages as he or she pleases.

c. Cross-site scripting:

Also known as XSS (formerly CSS, but renamed due to confusion with cascading style sheets), is a very easy way of circumventing a security system. Cross-site scripting is a hard-to-find loophole in a web site, making it vulnerable to attack. In a typical XSS attack, the hacker infects a web page with a malicious client-side script or program. When you visit this web page, the script is automatically downloaded to your browser and executed. Typically, attackers inject HTML, JavaScript, VBScript, ActiveX or Flash into a vulnerable application to deceive you and gather confidential information. If you want to protect your PC from malicious hackers, investing in a good firewall should be first and foremost. Hacking is done through a network, so it’s very important to stay safe while using the internet. You’ll read more about safety tips in the last chapter of this book.

2. Virus dissemination

Viruses are computer programs that attach themselves to or infect a system or files, and have a tendency to circulate to other computers on a network. They disrupt the computer operation and affect the data stored – either by modifying it or by deleting it altogether. “Worms” unlike viruses don’t need a host to cling on to. They merely replicate until they eat up all available memory in the system. The term “worm” is sometimes used to mean selfreplicating “malware” (MALicious softWARE). These terms are often used interchangeably in the context of the hybrid viruses/worms that dominate

Although mankind’s best invention, the net is still a minefield of threats

the current virus scenario. “Trojan horses” are different from viruses in their manner of propagation.

They masquerade as a legitimate file, such as an email attachment from a supposed friend with a very believable name, and don’t disseminate themselves. The user can also unknowingly install a Trojan-infected program via drive-by downloads when visiting a website, playing online games or using internet-driven applications. A Trojan horse can cause damage similar to other viruses, such as steal information or hamper/disrupt the functioning of computer systems.

A simple diagram to show how malware can propogate

 

How does this happen? Well, the malicious code or virus is inserted into the chain of command so that when the infected program is run, the viral code is also executed (or in some cases, runs instead of the legitimate program). Viruses are usually seen as extraneous code attached to a host program, but this isn’t always the case. Sometimes, the environment is manipulated so that calling a legitimate uninfected program calls the viral program. The viral program may also be executed before any other program is run. This can virtually infect every executable file on the computer, even though none of those files’ code was actually tampered with. Viruses that follow this modus operandi include “cluster” or “FAT” (File Allocation Table) viruses, which redirect system pointers to infected files, associate viruses and viruses that modify the Windows Registry directory entries so that their own code is executed before any other legitimate program.

 

Computer viruses usually spread via removable media or the internet. A flash disk, CD-ROM, magnetic tape or other storage device that has been in an infected computer infects all future computers in which it’s used. Your computer can also contract viruses from sinister email attachments, rogue web sites or infected software. And these disseminate to every other computer on your network.

 

All computer viruses cause direct or indirect economic damages. Based on this, there are two categories of viruses:

1) Those that only disseminate and don’t cause intentional damage

2) Those which are programmed to cause damage.

However, even by disseminating, they take up plenty of memory space, and time and resources that are spent on the clean-up job. Direct economic damages are caused when viruses alter the information during digital transmission. Considerable expenses are incurred by individuals, firms and authorities for developing and implementing the anti-virus tools to protect computer systems.

3. Logic bombs

A logic bomb, also known as “slag code”, is a malicious piece of code which is intentionally inserted into software to execute a malicious task when triggered by a specific event. It’s not a virus, although it usually behaves in a similar manner. It is stealthily inserted into the program where it lies dormant until specified conditions are met. Malicious software such as viruses and worms often contain logic bombs which are triggered at a specific payload or at a predefined time. The payload of a logic bomb is unknown to the user of the software, and the task that it executes unwanted. Program codes that are scheduled to execute at a particular time are known as “time-bombs”. For example, the infamous “Friday the 13th” virus which attacked the host systems only on specific dates; it “exploded” (duplicated itself) every Friday that happened to be the thirteenth of a month, thus causing system slowdowns.

Logic bombs are usually employed by disgruntled employees working in the IT sector. You may have heard of “disgruntled employee syndrome” wherein angry employees who’ve been fired use logic bombs to delete the databases of their employers, stultify the network for a while or even do insider trading. Triggers associated with the execution of logic bombs can be a specific date and time, a missing entry from a database or not putting in a command at the usual time, meaning the person doesn’t work there anymore. Most logic bombs stay only in the network they were employed in. So in most cases, they’re an insider job. This makes them easier to design and execute than a virus. It doesn’t need to replicate; which is a more complex job. To keep your network protected from the logic bombs, you need constant monitoring of the data and efficient anti-virus software on each of the computers in the network.

 

There’s another use for the type of action carried out in a logic bomb “explosion” – to make restricted software trials. The embedded piece of code destroys the software after a defined period of time or renders it unusable until the user pays for its further use. Although this piece of code uses the same technique as a logic bomb, it has a non-destructive, non-malicious and user-transparent use, and is not typically referred to as one.

4. Denial-of-Service attack

A Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack is an explicit attempt by attackers to deny service to intended users of that service. It involves flooding a computer resource with more requests than it can handle consuming its available bandwidth which results in server overload. This causes the resource (e.g. a web server) to crash or slow down significantly so that no one can access it. Using this technique, the attacker can render a web site inoperable by sending massive amounts of traffic to the targeted site. A site may temporarily malfunction or crash completely, in any case resulting in inability of the system to communicate adequately. DoS attacks violate the acceptable use policies of virtually all internet service providers.

Another variation to a denial-of-service attack is known as a “Distributed Denial of Service” (DDoS) attack wherein a number of geographically widespread perpetrators flood the network traffic. Denial-of-Service attacks typically target high profile web site servers belonging to banks and credit card payment gateways. Websites of companies such as Amazon, CNN, Yahoo, Twitter and eBay! are not spared either.

5. Phishing

This a technique of extracting confidential information such as credit card numbers and username password combos by masquerading as a legitimate enterprise. Phishing is typically carried out by email spoofing. You’ve probably received email containing links to legitimate appearing websites. You probably found it suspicious and didn’t click the link. Smart move.

How phishing can net some really interesting catches

The malware would have installed itself on your computer and stolen private information. Cyber-criminals use social engineering to trick you into downloading malware off the internet or make you fill in your personal information under false pretenses. A phishing scam in an email message can be evaded by keeping certain things in mind.

 

  • Look for spelling mistakes in the text. Cyber-criminals are not known for their grammar and spelling.

  • Hover your cursor over the hyperlinked URL but don’t click. Check if the address matches with the one written in the message.

  • Watch out for fake threats. Did you receive a message saying “Your email account will be closed if you don’t reply to this email”? They might trick you by threatening that your security has been compromised.

  • Attackers use the names and logos of well-known web sites to deceive you. The graphics and the web addresses used in the email are strikingly similar to the legitimate ones, but they lead you to phony sites.

 

Not all phishing is done via email or web sites. Vishing (voice phishing) involves calls to victims using fake identity fooling you into considering the call to be from a trusted organisation. They may claim to be from a bank asking you to dial a number (provided by VoIP service and owned by attacker) and enter your account details. Once you do that, your account security is compromised. Treat all unsolicited phone calls with skepticism and never provide any personal information. Many banks have issued preemptive warnings informing their users of phishing scams and the do’s and don’ts regarding your account information. Those of you reading Digit for long enough will remember that we successfully phished hundreds of our readers by reporting a way to hack other people’s gmail accounts by sending an email to a made up account with your own username and password… and we did that years ago in a story about , yes, you guessed it, phishing!

6. Email bombing and spamming

Email bombing is characterised by an abuser sending huge volumes of email to a target address resulting in victim’s email account or mail servers crashing. The message is meaningless and excessively long in order to consume network resources. If multiple accounts of a mail server are targeted, it may have a denial-of-service impact. Such mail arriving frequently in your inbox can be easily detected by spam filters. Email bombing is commonly carried out using botnets (private internet connected computers whose security has been compromised by malware and under the attacker’s control) as a DDoS attack.

This type of attack is more difficult to control due to multiple source addresses and the bots which are programmed to send different messages to defeat spam filters. “Spamming” is a variant of email bombing. Here unsolicited bulk messages are sent to a large number of users, indiscriminately. Opening links given in spam mails may lead you to phishing web sites hosting malware. Spam mail may also have infected files as attachments. Email spamming worsens when the recipient replies to the email causing all the original addressees to receive the reply. Spammers collect email addresses from customer lists, newsgroups, chat-rooms, web sites and viruses which harvest users’ address books, and sell them to other spammers as well. A large amount of spam is sent to invalid email addresses.

Email filters cleaning out spam mail

Sending spam violates the acceptable use policy (AUP) of almost all internet service providers. If your system suddenly becomes sluggish (email loads slowly or doesn’t appear to be sent or received), the reason may be that your mailer is processing a large number of messages. Unfortunately, at this time, there’s no way to completely prevent email bombing and spam mails as it’s impossible to predict the origin of the next attack. However, what you can do is identify the source of the spam mails and have your router configured to block any incoming packets from that address.

7. Web jacking

Web jacking derives its name from “hijacking”. Here, the hacker takes control of a web site fraudulently. He may change the content of the original site or even redirect the user to another fake similar looking page controlled by him. The owner of the web site has no more control and the attacker may use the web site for his own selfish interests. Cases have been reported where the attacker has asked for ransom, and even posted obscene material on the site.

The web jacking method attack may be used to create a clone of the web site, and present the victim with the new link saying that the site has moved. Unlike usual phishing methods, when you hover your cursor over the link provided, the URL presented will be the original one, and not the attacker’s site. But when you click on the new link, it opens and is quickly replaced with the malicious web server. The name on the address bar will be slightly different from the original website that can trick the user into thinking it’s a legitimate site. For example, “gmail” may direct you to “gmai1”. Notice the one in place of ‘L’. It can be easily overlooked.

Obviously not mlbjerseyschina.us, but still enough people click

 

Web jacking can also be done by sending a counterfeit message to the registrar controlling the domain name registration, under a false identity asking him to connect a domain name to the webjacker’s IP address, thus sending unsuspecting consumers who enter that particular domain name to a website controlled by the webjacker. The purpose of this attack is to try to harvest the credentials, usernames, passwords and account numbers of users by using a fake web page with a valid link which opens when the user is redirected to it after opening the legitimate site.

8. Cyber stalking

Cyber stalking is a new form of internet crime in our society when a person is pursued or followed online. A cyber stalker doesn’t physically follow his victim; he does it virtually by following his online activity to harvest information about the stalkee and harass him or her and make threats using verbal intimidation. It’s an invasion of one’s online privacy.

Cyber stalking uses the internet or any other electronic means and is different from offline stalking, but is usually accompanied by it. Most victims of this crime are women who are stalked by men and children who are stalked by adult predators and pedophiles. Cyber stalkers thrive on inexperienced web users who are not well aware of netiquette and the rules of internet safety. A cyber stalker may be a stranger, but could just as easily be someone you know.

 

Cyber stalkers harass their victims via email, chat rooms, web sites, discussion forums and open publishing web sites (e.g. blogs). The availability of free email / web site space and the anonymity provided by chat rooms and forums has contributed to the increase of cyber stalking incidents. Everyone has an online presence nowadays, and it’s really easy to do a Google search and get one’s name, alias, contact number and address, contributing to the menace that is cyber stalking. As the internet is increasingly becoming an integral part of our personal and professional lives, stalkers can take advantage of the ease of communications and the availability of personal information only a few mouse clicks away. In addition, the anonymous and non-confrontational nature of internet communications further tosses away any disincentives in the way of cyber stalking. Cyber stalking is done in two primary ways:

 

  • Internet Stalking: Here the stalker harasses the victim via the internet. Unsolicited email is the most common way of threatening someone, and the stalker may even send obscene content and viruses by email. However, viruses and unsolicited telemarketing email alone do not constitute cyber stalking. But if email is sent repeatedly in an attempt to intimidate the recipient, they may be considered as stalking. Internet stalking is not limited to email; stalkers can more comprehensively use the internet to harass the victims. Any other cyber-crime that we’ve already read about, if done with an intention to threaten, harass, or slander the victim may amount to cyber stalking.

 

  • Computer Stalking: The more technologically advanced stalkers apply their computer skills to assist them with the crime. They gain unauthorised control of the victim’s computer by exploiting the working of the internet and the Windows operating system. Though this is usually done by proficient and computer savvy stalkers, instructions on how to accomplish this are easily available on the internet.

 

Cyber stalking has now spread its wings to social networking. With the increased use of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and YouTube, your profile, photos, and status updates are up for the world to see. Your online presence provides enough information for you to become a potential victim of stalking without even being aware of the risk. With the “check-ins”, the “life-events”, apps which access your personal information and the need to put up just about everything that you’re doing and where you’re doing it, one doesn’t really leave anything for the stalkers to figure out for themselves. Social networking technology provides a social and collaborative platform for internet users to interact, express their thoughts and share almost everything about their lives. Though it promotes socialisation amongst people, along the way it contributes to the rise of internet violations.

9. Data diddling

Data Diddling is unauthorised altering of data before or during entry into a computer system, and then changing it back after processing is done. Using this technique, the attacker may modify the expected output and is difficult to track. In other words, the original information to be entered is changed, either by a person typing in the data, a virus that’s programmed to change the data, the programmer of the database or application, or anyone else involved in the process of creating, recording, encoding, examining, checking, converting or transmitting data.

This is one of the simplest methods of committing a computer-related crime, because even a computer amateur can do it. Despite this being an effortless task, it can have detrimental effects. For example, a person responsible for accounting may change data about themselves or a friend or relative showing that they’re paid in full. By altering or failing to enter the information, they’re able to steal from the enterprise. Other examples include forging or counterfeiting documents and exchanging valid computer tapes or cards with prepared replacements. Electricity boards in India have been victims of data diddling by computer criminals when private parties were computerizing their systems.

Identity Theft and Credit Card Fraud

Identity theft occurs when someone steals your identity and pretends to be you to access resources such as credit cards, bank accounts and other benefits in your name. The imposter may also use your identity to commit other crimes. “Credit card fraud” is a wide ranging term for crimes involving identity theft where the criminal uses your credit card to fund his transactions. Credit card fraud is identity theft in its simplest form. The most common case of credit card fraud is your pre-approved card falling into someone else’s hands.

Credit card fraud is the most common way for hackers to steal yoiur money

He can use it to buy anything until you report to the authorities and get your card blocked. The only security measure on credit card purchases is the signature on the receipt but that can very easily be forged. However, in some countries the merchant may even ask you for an ID or a PIN. Some credit card companies have software to estimate the probability of fraud. If an unusually large transaction is made, the issuer may even call you to verify.

 

Often people forget to collect their copy of the credit card receipt after eating at restaurants or elsewhere when they pay by credit card. These receipts have your credit card number and your signature for anyone to see and use. With only this information, someone can make purchases online or by phone. You won’t notice it until you get your monthly statement, which is why you should carefully study your statements. Make sure the website is trustworthy and secure when shopping online. Some hackers may get a hold of your credit card number by employing phishing techniques. Sometimes a tiny padlock icon appears on the left screen corner of the address bar on your browser which provides a higher level of security for data transmission. If you click on it, it will also tell you the encryption software it uses.

 

A more serious concern is the use of your personal information with the help of stolen or fake documents to open accounts (or even worse, using your existing account) to take a loan in your name. These unscrupulous people can collect your personal details from your mailbox or trash can (remember to shred all sensitive documents). Think of all the important details printed on those receipts, pay stubs and other documents. You won’t know a thing until the credit card people track you down and tail you until you clear all your dues. Then for months and months you’ll be fighting to get your credit restored and your name cleared.

 

With rising cases of credit card fraud, many financial institutions have stepped in with software solutions to monitor your credit and guard your identity. ID theft insurance can be taken to recover lost wages and restore your credit. But before you spend a fortune on these services, apply the no-cost, common sense measures to avert such a crime.

Salami slicing attack

A “salami slicing attack” or “salami fraud” is a technique by which cyber-criminals steal money or resources a bit at a time so that there’s no noticeable difference in overall size. The perpetrator gets away with these little pieces from a large number of resources and thus accumulates a considerable amount over a period of time. The essence of this method is the failure to detect the misappropriation. The most classic approach is “collect-the-roundoff” technique. Most calculations are carried out in a particular currency are rounded off up to the nearest number about half the time and down the rest of the time. If a programmer decides to collect these excess fractions of rupees to a separate account, no net loss to the system seems apparent. This is done by carefully transferring the funds into the perpetrator’s account.

Attackers insert a program into the system to automatically carry out the task. Logic bombs may also be employed by unsatisfied greedy employees who exploit their know-how of the network and/or privileged access to the system. In this technique, the criminal programs the arithmetic calculators to automatically modify data, such as in interest calculations.

 

Stealing money electronically is the most common use of the salami slicing technique, but it’s not restricted to money laundering. The salami technique can also be applied to gather little bits of information over a period of time to deduce an overall picture of an organisation. This act of distributed information gathering may be against an individual or an organisation. Data can be collected from web sites, advertisements, documents collected from trash cans, and the like, gradually building up a whole database of factual

intelligence about the target.

 

Since the amount of misappropriation is just below the threshold of perception, we need to be more vigilant. Careful examination of our assets, transactions and every other dealing including sharing of confidential information with others might help reduce the chances of an attack by this method.

Software Piracy

Thanks to the internet and torrents, you can find almost any movie, software or song from any origin for free. Internet piracy is an integral part of our lives which knowingly or unknowingly we all contribute to. This way, the profits of the resource developers are being cut down. It’s not just about using someone else’s intellectual property illegally but also passing it on to your friends further reducing the revenue they deserve.

Piracy is rampant in India, but you knew that

Software piracy is the unauthorised use and distribution of computer software. Software developers work hard to develop these programs, and piracy curbs their ability to generate enoughrevenue to sustain application development. This affects the whole global economy as funds are relayed from other sectors which results in less investment in marketing and research.

The following constitute software piracy:

 

  • Loading unlicensed software on your PC

  • Using single-licensed software on multiple computers

  • Using a key generator to circumvent copy protection

  • Distributing a licensed or unlicensed (“cracked”) version of software over the internet and offline

 

“Cloning” is another threat. It happens when someone copies the idea behind your software and writes his own code. Since ideas are not copy protected across borders all the time, this isn’t strictly illegal. A software “crack” is an illegally obtained version of the software which works its way around the encoded copy prevention. Users of pirated software may use a key generator to generate a “serial” number which unlocks an evaluation version of the software, thus defeating the copy protection. Software cracking and using unauthorised keys are illegal acts of copyright infringement.

 

Using pirated material comes with its own risks. The pirated software may contain Trojans, viruses, worms and other malware, since pirates will often infect software with malicious code. Users of pirated software may be punished by the law for illegal use of copyrighted material. Plus you won’t get the software support that is provided by the developers.

To protect your software from piracy if you’re a developer, you should apply strong safeguards. Some websites sell software with a “digital fingerprint” that helps in tracing back the pirated copies to the source. Another common method is hardware locking. Using this, the software license is locked to a specific computer hardware, such that it runs only on that computer. Unfortunately, hackers continue to find their way around these measures.

Others

So far we’ve discussed the dedicated methods of committing cyber crimes. In a nutshell, any offence committed using electronic means such as net extortion, cyber bullying, child pornography and internet fraud is termed as cyber crime. The internet is a huge breeding ground for pornography, which has often been subject to censorship on grounds of obscenity. But what may be considered obscene in India, might not be considered so in other countries.

Since every country has a different legal stand on this subject matter, pornography is rampant online. However, according to the Indian Constitution, largely, pornography falls under the category of obscenity and is punishable by law. Child pornography is a serious offence, and can attract the harshest punishments provided for by law.  Pedophiles lurk in chat rooms to lure children. The internet allows long-term victimisation of such children, because the pictures once put up, spread like wild-fire, and may never get taken down completely. Internet crimes against children are a matter of grave concern, and are being addressed by the authorities, but this problem has no easy solution.

 

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Zodiac Killer

Pseudonym of a serial killer in California

For the New York City Zodiac copycat, see Heriberto Seda. For the Japanese Zodiac copycat, see Kobe child murders.

The Zodiac Killer, or simply Zodiac or the Zodiac, is the pseudonym of a serial killer[1] who operated in Northern California in the late s.[n 1] The case has been described as the most famous unsolved murder case in American history[2] and has become a fixture of popular culture, inspiring amateur detectives to attempt to resolve it and entertainment such as films, television, novels, and video games.

The Zodiac murdered five known victims in the San Francisco Bay Area between December and October , operating in rural, urban and suburban settings. He targeted young couples and a lone male cab driver, and his known attacks took place in Benicia, Vallejo, unincorporated Napa County, and the city of San Francisco proper. Two of his attempted victims survived. The Zodiac himself claimed to have murdered 37 victims, and he has been linked to several other cold cases, some in Southern California or outside the state.

The Zodiac originated the name himself in a series of taunting letters and cards that he mailed to regional newspapers, threatening killing sprees and bombings if they were not printed. Some of the letters included cryptograms, or ciphers, in which the killer claimed that he was collecting his victims as slaves for the afterlife. Of the four ciphers he produced, two remain unsolved, and one took 51 years to crack. While many theories regarding the identity of the killer have been suggested, the only suspect authorities ever publicly named was Arthur Leigh Allen,[3] a former elementary school teacher and convicted sex offender who died in

Although the Zodiac ceased written communications around , the unusual nature of the case led to international interest that has sustained throughout the years.[4] The San Francisco Police Department marked the case "inactive" in April , but re-opened it at some point prior to March [5][6] The case also remains open in the city of Vallejo, as well as in Napa County and Solano County.[7] The California Department of Justice has maintained an open case file on the Zodiac murders since [8]

Murders and correspondence

Confirmed murders

Although the Zodiac claimed to have committed 37 murders in letters to the newspapers, investigators agree on only seven confirmed victims, two of whom survived. They are:

  • David Arthur Faraday, 17, and Betty Lou Jensen, shot and killed on December 20, , on Lake Herman Road, within the city limits of Benicia.
  • Michael Renault Mageau, 19, and Darlene Elizabeth Ferrin, shot on July 4, , in the parking lot of Blue Rock Springs Park in Vallejo. While Mageau survived the attack, Ferrin was pronounced dead on arrival at Kaiser Foundation Hospital.
  • Bryan Calvin Hartnell, 20, and Cecelia Ann Shepard, stabbed on September 27, , at Lake Berryessa in Napa County. Hartnell survived eight stab wounds to the back, but Shepard died as a result of her injuries on September 29,
  • Paul Lee Stine, shot and killed on October 11, , in the Presidio Heights neighborhood in San Francisco.

Lake Herman Road murders

David Arthur Faraday and Betty Lou Jensen

The first murders widely attributed to the Zodiac Killer were the shootings of high school students Betty Lou Jensen and David Arthur Faraday on December 20, on Lake Herman Road, just inside Benicia city limits. The couple were on their first date and planned to attend a Christmas concert at Hogan High School, about three blocks from Jensen's home. They instead visited a friend before stopping at a local restaurant and then driving out on Lake Herman Road. At about &#;p.m., Faraday parked his mother's Rambler in a gravel turnout, which was a well-known lovers' lane. Shortly after &#;p.m., their bodies were found by Stella Borges, who lived nearby. The Solano County Sheriff's Department investigated the crime but no leads developed.[9]

Utilizing available forensic data, Robert Graysmith postulated that another car pulled into the turnout just prior to &#;p.m. and parked beside the couple. The killer may have then exited the second car and walked toward the Rambler, possibly ordering the couple out of it. It appeared that Jensen had exited the car first, but when Faraday was halfway out, the killer shot him in the head. The killer then shot Jensen five times in the back as she fled; her body was found 28 feet from the car. The killer then drove off.[10]

Blue Rock Springs murder

Just before midnight on July 4, , Darlene Ferrin and Michael Mageau drove into the Blue Rock Springs Park in Vallejo, four miles (&#;km) from the Lake Herman Road murder site, and parked. While the couple sat in Ferrin's car, a second car drove into the lot and parked alongside them but almost immediately drove away. Returning about 10 minutes later, this second car parked behind them. The driver of the second car then exited the vehicle, approaching the passenger side door of Ferrin's car, carrying a flashlight and a 9&#;mm Luger. The killer directed the flashlight into Mageau's and Ferrin's eyes before shooting at them, firing five times. Both victims were hit, and several bullets had passed through Mageau and into Ferrin. The killer walked away from the car but upon hearing Mageau's moaning, returned and shot each victim twice more before driving off.[11]

On July 5, , at &#;a.m., a man phoned the Vallejo Police Department to report and claim responsibility for the attack. The caller also took credit for the murders of Jensen and Faraday six and a half months earlier. Police traced the call to a phone booth at a gas station at Springs Road and Tuolumne, located about three-tenths of a mile (&#;m) from Ferrin's home and only a few blocks from the Vallejo Police Department.[12] Ferrin was pronounced dead at the hospital. Mageau survived the attack despite being shot in the face, neck and chest.[13] Mageau described his attacker as a toyear-old, topound (88 to 91&#;kg) or possibly even more, 5-footinch (&#;m) white male with short, light brown curly hair.

First letters from the Zodiac

"I like killing people because it is so much fun it is more fun than killing wild game in the forrest because man is the most dangeroue anamal of all to kill something gives me the most thrilling experence it is even better than getting your rocks off with a girl the best part of it is thae when I die I will be reborn in paradice and all the I have killed will become my slaves I will not give you my name because you will try to sloi down or atop my collectiog of slaves for my afterlife ebeorietemethhpiti"

—The solution to Zodiac's symbol cipher, solved in August , including faithful transliterations of spelling and grammar errors in the original. The meaning, if any, of the final eighteen letters has not been determined.[n 2][14]

On August 1, , three letters prepared by the killer were received at the Vallejo Times Herald, the San Francisco Chronicle, and The San Francisco Examiner. The nearly identical letters, subsequently described by a psychiatrist to have been written by "someone you would expect to be brooding and isolated",[15] took credit for the shootings at Lake Herman Road and Blue Rock Springs. Each letter also included one-third of a symbol cryptogram which the killer claimed contained his identity. The killer demanded they be printed on each paper's front page or he would "cruse [sic] around all weekend killing lone people in the night then move on to kill again, until I end up with a dozen people over the weekend".[16]

The Chronicle published its third of the cryptogram on page four of the next day's edition. An article printed alongside the code quoted Vallejo Police Chief Jack E. Stiltz as saying "We're not satisfied that the letter was written by the murderer" and requested the writer send a second letter with more facts to prove his identity.[17] The threatened murders did not happen, and all three parts were eventually published.

On August 7, , another letter was received at The San Francisco Examiner with the salutation "Dear Editor This is the Zodiac speaking." This was the first time the killer had used this name for identification. The letter was a response to Chief Stiltz's request for more details that would prove he had killed Faraday, Jensen and Ferrin. In it, the Zodiac included details about the murders that had not yet been released to the public, as well as a message to the police that when they cracked his code "they will have me".[18]

On August 8, , Donald and Bettye Harden of Salinas, California cracked the symbol cryptogram. It contained a misspelled message in which the killer seemed to reference "The Most Dangerous Game". The author also said that he was collecting slaves for his afterlife.[n 3] No name appears in this decoded text, and the killer said that he would not give away his identity because it would slow down or stop his slave collection.[14]

Lake Berryessa murder

Photo of Bryan Hartnell's car door, onto which the Zodiac Killer wrote details of his attack upon Hartnell and Cecelia Shepard

On September 27, , Pacific Union College students Bryan Hartnell and Cecelia Shepard were picnicking at Lake Berryessa on a small island connected by a sand spit to Twin Oak Ridge. A white man, about 5&#;feet 11&#;inches (&#;m) weighing more than pounds (77&#;kg), approached them wearing a black executioner's-type hood with clip-on sunglasses over the eye-holes and a bib-like device on his chest that had a white three-by-three-inch (&#;cm ×&#;&#;cm) cross-circle symbol on it. He approached them with a gun, which Hartnell believed to be a The hooded man claimed to be an escaped convict from a jail with a two-word name, in either Colorado or Montana (a police officer later inferred that the man had been referring to a jail in Deer Lodge, Montana), where he had killed a guard and subsequently stolen a car, explaining that he now needed their car and money to travel to Mexico because the vehicle that he had been driving was "too hot".[20]

The killer had brought precut lengths of plastic clothesline and told Shepard to tie up Hartnell before he tied her up. The killer checked, and tightened Hartnell's bonds after discovering that Shepard had bound Hartnell's hands loosely. Hartnell initially believed this event to be a bizarre robbery, but the man drew a knife and stabbed them both repeatedly, Hartnell suffering six and Shepard ten wounds in the process.[21][22] The killer then hiked yards (&#;m) back up to Knoxville Road, drew the cross-circle symbol on Hartnell's car door with a black felt-tip pen, and wrote beneath it:[23][24]

Vallejo


Sept 27–69–
by knife[23][24]

At &#;p.m., the killer called the Napa County Sheriff's office from a pay telephone to report this latest crime. The caller first stated to the operator that he wished to "report a murder – no, a double murder,"[25] before stating that he had been the perpetrator of the crime. The phone was found, still off the hook, minutes later at the Napa Car Wash on Main Street in Napa by KVON radio reporter Pat Stanley, only a few blocks from the sheriff's office, yet 27 miles (43&#;km) from the crime scene. Detectives were able to lift a still-wet palm print from the telephone but were never able to match it to any suspect.[26]

After hearing the victims' screams for help, a man and his son who were fishing in a nearby cove discovered the victims and summoned help by contacting park rangers. Napa County Sheriff's deputies Dave Collins and Ray Land were the first law enforcement officers to arrive at the crime scene.[27] Shepard was conscious when Collins arrived, providing him with a detailed description of the attacker. Hartnell and Shepard were taken to Queen of the Valley Hospital in Napa by ambulance. Shepard lapsed into a coma during transport and never regained consciousness. She died two days later, but Hartnell survived to recount his tale to the press.[28][29] Napa County detective Ken Narlow, who was assigned to the case from the outset, worked on solving the crime until his retirement from the department in [30]

Presidio Heights murder

San Francisco from the Presidio,

Two weeks later, on October 11, , a white male passenger entered the cab driven by Paul Stine at the intersection of Mason and Geary Streets (one block west from Union Square) in San Francisco, requesting to be driven to Washington and Maple Streets in Presidio Heights. For reasons unknown, Stine drove one block past Maple to Cherry Street. The passenger then shot Stine once in the head with a 9&#;mm handgun, took Stine's wallet and car keys, and tore away a section of Stine's bloodstained shirt tail. The perpetrator was observed by three teenagers across the street at &#;p.m., and they phoned the police while the crime was in progress. They observed a man wiping the cab down before walking away toward the Presidio, one block to the north.[31] Two blocks from the crime scene, patrol officers Don Fouke and Eric Zelms, responding to the call, observed a white man walking along the sidewalk east on Jackson Street and stepping onto a stairway leading up to the front yard of one of the homes on the north side of the street; the encounter lasted only five to ten seconds.[32]

Fouke estimated the white male pedestrian to be 35 to 45 years old, 5'10" tall with a crew cut, similar to but slightly older than the description provided by the teenagers who observed the killer in and out of Stine's cab. The teenagers described the suspect to be 25 to 30 years old with a crew cut and standing approximately 5&#;feet 8&#;inches (&#;m) to 5&#;feet 9&#;inches (&#;m) tall. However, the police radio dispatcher had alerted officers to look out for a black suspect, so Fouke and Zelms drove past the perpetrator without stopping; the mixup in descriptions remains unexplained. A search ensued, but no suspects were found. This was the last officially confirmed murder by the Zodiac Killer.

The Stine murder was initially believed to be a routine robbery that had escalated into homicidal violence. However, on October 13, the San Francisco Chronicle received a new letter from Zodiac that claimed credit for the killing and contained a torn section of Stine's bloody shirt to "prove this" fact.[33] The three teen witnesses worked with a police artist to prepare a composite sketch of Stine's killer; a few days later, this police artist returned, working with the witnesses to prepare a second composite sketch. Detectives Bill Armstrong and Dave Toschi were assigned to the case.[n 4] The San Francisco Police Department investigated an estimated 2, suspects over a period of years.[35]

mailings and breakthrough

"I hope you are having lots of fan in trying to catch me that wasnt me on the tv show which bringo up a point about me I am not afraid of the gas chamber becaase it will send me to paradlce all the sooher because e now have enough slaves to worv for me where every one else has nothing when they reach paradice so they are afraid of death I am not afraid because i vnow that my new life is life will be an easy one in paradice death"

—The solution to Zodiac's symbol cipher, solved in December , including faithful transliterations of spelling and grammar errors in the original.[n 5][36][37]

On October 14, , the Chronicle received another letter from the Zodiac, this time containing a swatch of Paul Stine's shirt tail as proof he was the killer; it also included a threat about killing schoolchildren on a school bus. To do this, Zodiac wrote, "just shoot out the front tire & then pick off the kiddies as they come bouncing out". At &#;p.m. on October 20, , someone claiming to be the Zodiac called the Oakland Police Department (OPD), demanding that one of two prominent lawyers, F. Lee Bailey or Melvin Belli, appear on A.M. San Francisco, a talk show on KGO-TV hosted by Jim Dunbar. Bailey was not available, but Belli did appear on the show. Dunbar appealed to the viewers to keep the lines open. Someone claiming to be the Zodiac called several times, and Belli asked the caller for a less ominous name and the caller picked "Sam". The caller said he would not reveal his true identity as he was afraid of being sent to the gas chamber (then California's capital punishment method). Belli arranged a rendezvous to meet the caller outside a shop on Mission Street in Daly City, but no one arrived. The call was later traced back to a patient in a mental institution, and investigators concluded that the man was not the Zodiac.[38]

On November 8, , the Zodiac mailed a card with another cryptogram consisting of characters.[39] This cipher, dubbed "Z", remained unsolved for over 51 years. On December 5, , it was deciphered by an international team of private citizens, including American software engineer David Oranchak, Australian mathematician Sam Blake and Belgian programmer Jarl Van Eycke. In the decrypted message, the Zodiac denied being the "Sam" who spoke on A.M. San Francisco, explaining that he was not afraid of the gas chamber "because it will send me to paradice [sic] all the sooner".[40] The team submitted their findings to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which verified the discovery.[40] The FBI stated that the decoded message gave no further clues to the identity of Zodiac.[41][42]

On November 9, , the Zodiac mailed a seven-page letter stating that two policemen stopped and actually spoke with him three minutes after he shot Stine. Excerpts from the letter were published in the Chronicle on November 12, including the Zodiac's claim;[43][44] that same day, Officer Don Fouke wrote a memo explaining what had happened on the night of Stine's murder. On December 20, , exactly one year after the murders of David Faraday and Betty Lou Jensen, the Zodiac mailed a letter to Belli that included another swatch of Stine's shirt; the Zodiac said that he wanted Belli to help him.[45]

Public speculation and Zodiac claims

Various authors speculated at the time of the killings that other murders and attacks may have been the work of the Zodiac, but none have been confirmed:

  • Robert George Domingos, 18, and Linda Faye Edwards, shot and killed on June 4, on a beach near Gaviota. There are some specific similarities between their attack and the Zodiac's attack at Lake Berryessa five years later.
  • Cheri Jo Bates, stabbed to death and nearly decapitated on October 30, , at Riverside City College in Riverside. Bates's possible connection to the Zodiac only appeared four years after her murder when San Francisco Chronicle reporter Paul Avery received a tip regarding similarities between the Zodiac killings and the circumstances surrounding Bates's death.[46]
  • Donna Ann Lass, last seen September 6, in Stateline, Nevada. A postcard bearing an advertisement for Forest Pines condominiums (near Incline Village at Lake Tahoe) pasted on the back was received at the Chronicle on March 22, No evidence has been uncovered to connect Lass's disappearance with the Zodiac Killer.[47]
  • Kathleen Johns, allegedly abducted on March 22, on Highway near I, in an area west of Modesto. Johns escaped from the car of a man who drove her and her infant daughter around the area between Stockton and Patterson for approximately 1½ hours.[48]

Kathleen Johns' report

On the night of March 22, , Kathleen Johns was driving from San Bernardino to Petaluma to visit her mother. She was seven months pregnant and had her month-old daughter beside her.[49] While heading west on Highway near Modesto, a car behind her began honking its horn and flashing its headlights. She pulled off the road and stopped. The man in the car parked behind her, approached her car, stated that he observed that her right rear wheel was wobbling, and offered to tighten the lug nuts. After finishing his work, the man drove off; yet when Johns pulled forward to re-enter the highway the wheel almost immediately came off the car. The man returned, offering to drive her to the nearest gas station for help. She and her daughter climbed into his car.

During the ride, the car passed several service stations, but the man did not stop. For about 90 minutes, he drove back and forth around the back roads near Tracy. When Johns asked why he was not stopping, he would change the subject. When the driver finally stopped at an intersection, Johns jumped out with her daughter and hid in a field. The driver searched for her using a flashlight, telling her that he would not hurt her, before eventually giving up. Unable to find her, he got back into the car and drove off. Johns hitched a ride to the police station in Patterson.[48]

When Johns gave her statement to the sergeant on duty, she noticed the police composite sketch of Paul Stine's killer and recognized him as the man who had abducted her and her child.[50] Fearing that he might return to kill them all, the sergeant had Johns wait in the dark at nearby Mil's Restaurant. When her car was found, it had been gutted and torched.[50]

Most accounts say that the man threatened to kill Johns and her daughter while driving them around,[51] but at least one police report disputes that.[48] Johns's account to Paul Avery of the Chronicle indicates that her abductor left his car and searched for her in the dark with a flashlight;[52] however, in one report she made to the police, she stated that he did not leave the vehicle.[48][original research?]

Further Zodiac communications

The crosshair-like symbol with which the Zodiac signed his letters

Zodiac continued to communicate with authorities for the remainder of via letters and greeting cards to the press. In a letter postmarked April 20, , the Zodiac wrote, "My name is _____," followed by a character cipher that hasn't been solved to this day.[53] The Zodiac went on to state that he was not responsible for the recent bombing of a police station in San Francisco (referring to the February 18, , death of Sgt. Brian McDonnell two days after the bombing at Park Station in Golden Gate Park)[54] but added "there is more glory to killing a cop than a cid [sic] because a cop can shoot back." The letter included a diagram of a bomb the Zodiac claimed that he would use to blow up a school bus. At the bottom of the diagram, he wrote: "Zodiac Killer mlbjerseyschina.us = 10, SFPD = 0."[55]

Zodiac sent a greeting card postmarked April 28, to the Chronicle. Written on the card was "I hope you enjoy yourselves when I have my BLAST," followed by the Zodiac's cross-circle signature. On the back of the card, the Zodiac threatened to use the bus bomb soon unless the newspaper published the full details that he had written. He also wanted to start seeing people wearing "some nice Zodiac butons [sic]".[56]

In a letter postmarked June 26, , the Zodiac stated that he was upset that he did not see people wearing Zodiac buttons. He wrote, "I shot a man sitting in a parked car with a "[57] The Zodiac was possibly referring to the murder of year-old Sgt. Richard Radetich one week earlier. At &#;a.m. on June 19, Radetich was writing a parking ticket in his squad car when an assailant unrelated to the traffic violation shot him in the head with a caliber pistol through the closed driver's side window.[58] Radetich died 15 hours later. The San Francisco Police Department (SFPD) denies that the Zodiac was involved; the murder remains unsolved.[54]

Included with the letter was a Phillips 66 roadmap of the San Francisco Bay area. On the image of Mount Diablo, the Zodiac had drawn a crossed circle similar to those from previous correspondence. At the top of the crossed circle, he placed a zero, a three, six, and a nine. The accompanying instructions stated that the zero was "to be set to Mag. N."[59] The letter also included a letter cipher that the killer claimed would, in conjunction with the code, lead to the location of a bomb that he had buried and set to detonate in the fall. The cipher was never decoded, and the alleged bomb was never located. The killer signed the note with "Zodiac Killer mlbjerseyschina.us - 12, SFPD - 0".

In a letter to the Chronicle postmarked July 24, , the Zodiac took credit for Kathleen Johns's abduction, four months after the incident.[60] In a July 26, letter, the Zodiac paraphrased a song from The Mikado, adding his own lyrics about making a "little list" of the ways in which he planned to torture his "slaves" in "paradice [sic]".[61] The letter was signed with a large, exaggerated crossed-circle symbol and a new score: "Zodiac Killer mlbjerseyschina.us = 13, SFPD = 0".[62] A final note at the bottom of the letter stated, "P.S. The Mt. Diablo code concerns Radians + # inches along the radians."[63] In , a close examination of the radian hint by Zodiac researcher Gareth Penn led to the discovery that a radian angle, when placed over the map per Zodiac's instructions, pointed to the locations of two Zodiac attacks.[64]

On October 7, , the Chronicle received a three-by-five inch card signed by the Zodiac with the Zodiac Killer mlbjerseyschina.us and a small cross reportedly drawn with blood. The card's message was formed by pasting words and letters from an edition of the Chronicle, and thirteen holes were punched across the card. Inspectors Armstrong and Toschi agreed that it was "highly probable" that the card had been sent by the Zodiac.[65]

Letter to Paul Avery

The Halloween card addressed to Paul Avery on October 27,

On October 27, , Chronicle reporter Paul Avery (who had been covering the Zodiac case) received a Halloween card signed with a letter 'Z' and the Zodiac's crossed-circle symbol. Handwritten inside the card was the note "Peek-a-boo, you are doomed." The threat was taken seriously and was the subject of a front-page story in the Chronicle.[46] Soon after receiving the letter, Avery received an anonymous letter alerting him to the similarities between the Zodiac's activities and the unsolved murder of Cheri Jo Bates, which had occurred four years earlier at the city college in Riverside in the Greater Los Angeles Area, more than miles (&#;km) south of San Francisco.[66] Avery reported his findings in the Chronicle on November 16,

Main article: Murder of Cheri Jo Bates

On October 30, , an year-old student at Riverside City College, Cheri Jo Bates, spent the evening at the campus library annex until it closed at &#;p.m. Neighbors reported hearing a scream around &#;p.m. Bates was found dead the next morning, a short distance from the library, between two abandoned houses slated to be demolished for campus renovations. The wires in her Volkswagen's distributor cap had been pulled out. She was brutally beaten and stabbed to death. A man's Timex watch with a torn wristband was found nearby.[67] The watch had stopped at ,[68] but police believe that the attack had occurred much earlier.[67]

A month later, on November 29, , nearly identical typewritten letters were mailed to the Riverside police and the Riverside Press-Enterprise, titled "The Confession". The author claimed responsibility for the Bates murder, providing details of the crime that were not released to the public. The author warned that Bates "is not the first and she will not be the last".[69] In December , a poem was discovered carved into the bottom side of a desktop in the Riverside City College library. Titled "Sick of living/unwilling to die", the poem's language and handwriting resembled that of the Zodiac's letters. It was signed with what were assumed to be the initials rh. During the investigation, Sherwood Morrill, California's top "questioned documents" examiner, expressed his opinion that the poem was written by the Zodiac.[70]

On April 30, , exactly six months after the Bates murder, Bates' father Joseph, the Press-Enterprise, and the Riverside police all received nearly identical letters. In handwritten scrawl, the Press-Enterprise and police copies read "Bates had to die there will be more," with a small scribble at the bottom that resembled the letter Z. Joseph Bates' copy read "She had to die there will be more," this time without the Z signature.[71] In August , the Riverside Police Department's Homicide Cold Case Unit announced that the author of the handwritten letters anonymously contacted investigators in and was identified via DNA analysis in He admitted the correspondence was a distasteful hoax and apologized, explaining that he had been a troubled teenager and wrote the letters as a means of seeking attention. Investigators confirmed that the author was not the Zodiac.[72]

On March 13, , five months after Avery's article linking the Zodiac to the Riverside murder, the Zodiac mailed a letter to the Los Angeles Times. In the letter he credited the police, instead of Avery, for discovering his "Riverside activity, but they are only finding the easy ones, there are a hell of a lot more down there".[73]

The connection between Cheri Jo Bates, Riverside and the Zodiac remains uncertain. Paul Avery and the Riverside Police Department maintain that the Bates homicide was not committed by the Zodiac, but did concede that some of the Bates letters may have been his work to claim credit falsely.[74]

Lake Tahoe disappearance

The Lake Tahoe card addressed to Paul Avery on March 22,

On March 22, , a postcard to the Chronicle, addressed to "Paul Averly" [sic] and believed to be from the Zodiac, appeared to claim responsibility for the disappearance of Donna Lass on September 6, [47] Made from a collage of advertisements and magazine lettering, it featured a scene from an advertisement for Forest Pines condominiums and the text "Sierra Club", "Sought Victim 12",[75] "peek through the pines", "pass Lake Tahoe areas", and "around in the snow". The Zodiac's crossed-circle symbol was in both the place of the usual return address and the lower-right section of the front face of the postcard.[76]

Lass was a nurse at the Sahara Tahoe hotel and casino. She worked until about &#;a.m. on September 6, ,[76] treating her last patient at &#;a.m. Later that same day, both Lass's employer and her landlord received phone calls from an unknown male falsely claiming that Lass had left town because of a family emergency.[77] Lass was never found. What appeared to be a gravesite was discovered near the Clair Tappaan Lodge in Norden, California, on Sierra Club property.[78] No evidence has been uncovered to definitively connect the Lass disappearance with the Zodiac Killer.

Santa Barbara County murders

In a Vallejo Times-Herald story appearing on November 13, ,[79] Bill Baker of the Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office postulated that the murders of a young couple in northern Santa Barbara County might have been the work of the Zodiac Killer. On June 4, , high school senior Robert Domingos and his fiancée Linda Edwards were shot dead on a beach near Lompoc, having skipped school that day for "Senior Ditch Day". Police believed that the assailant attempted to bind the victims, but when they freed themselves and attempted to flee, the killer shot them repeatedly in the back and chest with a caliber weapon. The killer then placed their bodies in a small shack and then tried, unsuccessfully, to burn the structure to the ground.[80]

Final Zodiac letter

After the Lake Tahoe card, the Zodiac remained silent for nearly three years. The Chronicle then received a letter from the Zodiac, postmarked January 29, , praising The Exorcist as "the best saterical comidy [sic] that I have ever seen". The letter included a snippet of verse from The Mikado and an unusual symbol at the bottom that has remained unexplained by researchers. Zodiac concluded the letter with a new score, "Me = 37, SFPD = 0".[81]

Later letters of suspicious authorship

Of further communications sent by the public to members of the news media, some contained similar characteristics of previous Zodiac writings. The Chronicle received a letter postmarked February 14, , informing the editor that the initials for the Symbionese Liberation Army spelled out an Old Norse word meaning "kill".[82] However, the handwriting was not authenticated as the Zodiac's.[83]

A letter to the Chronicle, postmarked May 8, , featured a complaint that the movie Badlands was "murder-glorification" and asked the paper to cut its advertisements. Signed only "A citizen", the handwriting, tone, and surface irony were all similar to earlier Zodiac communications.[84] The Chronicle subsequently received an anonymous letter postmarked July 8, , complaining of their publishing the writings of the antifeminist columnist Marco Spinelli. The letter was signed "the Red Phantom (red with rage)". The Zodiac's authorship of this letter is debated.[84]

A letter, dated April 24, , was initially deemed authentic but was declared a hoax less than three months later by three experts. Dave Toschi, the SFPD homicide detective who had worked the case since the Stine murder, was thought to have forged the letter. Author Armistead Maupin believed the letter to be similar to "fan mail" that praised the work of Toschi in the investigation, which he received in ; he believed both letters were written by Toschi. While he admitted to writing the fan mail, Toschi denied forging the Zodiac letter and was eventually cleared of any charges. The authenticity of this letter remains unverified.

On March 3, , an American GreetingsChristmas card sent to the Chronicle, postmarked in Eureka, was re-discovered in their photo files by editorial assistant Daniel King. This letter was handed over to the Vallejo police.[85] Inside the envelope, with the card, was a photocopy of two U.S. Postal keys on a magnet keychain. The handwriting on the envelope resembles Zodiac's print but was declared inauthentic by forensic document examiner Lloyd Cunningham; however, not all Zodiac experts agree with Cunningham's analysis.[86] There is no return address on the envelope nor is his crossed-circle signature to be found. The card itself is unmarked. The Chronicle turned over all the material to the Vallejo Police Department for further analysis.

21st century developments

In April , the SFPD marked the case "inactive", citing caseload pressure and resource demands, effectively closing the case.[87][88] However, they re-opened their case sometime before March [6][89] The case is open in Napa County[90] and in the city of Riverside.[91]

In February , local historian Kristi Hawthorne put forth the idea that the Zodiac may have murdered cab driver Ray Davis in April in Oceanside, California. On 9 April , the day before the murder, an individual believed to be the culprit had phoned the Oceanside Police Department and told them “I am going to pull something here in Oceanside and you’ll never be able to figure it out”. A few days after the murder, the police received another call from who is presumed to be the same individual, in which he told police details of the murder and said he would kill a bus driver next. Following Hawthorne's research Oceanside police announced that they were "looking into" possible connections between the murder and the Zodiac.[92][93][94][95]

In May , the Vallejo Police Department announced their intention to attempt to collect the Zodiac Killer's DNA from the back of stamps he used during his correspondence. The analysis, by a private laboratory, was expected to check the DNA against GEDmatch.[96][97] It was hoped the Zodiac Killer may be caught in a similar fashion to the "Golden State Killer" Joseph James DeAngelo. In May , a Vallejo police detective said that results were expected in several weeks. However, as of September , no results have been reported.[98][99][]

In October , the Case Breakers, a team of over 40 cold case investigators composed of former law enforcement investigators, military intelligence officers, and journalists, claimed to have identified the Zodiac Killer as Gary Francis Poste, who died in The team claimed to have uncovered forensic evidence and photos from Poste's darkroom, and noted that scars on Poste's forehead matched those they said were described on the killer. They also claimed that removing the letters of Poste's name from one of Zodiac's cryptograms revealed an alternate message.[] The FBI subsequently stated that the case remained open and that there is "no new information to report," while local law enforcement expressed skepticism of the team's findings to the Chronicle.[] Riverside police officer Ryan Railsback said the Case Breakers' claims largely relied on circumstantial evidence,[3][] and author Tom Voigt, a Zodiac Killer investigator, called the claims "bullshit." Voigt noted that no witnesses in the case described Zodiac as having scars on his forehead.[]

Arthur Leigh Allen

Robert Graysmith's book Zodiac advanced Arthur Leigh Allen, who died in , as a potential suspect based on circumstantial evidence. Allen had been interviewed by police from the early days of the Zodiac investigations and was the subject of several search warrants over a year period. In , Graysmith noted that several police detectives described Allen as the most likely suspect.[] In , Dave Toschi stated that all the evidence against Allen ultimately "turned out to be negative".[] Toschi's daughter said in that her father had always thought Allen had been the killer, but they did not have the evidence to prove it. Mark Ruffalo, who portrayed Toschi in the film Zodiac, commented, "If you get into who these cops were, you realize how they have to take their hunches, their personal beliefs, out of it. Dave Toschi said to me, 'As soon as that guy walked in the door, I knew it was him.' He was sure he had him, but he never had a solid piece of evidence. So he had to keep investigating every other lead."[]

On October 6, , Allen was interviewed by detective John Lynch of the Vallejo Police Department. Allen had been reported in the vicinity of the Lake Berryessa attack against Hartnell and Shepard on September 27, ; he described himself scuba diving at Salt Point on the day of the attacks.[] Allen again came to police attention in when his friend Donald Cheney reported to police in Manhattan Beach, California, that Allen had spoken of his desire to kill people, use the name Zodiac, and secured a flashlight to a firearm for visibility at night. According to Cheney, this conversation occurred no later than January 1, []

Jack Mulanax of the Vallejo Police Department subsequently wrote Allen had received an other than honorable discharge from the U.S. Navy in , and had been fired from his job as an elementary school teacher in March after allegations of sexual misconduct with students. He was generally well-regarded by those who knew him, but he was also described as "fixated on young children and angry at women".

In September , San Francisco police obtained a search warrant for Allen's residence.[] In , Allen was arrested for sexually assaulting a year-old boy;[] he pleaded guilty and served two years imprisonment.

Vallejo police served another search warrant at Allen's residence in February [] Two days after Allen's death in , Vallejo police served another warrant and seized property from Allen's residence.[] In July , victim Mike Mageau identified Allen as the man who shot him in from a photo line-up, saying "That's him! That's the man who shot me".[][] However police officer Donald Fouke, who is speculated to have seen the Zodiac fleeing from the Stine killing, said in the documentary His Name Was Arthur Leigh Allen that Allen weighed about pounds more than the man he saw, adding that his face was "too round". While Nancy Slover, who received the call from the Zodiac in the aftermath of the Mageau/Ferrin shooting said that Allen did not sound like the man on the phone.[]

Other evidence existed against Allen, albeit entirely circumstantial. A letter sent to the Riverside Police Department from Bates's killer was typed with a Royal typewriter with an Elite type, the same brand found during the February search of Allen's residence. He owned and wore a Zodiac brand wristwatch. He lived in Vallejo and worked minutes away from where one of the Zodiac victims (Ferrin) lived and from where one of the killings took place.[]

In , the SFPD developed a partial DNA profile from the saliva on stamps and envelopes of Zodiac's letters. The SFPD compared this partial DNA to the DNA of Arthur Leigh Allen.[][] A DNA comparison was also made with the DNA of Don Cheney, who was Allen's former close friend and the first person to suggest Allen may be the Zodiac Killer. Since neither test result indicated a match, Allen and Cheney were excluded as the contributors of the DNA.[]

Retired police handwriting expert Lloyd Cunningham, who worked on the Zodiac case for decades, stated, "They gave me banana boxes full of Allen's writing, and none of his writing even came close to the Zodiac. Nor did DNA extracted from the envelopes (on the Zodiac letters) come close to Arthur Leigh Allen."[4]

Public speculation

  • Ross Sullivan became a person of interest through the possible link between the Zodiac Killer and the murder of Cheri Jo Bates in Riverside. Sullivan was a library assistant at Riverside City College and was suspected by coworkers who said that he went missing for several days after the murder. Sullivan resembled sketches of the Zodiac and wore military-style boots with footprints like those found at the Lake Berryessa crime scene. Sullivan was hospitalized multiple times for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.[]
  • Lawrence Kaye, later Lawrence Kane: Kathleen Johns, who claimed to have been abducted by the Zodiac Killer, picked out Kane in a photo lineup. Patrol officer Don Fouke, who possibly observed the Zodiac Killer following the murder of Paul Stine, said that Kane closely resembled the man he and Eric Zelms encountered. Kane worked at the same Nevada hotel as possible Zodiac victim Donna Lass. Kane was diagnosed with impulse-control disorder after suffering brain injuries in a accident. He was arrested for voyeurism and prowling.[] Fayçal Ziraoui, a French-Moroccan business consultant, claimed in that he solved the Z13 cipher and the solution to the puzzle reads "My name is Kayr", which he said is a likely typo for Kaye. Others disputed that Ziraoui could have solved the cypher. Kane died in []
  • Police informants accused Richard Marshall of being the Zodiac Killer, claiming that he privately hinted at being a murderer. Marshall lived in Riverside in and San Francisco in , close to the scenes of the Bates and Stine murders. He was a silent film enthusiast and projectionist, screening Segundo de Chomón's The Red Phantom (), a name used by the author of a possible Zodiac letter. Detective Ken Narlow said that "Marshall makes good reading but [is] not a very good suspect in my estimation."[]
  • Ted Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber, was investigated for possible connections to the Zodiac Killer in Kaczynski worked in northern California at the time of the Zodiac murders and, like the Zodiac, had an interest in cryptography and threatened the press into publishing his communications.[] Kaczynski was ruled out by both the FBI and SFPD based on fingerprint and handwriting comparison, and by his absence from California on certain dates of known Zodiac activity.[]
  • The Manson Family: following the capture of Charles Manson and his murderous cult, a report by the California Bureau of Criminal Identification and Investigation stated that all male members of the Manson Family had been investigated and eliminated as Zodiac suspects.[]
  • In , Dennis Kaufman claimed that his stepfather Jack Tarrance was the Zodiac.[] Kaufman turned several items over to the FBI, including a hood similar to the one worn by the Zodiac. According to news sources, DNA analysis conducted by the FBI on the items was deemed inconclusive in []
  • In , former lawyer Robert Tarbox, who was disbarred in August by the California Supreme Court for failure to pay some clients,[][] said that in the early s a merchant mariner walked into his office and confessed to him that he was the Zodiac Killer. The seemingly lucid seaman, whose name Tarbox would not reveal based on confidentiality, described his crimes briefly but persuasively enough to convince Tarbox. The man said he was trying to stop himself from his "opportunistic" murder spree but never returned to see Tarbox again. Tarbox took out a full-page ad in the Vallejo Times-Herald that he claimed would clear the name of Arthur Leigh Allen as a killer, his only reason for revealing the story 30 years after the fact. Robert Graysmith, the author of several books on Zodiac, said Tarbox's story was "entirely plausible".
  • In , an episode of the History Channel television series MysteryQuest looked at newspaper editor Richard Gaikowski. During the time of the murders, Gaikowski worked for Good Times, a San Francisco counterculture newspaper. His appearance resembled the composite sketch, and Nancy Slover, the Vallejo police dispatcher who was contacted by the Zodiac shortly after the Blue Rock Springs Attack, identified a recording of Gaikowski's voice as being the same as the Zodiac's.[]
  • Retired police detective Steve Hodel argues in his book The Black Dahlia Avenger that his father, George Hodel, was the Black Dahlia killer, whose victims include Elizabeth Short.[] The book led to the release of previously suppressed files and wire recordings by the Los Angeles district attorney's office of his father, which showed that the elder Hodel had indeed been a prime suspect in Short's murder. District Attorney Steve Kaye subsequently wrote a letter which is published in the revised edition stating that if George Hodel were still alive he would be prosecuted for the crimes.[] In a follow-up book, Hodel argued a circumstantial case that his father was also the Zodiac Killer based upon a police sketch, the similarity of the style of the Zodiac letters to the Black Dahlia Avenger letters and questioned document examination.[]
  • On February 19, , America's Most Wanted featured a story about the Zodiac Killer. In , a picture surfaced of known Zodiac victim Darlene Ferrin and an unknown man who closely resembles the composite sketch, formed based on eyewitnesses' descriptions, of the Zodiac Killer. Police believe the photo was taken in San Francisco in the middle of or []
  • Convicted serial killer Edward Edwards, who committed five murders between and , was linked to the Zodiac murders and several other unsolved cases by former cold case detective John A. Cameron. Cameron's theories were met with "almost universal disdain, especially from law enforcement".[]
  • Former California Highway Patrol officer Lyndon Lafferty said the Zodiac Killer was a year-old Solano County, California, man he referred to by the pseudonym George Russell Tucker.[] Using a group of retired law enforcement officers called the Mandamus Seven, Lafferty discovered Tucker and outlined an alleged cover-up for why he was not pursued.[] Tucker died in February and was not named because he was not considered a suspect by police.[]
  • In February , it was reported that Louis Joseph Myers had confessed to a friend in that he was the Zodiac Killer after learning that he was dying from cirrhosis of the liver. He requested that his friend, Randy Kenney, go to the police upon his death. Myers died in , but Kenney allegedly had difficulties getting officers to cooperate and take the claims seriously. There are several potential connections between Myers and the Zodiac case; Myers attended the same high schools as victims David Farraday and Betty Lou Jensen, and allegedly worked in the same restaurant as victim Darlene Ferrin. During the – period, when no Zodiac letters were received, Myers was stationed overseas with the military. Kenney says that Myers confessed he targeted couples because he had had a bad breakup with a girlfriend. While officers associated with the case are skeptical, they believe the story is credible enough to investigate if Kenney could produce credible evidence.[]
  • Robert Ivan Nichols, also known as Joseph Newton Chandler III, was a formerly unidentifiedidentity thief who committed suicide in Eastlake, Ohio, in July After his death, investigators were unable to locate his family and discovered that he had stolen the identity of an eight-year-old boy who was killed in a car crash in Texas in The lengths to which Nichols went to hide his identity led to speculation that he was a violent fugitive. The U.S. Marshals Service announced his identification at a press conference in Cleveland on June 21, Some Internet sleuths suggested that he might have been the Zodiac Killer, as he resembled police sketches of the Zodiac and had lived in California, where the Zodiac operated.[][][]
  • In , Gary Stewart published a book, The Most Dangerous Animal of All, in which he claimed his search for his biological father, Earl Van Best Jr., led him to conclude Van Best was the Zodiac Killer. In , the book was adapted for FX Network as a documentary series.[]
  • Since , a journalistic inquiry on a connection between the Zodiac and Monster of Florence cases is being published on the website of Italian magazine Tempi,[] also appearing in newspapers Libero[] and Il Giornale[] (which following the publication of Amicone's first article in Libero in retreated).[] The suspect is a former superintendent of the Florence American Cemetery in Italy, Joseph "Joe" Bevilacqua, also known as Giuseppe, who was born on December 20, , in Totowa, New Jersey, and had a years career in the Army when he left it to move to Florence in [][] Francesco Amicone, the author of inquiry, wrote an account of a Bevilacqua's partial admission, in which he would have confessed to Amicone to being responsible of the murders attributed to the Zodiac killer and the Monster of Florence in an unregistered conversation occurred on September 11, After the release of the first part of the inquiry in May , Bevilacqua denied his admission; even though he threatened him with a lawsuit, Amicone did not stop to accuse him. In , Amicone reported that Bevilacqua would have been an undercover CID agent assigned to an investigation in San Francisco concerning SMA William O. Wooldridge and other Army sergeants at the time of Zodiac's homicides in and While Army criminal investigator in Italy in the early s, Bevilacqua would have had access to a case file of a double murder that occurred near Florence in where bullets and shell casings had been improperly stored.[] Bevilacqua replaced the pieces of evidence with spent cartridges shot by the gun he would use in the Monster of Florence's homicides in order to link his future crimes to those murders for which he had an alibi.[] Italian authorities collected Bevilacqua's DNA in late []
  • On October 6, , The Case Breakers, an independent team of 40 former law enforcement investigators, military intelligence officers and journalists, claimed to have identified the Zodiac Killer as Gary Francis Poste, but this information was not confirmed by the Vallejo Police Department. The Case Breakers have requested that police test the Zodiac Killer's DNA evidence to confirm it matches the DNA of Gary Francis Poste.[][][] The police, however, said that the case is not solved and that the killer was not identified yet. "The Zodiac Killer case remains open. We have no new information to share at the moment", an FBI spokesman told CNN.[]

Letters and ciphers gallery

  • Zodiac's letter sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on July 31,

  • The decryption of the July 31, cipher by Donald and Bettye Harden

  • Zodiac's letter sent to the Vallejo Times-Herald on July 31,

  • Zodiac's letter sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on November 8, with the Cipher, which was decrypted on December 5,

  • Zodiac's letter sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on April 20,

  • Zodiac's bomb schematic sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on April 20,

See also

Notes

  1. ^ abWell into the s, the Zodiac wrote letters claiming responsibility for earlier and later killings, but he has never been definitively linked to any crime that took place before or after
  2. ^When corrected for most errors, excluding the distinctive spelling of paradice, the Z message says:
    I like killing people because it is so much fun. It is more fun than killing wild game in the forest because man is the most dangerous animal of all. To kill something gives me the most thrilling experience. It is even better than getting your rocks off with a girl. The best part of it is that when I die, I will be reborn in paradice and all that I have killed will become my slaves. I will not give you my name because you will try to slow down or stop my collection of slaves for my afterlife. ebeorietemethhpiti
  3. ^Shortly after the decoding of this cipher, Vallejo police contacted a Vacaville-based psychiatrist to review the contents. This expert determined the contents were typical of a brooding and isolated individual, adding the fact the author compared the thrill of murder to the satisfaction of sex was "usually an expression of inadequacy" from a male who senses extreme rejection. The fact the author claimed to be collecting slaves for his afterlife revealed this individual's sense of omnipotence.[19]
  4. ^In , Toschi would opine his belief to a reporter from the Fort Scott Tribune that the Zodiac killer lived in the San Francisco Bay area, and that the letters he had sent had been an "ego game" for him, adding: "He's a weekend killer. Why can't he get away Monday through Thursday? Does his job keep him close to home? I would speculate he maybe has a menial job, is well thought of and blends into the crowd I think he's quite intelligent and better educated than someone who misspells words as frequently as he does in his letters."[34]
  5. ^When corrected for most errors, excluding the distinctive spelling of paradice, the Z message says:
    I hope you are having lots of fun in trying to catch me. That wasn't me on the TV show, which brings up a point about me. I am not afraid of the gas chamber because it will send me to paradice all the sooner, because I now have enough slaves to work for me where everyone else has nothing when they reach paradice, so they are afraid of death. I am not afraid because I know that my new life is life will be an easy one in paradice death.

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Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

Messerschmitt Me

World's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft

The Messerschmitt Me , nicknamed Schwalbe (German: "Swallow") in fighter versions, or Sturmvogel (German: "Storm Bird") in fighter-bomber versions, was the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft. Design work started before World War II began, but problems with engines, metallurgy and top-level interference kept the aircraft from operational status with the Luftwaffe until mid The Me was faster and more heavily armed than any Allied fighter, including the British jet-powered Gloster Meteor. One of the most advanced aviation designs in operational use during World War II, the Me 's roles included light bomber, reconnaissance and experimentalnight fighter versions.

Me pilots claimed a total of Allied aircraft shot down, although higher claims are sometimes made.[Note 1] The Allies countered its effectiveness in the air by attacking the aircraft on the ground and during takeoff and landing. Strategic materials shortages and design compromises on the Junkers Jumo axial-flow turbojet engines led to reliability problems. Attacks by Allied forces on fuel supplies during the deteriorating late-war situation also reduced the effectiveness of the aircraft as a fighting force. Armament production within Germany was focused on more easily manufactured aircraft.[9] In the end, the Me had a negligible impact on the course of the war as a result of its late introduction and the consequently small numbers put in operational service.

While German use of the aircraft ended with the close of World War II, a small number were operated by the Czechoslovak Air Force until It also heavily influenced several designs, such as the Sukhoi Su-9 () and Nakajima Kikka. Captured Me s were studied and flight-tested by the major powers, and ultimately influenced the designs of post-war aircraft such as the North American F Sabre, MiG and Boeing B Stratojet. Several aircraft survive on static display in museums, and there are several privately built flying reproductions that use modern General Electric J85 engines.

Design and development[edit]

Origins[edit]

Several years before World War II, the Germans foresaw the great potential for aircraft that used the jet engine constructed by Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain in After the successful test flights of the world's first jet aircraft—the Heinkel He —within a week of the invasion of Poland to start the war, they adopted the jet engine for an advanced fighter aircraft. As a result, the Me was already under development as Projekt (P) before the start of World War II. The project originated with a request by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM, Ministry of Aviation) for a jet aircraft capable of one hour's endurance and a speed of at least &#;km/h (&#;mph; &#;kn).[11]Woldemar Voigt headed the design team, with Messerschmitt's chief of development, Robert Lusser, overseeing.[11]

Plans were first drawn up in April , and the original design was very different from the aircraft that eventually entered service, with wing root-mounted engines,[11] rather than podded ones, when submitted in June [11] The progression of the original design was delayed greatly by technical issues involving the new jet engine. Because the engines were slow to arrive, Messerschmitt moved the engines from the wing roots to underwing pods, allowing them to be changed more readily if needed; this would turn out to be important, both for availability and maintenance.[12] Since the BMW jets proved heavier than anticipated, the wing was swept slightly, by °, to accommodate a change in the center of gravity.[12] Funding for the jet engine program was also initially lacking as many high-ranking officials thought the war could easily be won with conventional aircraft. Among those were Hermann Göring, head of the Luftwaffe, who cut the engine development program to just 35 engineers in February (the month before the first wooden mock-up was completed);[11]Willy Messerschmitt, who desired to maintain mass production of the piston-powered, origin Bf and the projected Me ; and Major GeneralAdolf Galland, who had initially supported Messerschmitt through the early development years, flying the Me himself on 22 April By that time, problems with engine development had slowed production of the aircraft considerably. One particularly acute problem arose with the lack of an alloy with a melting point high enough to endure the high temperatures involved, a problem that by the end of the war had not been adequately resolved. The aircraft made its first successful flight entirely on jet power on 18 July , powered by a pair of Jumo engines, after a November flight (with BMW s) ended in a double flameout.[14]

The project aerodynamicist on the design of the Me was Ludwig Bölkow. He initially designed the wing using NACAairfoils modified with an elliptical nose section.[15] Later in the design process, these were changed to AVL derivatives of NACA airfoils, the NACA being used at the root and the NACA at the tip.[16] The elliptical nose derivatives of the NACA airfoils were used on the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces. Wings were of single-spar cantilever construction, with stressed skins, varying from 3&#;mm (&#;in) skin thickness at the root to 1&#;mm (&#;in) at the tip. To expedite construction, save weight and use less strategic materials, late in the war, wing interiors were not painted. The wings were fastened to the fuselage at four points, using a pair of 20&#;mm (&#;in) and forty-two 8&#;mm (&#;in) bolts.

In mid, Adolf Hitler envisioned the Me as a ground-attack/bomber aircraft rather than a defensive interceptor. The configuration of a high-speed, light-payload Schnellbomber ("fast bomber") was intended to penetrate enemy airspace during the expected Allied invasion of France. His edict resulted in the development of (and concentration on) the Sturmvogel variant. It is debatable to what extent Hitler's interference extended the delay in bringing the Schwalbe into operation;[19] it appears engine vibration issues were at least as costly, if not more so.[14]Albert Speer, then Minister of Armaments and War Production, in his memoirs claimed Hitler originally had blocked mass production of the Me , before agreeing in early Hitler rejected arguments the aircraft would be more effective as a fighter against the Allied bombers destroying large parts of Germany and wanted it as a bomber for revenge attacks. According to Speer, Hitler felt its superior speed compared to other fighters of the era meant it could not be attacked, and so preferred it for high altitude straight flying.[21]

The Me is often referred to as a "swept wing" design as the production aircraft had a small, but significant leading edge sweep of ° which likely provided an advantage by increasing the critical Mach number.[22] Sweep, uncommon at the time, was added after the initial design of the aircraft. The engines proved heavier than originally expected, and the sweep was added primarily to position the center of lift properly relative to the center of mass. (The original 35° sweep, proposed by Adolf Busemann, was not adopted.)[23] On 1 March , instead of moving the wing backward on its mount, the outer wing was re-positioned slightly aft; the trailing edge of the midsection of the wing remained unswept. Based on data from the AVA Göttingen and wind tunnel results, the inboard section's leading edge (between the nacelle and wing root) was later swept to the same angle as the outer panels, from the "V6" sixth prototype onward throughout volume production.

Test flights[edit]

Testing showed that the Me handled much better than previous fighters such as the Bf or Fw Handling was so improved over the previous aircraft that a report by Major Ernst Englander stated that any Bf pilot could convert to the Me with only an hour of instruction. According to his report, even bomber pilots who converted to fly the Me only required three instruction flights, and less than 5% had any difficulty retraining. The Me had a gentle stall and gentle landing characteristics compared to previous German fighters. Its handling improved with speed and would lose much less speed during turning. It had a cruising speed of mph, which was faster than the top speed of most other fighters of the day. It also had far better visibility in every direction compared to previous German fighters. Due to lack of engine torque, if a single engine was lost the aircraft remained easily controlled and landed without issue. Its only major deficiency was that brakes could not be used until the nose wheel had touched down, because engaging them before would smash the nose wheel strongly into the runway, potentially destroying the nose wheel and the aircraft. The quality of the aircraft was high, with only 10% of aircraft returned for minor defects such as wings being out of alignment by under 1 degree. It could reach mph without issue, although because it could reach extreme speeds in dives, components such as bomb racks would sometimes tear off.[26][unreliable source?]

Test flights began on 18 April , with the Me V1 example, bearing its Stammkennzeichen radio code letters of PC+UA, but since its intended BMW turbojets were not ready for fitting, a conventional Junkers Jumo engine was mounted in the V1 prototype's nose, driving a propeller, to test the Me V1 airframe.[27] When the BMW engines were installed, the Jumo was retained for safety, which proved wise as both s failed during the first flight and the pilot had to land using the nose-mounted engine alone. The V1 through V4 prototype airframes all possessed what would become an uncharacteristic feature for most later jet aircraft designs, a fully retracting conventional gear setup with a retracting tailwheel—indeed, the very first prospective German "jet fighter" airframe design ever flown, the Heinkel He , used a retractable tricycle landing gear from its beginnings and flying on jet power alone as early as the end of March

Silhouette of the V3 prototype – V1 through V4 similar. Note retracting conventional tail wheel gear

The V3 third prototype airframe, with the code PC+UC, became a true jet when it flew on 18 July in Leipheim near Günzburg, Germany, piloted by test pilot Fritz Wendel.[28] This was almost nine months ahead of the British Gloster Meteor's first flight on 5 March Its retracting conventional tail wheel gear (similar to other contemporary piston-powered propeller aircraft), a feature shared with the first four Me V-series airframes, caused its jet exhaust to deflect off the runway, with the wing's turbulence negating the effects of the elevators, and the first takeoff attempt was cut short.

On the second attempt, Wendel solved the problem by tapping the aircraft's brakes at takeoff speed, lifting the horizontal tail out of the wing's turbulence. The aforementioned initial four prototypes (V1-V4) were built with the conventional gear configuration. Changing to a tricycle arrangement—a permanently fixed undercarriage on the fifth prototype (V5, code PC+UE), with the definitive fully retractable nosewheel gear on the V6 (with Stammkennzeichen code VI+AA, from a new code block) and subsequent aircraft corrected this problem.[Note 2]

Test flights continued over the next year, but engine problems continued to plague the project, the Jumo being only marginally more reliable than the lower-thrust (&#;kN/1,&#;lbf) BMW Airframe modifications were complete by but, hampered by the lack of engines, serial production did not begin until , and deliveries were low, with 28 Me s in June, 59 in July, but only 20 in August.[page&#;needed]

By Summer , the Jumo A engine had passed several hour tests, with a time between overhauls of 50 hours being achieved.[32] However, the Jumo A engine proved unsuitable for full-scale production because of its considerable weight and its high utilization of strategic material (Ni, Co, Mo), which were in short supply. Consequently, the B engine was designed to use a minimum amount of strategic materials. All high heat-resistant metal parts, including the combustion chamber, were changed to mild steel (SAE ) and were protected only against oxidation by aluminum coating. The total engine represented a design compromise to minimize the use of strategic materials and to simplify manufacture.[32] With the lower-quality steels used in the B, the engine required overhaul after just 25 hours for a metallurgical test on the turbine. If it passed the test, the engine was refitted for a further 10 hours of usage, but 35 hours marked the absolute limit for the turbine wheel.[33] While BMW's and Junkers' axial compressor turbojet engines were characterised by a sophisticated design that could offer a considerable advantage – also used in a generalized form for the contemporary American Westinghouse J30 turbojet – the lack of rare materials for the Jumo design put it at a disadvantage compared to the "partly axial-flow" Power Jets W.2/ turbojet engine which, despite its own largely centrifugal compressor-influenced design, provided (between an operating overhaul interval of 60–65 hours[34]) an operational life span of hours. Frank Whittle concludes in his final assessment over the two engines: "it was in the quality of high temperature materials that the difference between German and British engines was most marked"[35]

Operationally, carrying 2, litres ( imperial gallons; US gallons) of fuel in two litre (imperial-gallon; US-gallon) tanks, one each fore and aft of the cockpit; and a litre (imperial-gallon; US-gallon) ventral fuselage tank beneath,[Note 3] the Me would have a total flight endurance of 60 to 90 minutes. Fuel was usually J2 (derived from brown coal), with the option of diesel or a mixture of oil and high octane B4 aviation petrol. Fuel consumption was double the rate of typical twin-engine fighter aircraft of the era, which led to the installation of a low-fuel warning indicator in the cockpit that notified pilots when remaining fuel fell below &#;l (55&#;imp&#;gal; 66&#;US&#;gal).

Unit cost for an Me airframe, less engines, armament, and electronics, was 87, RM.[Note 4] To build one airframe took around 6,man-hours.

Operational history[edit]

Me A-1a on display at RAF Cosford. Some A-1a aircraft (including this example), like the A-2a bomber variant, attached additional hardpoints for extra weapons near the ejector chutes of the cannons, such as a bomb rack under each side of the nose.

Introduction[edit]

On 19 April , Erprobungskommando was formed at Lechfeld just south of Augsburg, as a test unit (Jäger Erprobungskommando Thierfelder, commanded by HauptmannWerner Thierfelder) to introduce the Me into service and train a corps of pilots to fly it. On 26 July , Leutnant Alfred Schreiber with the A-1a mlbjerseyschina.us damaged a Mosquito reconnaissance aircraft of No. Squadron RAF PR Squadron, which was allegedly lost in a crash upon landing at an air base in Italy. Other sources state the aircraft was damaged during evasive manoeuvres and escaped.

Major Walter Nowotny was assigned as commander after the death of Thierfelder in July , and the unit redesignated Kommando Nowotny. Essentially a trials and development unit, it mounted the world's first jet fighter operations. Trials continued slowly, with initial operational missions against the Allies in August , and the unit made claims for 19 Allied aircraft in exchange for six Me s lost.[43]

Despite orders to stay grounded, Nowotny chose to fly a mission against an enemy bomber formation flying some 9,&#;m (30,&#;ft) above, on 8 November He claimed two PDs destroyed before suffering engine failure at high altitude. Then, while diving and trying to restart his engines, he was attacked by other Mustangs, forced to bail out, and died. The Kommando was then withdrawn for further flight training and a revision of combat tactics to optimise the Me 's strengths.[citation needed]

On 26 November , a Me A-2a Sturmvogel of III.Gruppe/KG 51 'Edelweiß' based at Rheine-Hopsten Air Base near Osnabrück was the first confirmed ground-to-air kill of a jet combat aircraft. The Me was shot down by a Bofors gun of B Detachment of Squadron RAF Regiment at the RAF forward airfield of Helmond, near Eindhoven. Others were lost to ground fire on 17 and 18 December when the same airfield was attacked at intervals by a total of 18 Me s and the guns of and Squadrons RAF Regiment damaged several, causing at least two to crash within a few miles of the airfield. In February , a B.6 gun detachment of Squadron RAF Regiment shot down another Me over the airfield of Volkel. The final appearance of s over Volkel was in when yet another fell to 's guns.[45]

By January , Jagdgeschwader 7 (JG 7) had been formed as a pure jet fighter wing, partly based at Parchim[46] although it was several weeks before it was operational. In the meantime, a bomber unit—I Gruppe, Kampfgeschwader 54 (KG(J) 54)—redesignated as such on 1 October [47] through being re-equipped with, and trained to use the Me A-2a fighter-bomber for use in a ground-attack role. However, the unit lost 12 jets in action in two weeks for minimal returns.[citation needed]Jagdverband 44 (JV 44) was another Me fighter unit, of squadron (Staffel) size given the low numbers of available personnel, formed in February by Lieutenant General Adolf Galland, who had recently been dismissed as Inspector of Fighters. Galland was able to draw into the unit many of the most experienced and decorated Luftwaffe fighter pilots from other units grounded by lack of fuel.

During March, Me fighter units were able, for the first time, to mount large-scale attacks on Allied bomber formations. On 18 March , thirty-seven Me s of JG 7 intercepted a force of 1, bombers and escorting fighters. They shot down 12 bombers and one fighter for the loss of three Me s. Although a ratio was exactly what the Luftwaffe would have needed to make an impact on the war, the absolute scale of their success was minor, as it represented only 1% of the attacking force.

In the last days of the war, Me s from JG 7 and other units were committed in ground assault missions, in an attempt to support German troops fighting Red Army forces. Just south of Berlin, halfway between Spremberg and the German capital, Wehrmacht's 9th Army (with elements from the 12 Army and 4th Panzer Army) was assaulting the Red Army's 1st Ukrainian Front. To support this attack, on 24 April, JG 7 dispatched thirty-one Me s on a strafing mission in the Cottbus-Bautzen area. Luftwaffe pilots claimed six lorries and seven Soviet aircraft, but three German jets were lost. On the evening of 27 April, thirty-six Me s from JG 7, mlbjerseyschina.us(J)6 and KJ(J)54 were sent against Soviet forces that were attacking German troops in the forests north-east of Baruth. They succeeded in strafing 65 Soviet lorries, after which the Me s intercepted low flying Il-2 Sturmoviks searching for German tanks. The jet pilots claimed six Sturmoviks for the loss of three Messerschmitts. During operations between 28 April and 1 May Soviet fighters and ground fire downed at least ten more Me s from JG 7.[49] However, JG 7 managed to keep its jets operational until the end of the war. And on 8 May, at around &#;p.m. Oblt. Fritz Stehle of 2./JG 7, while flying a Me on the Erzgebirge, attacked a formation of Soviet aircraft. He claimed a Yakovlev Yak-9, but the plane shot down was probably a P Airacobra. Soviet records show that they lost two Airacobras, one of them probably downed by Stehle, who would thus have scored the last Luftwaffe air victory of the war.[50]

Me B-1a/U1 night fighter, Wrknr. , with FuG Neptunantennae in the nose and second seat for a radar operator. This airframe was surrendered to the RAF at Schleswig in May and taken to the UK for testing.

Several two-seat trainer variants of the Me , the Me B-1a, had been adapted through the Umrüst-Bausatz 1 factory refit package as night fighters, complete with on-board FuG Neptun high-VHF band radar, using Hirschgeweih ("stag's antlers") antennae with a set of dipole elements shorter than the Lichtenstein SN-2 had used, as the B-1a/U1 version. Serving with StaffelNachtjagdgeschwader 11, near Berlin, these few aircraft (alongside several single-seat examples) accounted for most of the 13 Mosquitoes lost over Berlin in the first three months of [51] Intercepts were generally or entirely made using Wilde Sau methods, rather than AI radar-controlled interception. As the two-seat trainer was largely unavailable, many pilots made their first jet flight in a single-seater without an instructor.[52]

Despite its deficiencies, the Me clearly marked the beginning of the end of piston-engined aircraft as effective fighting machines. Once airborne, it could accelerate to speeds over &#;km/h (&#;mph), about &#;km/h (93&#;mph) faster than any Allied fighter operational in the European Theater of Operations.[53]

The Me 's top ace[Note 5] was probably HauptmannFranz Schall with 17 kills, including six four-engine bombers and ten P Mustang fighters, although fighter ace OberleutnantKurt Welter claimed 25 Mosquitos and two four-engine bombers shot down by night and two further Mosquitos by day. Most of Welter's claimed night kills were achieved by eye, even though Welter had tested a prototype Me fitted with FuG Neptun radar. Another candidate for top ace on the aircraft was OberstleutnantHeinrich Bär, who is credited with 16 enemy aircraft[54] while flying Mes out of his total of aircraft shot down.[55]

Anti-bomber tactics[edit]

The other main USAAF bomber was the B Liberator. This aircraft "Do Bunny" was shot down by a Me on 25 March over Soltau, Germany

The Me was so fast that German pilots needed new tactics to attack Allied bombers. In the head-on attack, the combined closing speed of about &#;m/s (&#;mph) was too high for accurate shooting, with ordnance that could only fire about 44 shells a second ( rounds/min from each cannon) in total from the quartet of them. Even from astern, the closing speed was too great to use the short-ranged quartet of MK cannon to maximum effect. Therefore, a roller-coaster attack was devised. The Me s approached from astern and about 1,&#;m higher (5,&#;ft) than the bombers. From about five&#;km behind (&#;mi), they went into a shallow dive that took them through the escort fighters with little risk of interception. When they were about &#;km astern (&#;mi) and &#;m (1,&#;ft) below the bombers, they pulled up sharply to reduce speed. On levelling off, they were one&#;km astern (1,&#;yd) and overtaking the bombers at about &#;km/h (93&#;mph), well placed to attack them.[56]

Since the 30mm MK cannon's short barrels and low muzzle velocity (only &#;m/s (1,&#;km/h; 1,&#;mph)) rendered it inaccurate beyond &#;m (&#;yd; 2,&#;ft), coupled with the jet's velocity, which required breaking off at &#;m (&#;yd; &#;ft) to avoid colliding with the target, Me pilots normally commenced firing at &#;m (&#;yd; 1,&#;ft).[57] Gunners of Allied bomber aircraft found their electrically powered gun turrets had problems tracking the jets. Target acquisition was difficult because the jets closed into firing range quickly and remained in firing position only briefly, using their standard attack profile, which proved more effective.[58]

Mock-up of an Me A-1a/R7 with R4M underwing rocket racks on display at the Technikmuseum Speyer, Germany.

A prominent Royal Navy test pilot, Captain Eric Brown, chief naval test pilot and commanding officer of the Captured Enemy Aircraft Flight Royal Aircraft Establishment, who tested the Me noted:

This was a Blitzkrieg aircraft. You whack in at your bomber. It was never meant to be a dogfighter, it was meant to be a destroyer of bombers The great problem with it was it did not have dive brakes. For example, if you want to fight and destroy a B, you come in on a dive. The 30mm cannon were not so accurate beyond metres [&#;yd; 2,&#;ft]. So you normally came in at yards [&#;m; 1,&#;ft] and would open fire on your B And your closing speed was still high and since you had to break away at metres [&#;yd; &#;ft] to avoid a collision, you only had two seconds firing time. Now, in two seconds, you can't sight. You can fire randomly and hope for the best. If you want to sight and fire, you need to double that time to four seconds. And with dive brakes, you could have done that.[57]

Eventually, German pilots developed new combat tactics to counter Allied bombers' defences. Me s, equipped with up to 24 unguided folding-fin R4M rockets—12 in each of two underwing racks, outboard of the engine nacelle—approached from the side of a bomber formation, where their silhouettes were widest, and while still out of range of the bombers' machine guns, fired a salvo of rockets with strongly brisantHexogen-filled warheads, exactly the same explosive in the shells fired by the Me A's quartet of MK cannon. One or two of these rockets could down even the famously rugged Boeing B Flying Fortress,[59] from the "metal-shattering" brisant effect of the fast-flying rocket's &#;g (18&#;oz) explosive warhead. The much more massive BR 21 large-calibre rockets, used from their tubular launchers in undernose locations for an Me A's use (one either side of the nosewheel well) were only as fast as the MK 's shells.

Though this broadside-attack tactic was effective, it came too late to have a real effect on the war, and only small numbers of Me s were equipped with the rocket packs. Most of those so equipped were Me A-1a models, members of Jagdgeschwader 7. This method of attacking bombers became the standard, and mass deployment of Ruhrstahl X-4 guided missiles was cancelled. Some nicknamed this tactic the Luftwaffe's Wolf Pack, as the fighters often made runs in groups of two or three, fired their rockets, then returned to base. On 1 September , USAAF GeneralCarl Spaatz expressed the fear that if greater numbers of German jets appeared, they could inflict losses heavy enough to force cancellation of the Allied bombing offensive by daylight.[62]

Counter-jet tactics[edit]

This airframe, Wrknr. , was the first Me to come into Allied hands when its German test pilot defected on 31 March The aircraft was then shipped to the United States for testing.

The Me was difficult to counter because its high speed and rate of climb made it hard to intercept. However, as with other turbojet engines at the time, the Me 's engines did not provide sufficient thrust at low airspeeds and throttle response was slow, so that in certain circumstances such as takeoff and landing the aircraft became a vulnerable target. Another disadvantage that pioneering jet aircraft of the World War II era shared, was the high risk of compressor stall and if throttle movements were too rapid, the engine(s) could suffer a flameout. The coarse opening of the throttle would cause fuel surging and lead to excessive jet pipe temperatures. Pilots were instructed to operate the throttle gently and avoid quick changes. German engineers introduced an automatic throttle regulator later in the war but it only partly alleviated the problem.[citation needed]

The plane had, by contemporary standards, a high wing loading (&#;kg/m2, &#;lbs/ft2) that required higher takeoff and landing speeds. Due to poor throttle response, the engines' tendency for airflow disruption that could cause the compressor to stall was ubiquitous. The high speed of the Me also presented problems when engaging enemy aircraft, the high-speed convergence allowing Me pilots little time to line up their targets or acquire the appropriate amount of deflection. This problem faces any aircraft that approaches another from behind at much higher speed, as the slower aircraft in front can always pull a tighter turn, forcing the faster aircraft to overshoot.[citation needed]

I passed one that looked as if it was hanging motionless in the air (I am too fast!). The one above me went into a steep right-hand turn, his pale blue underside standing out against the purple sky. Another banked right in front of the Me's nose. Violent jolt as I flew through his airscrew eddies. Maybe a wing's length away. That one in the gentle left-hand curve! Swing her round. I was coming from underneath, eye glued to the sight (pull her tighter!). A throbbing in the wings as my cannon pounded briefly. Missed him. Way behind his tail. It was exasperating. I would never be able to shoot one down like this. They were like a sack of fleas. A prick of doubt: is this really such a good fighter? Could one in fact, successfully attack a group of erratically banking fighters with the Me ?

—&#;Johannes Steinhoff, Luftwaffe fighter ace[64]

Luftwaffe pilots eventually learned how to handle the Me 's higher speed and the Me soon proved a formidable air superiority fighter, with pilots such as Franz Schall managing to shoot down seventeen enemy fighters in the Me , ten of them American P Mustangs. Other notable Me aces included Georg-Peter Eder, with twelve enemy fighters to his credit (including nine Ps), Erich Rudorffer also with twelve enemy fighters to his credit, Walther Dahl with eleven (including three Lavochkin La-7s and six Ps) and Heinz-Helmut Baudach with six (including one Spitfire and two Ps) amongst many others.[citation needed]

Pilots soon learned that the Me was quite maneuverable despite its high wing loading and lack of low-speed thrust, especially if attention was drawn to its effective maneuvering speeds. The controls were light and effective right up to the maximum permissible speed and perfectly harmonised. The inclusion of full span automatic leading-edge slats,[Note 6] something of a "tradition" on Messerschmitt fighters dating back to the original Bf 's outer wing slots of a similar type, helped increase the overall lift produced by the wing by as much as 35% in tight turns or at low speeds, greatly improving the aircraft's turn performance as well as its landing and takeoff characteristics.[67] As many pilots soon found out, the Me 's clean design also meant that it, like all jets, held its speed in tight turns much better than conventional propeller-driven fighters, which was a great potential advantage in a dogfight as it meant better energy retention in maneuvers.[68][69]

January Me being shot down. Note jettisoned canopy and empty cockpit. As seen from USAAFP Mustang gun camera

Too fast to catch for the escorting Allied fighters, the Me s were almost impossible to head off. [Note 7] As a result, Me pilots were relatively safe from the Allied fighters, as long as they did not allow themselves to get drawn into low-speed turning contests and saved their maneuvering for higher speeds. Combating the Allied fighters could be effectively done the same way as the U.S. fighters fought the more nimble, but slower, Japanese fighters in the Pacific.[citation needed]

Allied pilots soon found that the only reliable way to destroy the jets, as with the even faster Me B Komet rocket fighters, was to attack them on the ground or during takeoff or landing. Luftwaffe airfields identified as jet bases were frequently bombed by medium bombers, and Allied fighters patrolled over the fields to attack jets trying to land. The Luftwaffe countered by installing extensive Flak alleys of anti-aircraft guns along the approach lines to protect the Me s from the ground—and by providing top cover during the jets' takeoff and landing with the most advanced Luftwaffe single-engined fighters, the Focke-Wulf Fw D and (just becoming available in ) Focke-Wulf Ta H.[71] Nevertheless, in March–April , Allied fighter patrol patterns over Me airfields resulted in numerous jet losses.[citation needed]

As the Me A's pioneering Junkers Jumo axial-flowjet engines needed careful nursing by their pilots, these jet aircraft were particularly vulnerable during takeoff and landing.[72] Lt. Chuck Yeager of the th Fighter Group was one of the first American pilots to shoot down an Me , which he caught during its landing approach.[73][74] On 7 October , Lt. Urban Drew of the th Fighter Group shot down two Me s that were taking off, while on the same day Lt. Col. Hubert Zemke, who had transferred to the Mustang equipped th Fighter Group, shot down what he thought was a Bf , only to have his gun camera film reveal that it may have been an Me [75] On 25 February , Mustangs of the 55th Fighter Group surprised an entire Staffel of Me As at takeoff and destroyed six jets.[76]

The British Hawker Tempest scored several kills against the new German jets, including the Messerschmitt Me Hubert Lange, a Me pilot, said: "the Messerschmitt Me 's most dangerous opponent was the British Hawker Tempest—extremely fast at low altitudes, highly manoeuvrable and heavily armed."[77] Some were destroyed with a tactic known to the Tempest-equipped No. Wing RAF as the "Rat Scramble":[78] Tempests on immediate alert took off when an Me was reported airborne. They did not intercept the jet, but instead flew towards the Me and Ar base at Hopsten air base.[79][Note 8] The aim was to attack jets on their landing approach, when they were at their most vulnerable, travelling slowly, with flaps down and incapable of rapid acceleration. The German response was the construction of a "flak lane" of over emplacements of the 20&#;mm Flakvierling quadruple autocannon batteries at Rheine-Hopsten to protect the approaches.[80][Note 9] After seven Tempests were lost to flak at Hopsten in a week, the "Rat Scramble" was discontinued.[81]

High-speed research[edit]

Adolf Busemann had proposed swept wings as early as ; Messerschmitt researched the topic from In April , Busemann proposed fitting a 35° swept wing (Pfeilflügel II, literally "arrow wing II") to the Me , the same wing-sweep angle later used on both the American F Sabre and Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG fighter jets. Though this was not implemented, he continued with the projected HG II and HG III (Hochgeschwindigkeit, "high-speed") derivatives in , designed with a 35° and 45° wing sweep, respectively.

Interest in high-speed flight, which led him to initiate work on swept wings starting in , is evident from the advanced developments Messerschmitt had on his drawing board in While the Me V9 Hochgeschwindigkeit I (HG I) flight-tested in had only small changes compared to combat aircraft, most notably a low-profile canopy—tried as the Rennkabine (literally "racing cabin") on the ninth Me prototype for a short time—to reduce drag, the HG II and HG III designs were far more radical. The projected HG II combined the low-drag canopy with a 35° wing sweep and a V-tail (butterfly tail). The HG III had a conventional tail, but a 45° wing sweep and turbines embedded in the wing roots.

Messerschmitt also conducted a series of flight tests with the series production Me Dive tests determined that the Me went out of control in a dive at Mach&#;, and that higher Mach numbers would cause a nose-down trim that the pilot could not counter. The resulting steepening of the dive would lead to even higher speeds and the airframe would disintegrate from excessive negative g loads.[citation needed]

Messerschmitt believed the HG series of Me derivatives was capable of reaching transonic Mach numbers in level flight, with the top speed of the HG III being projected as Mach at 6,&#;m (20,&#;ft) altitude.[85] After the war, the Royal Aircraft Establishment, at that time one of the leading institutions in high-speed research, re-tested the Me to help with British attempts at exceeding Mach&#;1. The RAE achieved speeds of up to Mach&#; and confirmed the results from the Messerschmitt dive-tests. The Soviets ran similar tests.

After Willy Messerschmitt's death in , the former Me pilot Hans Guido Mutke claimed to have exceeded Mach&#;1 on 9 April in a Me in a "straight-down" 90° dive. This claim relies solely on Mutke's memory of the incident, which recalls effects other Me pilots observed below the speed of sound at high indicated airspeed, but with no altitude reading required to determine the speed. The pitot tube used to measure airspeed in aircraft can give falsely elevated readings as the pressure builds up inside the tube at high speeds. The Me wing had only a slight sweep, incorporated for trim (center of gravity) reasons and likely would have suffered structural failure due to divergence at high transonic speeds. One airframe—the aforementioned Me V9, Werknummer , with Stammkennzeichen of VI+AD, was prepared as the HG I test airframe with the low-profile Rennkabine racing-canopy and may have achieved an unofficial record speed for a turbojet-powered aircraft of &#;km/h (&#;mph), altitude unspecified,[87] even with the recorded wartime airspeed record being set on 6 July , by another Messerschmitt design—the Me B V18 rocket fighter setting a 1,&#;km/h (&#;mph) record, but landing with a nearly disintegrated rudder surface.[88][89]

Production[edit]

Underground manufacture of Me s

About 1, planes were produced, but a maximum of were operational at any one time. According to sources they destroyed from to enemy planes, with the Allies destroying about one hundred Me s in the air.[71] While Germany was bombed intensively, production of the Me was dispersed into low-profile production facilities, sometimes little more than clearings in the forests of Germany and occupied countries. From the end of February to the end of March , approximately sixty Me s were destroyed in attacks on Obertraubling and thirty at Leipheim;[90] the Neuburg jet plant itself was bombed on 19 March [91]

Large, heavily protected underground factories were constructed – as with the partly-buried Weingut I complex for Jumo jet engine production – to take up production of the Me , safe from bomb attacks. A disused mine complex under the Walpersberg mountain was adapted for the production of complete aircraft. These were hauled to the flat top of the hill where a runway had been cleared and flown out. Between 20 and 30 Me s were built here, the underground factory being overrun by Allied troops before it could reach a meaningful output. Wings were produced in Germany's oldest motorway tunnel at Engelberg, to the west of Stuttgart. At B8 Bergkristall-Esche II, a vast network of tunnels was excavated beneath St. Georgen/Gusen, Austria, where slave labourers of concentration camp Gusen II produced fully equipped fuselages for the Me at a monthly rate of units on large assembly lines from early [92] Gusen II was known as one of the harshest concentration camps; the typical life expectancy was six months.[93] An estimated 35, to 50, people died on the forced labour details for the Me [94]

Postwar history[edit]

After the end of the war, the Me and other advanced German technologies were quickly swept up by the Soviets, British and Americans, as part of the USAAF's Operation Lusty. Many Me s were found in readily repairable condition and were confiscated. The Soviets, British and Americans wished to evaluate the technology, particularly the engines.

During testing, the Me was found to be faster than the British Gloster Meteor jet fighter, and had better visibility to the sides and rear (mostly due to the canopy frames and the discoloration caused by the plastics used in the Meteor's construction), and was a superior gun platform to the Meteor F.1 which had a tendency to snake at high speed and exhibited "weak" aileron response.[95] The Me had a shorter range than the Meteor and had less reliable engines.

The USAAF compared the P Shooting Star and Me , concluding that the Me was superior in acceleration and speed, with similar climb performance. The Me appeared to have a higher critical Mach number than any American fighter.[96]

The Americans also tested a Me A-1a/U3 unarmed photo reconnaissance version, which was fitted with a fighter nose and a smooth finish. Between May and August , the aircraft completed eight flights, lasting four hours and forty minutes. Testing was discontinued after four engine changes were required during the course of the tests, culminating in two single-engine landings.[97] These aircraft were extensively studied, aiding development of early US, British and Soviet jet fighters. The F, designed by engineerEdgar Schmued, used a slat design based on the Me 's.[98]

Avia S, Kbely Museum, Prague,

The Czechoslovak aircraft industry continued to produce single-seat (Avia S) and two-seat (Avia CS) variants of the Me after World War II. From August , a total of nine Ss and three two-seater CSs were completed and test flown. They were introduced in and in were supplied to the 5th Fighter Squadron, becoming the first jet fighters to serve in the Czechoslovak Air Force. These were kept flying until ,[4] when they were replaced in service by Soviet jet fighters. Both versions are on display at the PragueAviation museum in Kbely.

Flyable reproductions[edit]

Me (A-1c) replica of (A1-a), Berlin air show,

In January , the American Me Project, based in Everett, Washington, completed flight testing to allow the delivery of partially updated spec reproductions of several versions of the Me including at least two B-1c two-seater variants, one A-1c single-seater and two "convertibles" that could be switched between the A-1c and B-1c configurations. All are powered by General Electric CJ engines and feature additional safety features, such as upgraded brakes and strengthened landing gear. The "c" suffix refers to the new CJ powerplant and has been informally assigned with the approval of the Messerschmitt Foundation in Germany[99] (the Werknummer of the reproductions picked up where the last wartime produced Me left off – a continuous airframe serial number run with a near year production break).

Flight testing of the first newly manufactured Me A-1c (single-seat) variant (Werknummer ) was completed in August The first of these machines (Werknummer ) went to a private owner in the southwestern United States, while the second (Werknummer ) was delivered to the Messerschmitt Foundation at Manching, Germany. This aircraft conducted a private test flight in late April and made its public debut in May at the ILA The new Me flew during the public flight demonstrations.[] Me Werknummer was delivered to the Collings Foundation as White 1 of JG 7; this aircraft offered ride-along flights starting in [] The third replica, a non-flyable Me A-1c, was delivered to the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum in May []

Variants[edit]

Note:- U = Umrüst-Bausatz – conversion kit installed at factory level, denoted as a suffix in the form /Un.[]

Me A-0
Pre-production aircraft fitted with two Jumo B turbojet engines, 23 built.
Me A-1a "Schwalbe"
Primary production version, usable as both fighter (interceptor) and fighter-bomber.[27]
Me A-1a/U1
Single prototype with a total of six nose mounted guns, two 20&#;mm (&#;in) MG /20 cannon, two 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon, and two 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon.[27]
Me A-1a/U2
Single prototype with FuG Lichtenstein SN-2 90&#;MHz radar transceiver and Hirschgeweih (stag's antlers) antenna array, for trials as a night-fighter.[27]
Me A-1a/U3
Reconnaissance version modified in small numbers, with Rb 20/30[] cameras mounted in the nose or alternatively one Rb 20/20[] and one Rb 75/30[] (Rb – Reihenbildner – series-picture, topographic camera). Some retained one 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon, but most were unarmed.
Me A-1a/U4
Bomber destroyer version, two prototypes with an adapted 50&#;mm (&#;in) MK (intended armament) or BK 5 (test ordnance only) anti-tank gun in the nose.[27]
Me A-1a/U5
Heavy jet fighter with six 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon in the nose.[27]
Me A-1b
Trio of A-1a evaluation versions, starting with Werknummer , re-engined with two BMW A turbojets in place of the Jumo s, maximum speed &#;km/h (&#;mph; &#;kn).[]
Me A-2a "Sturmvogel"
Definitive bomber version retaining only the two lower 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon.[27]
Me A-2a/U1
Single prototype with advanced bombsight.
Me A-2a/U2
Two prototypes with glazed nose for accommodating a bombardier.[27]
Me A-3a
Proposed ground-attack version.
Me A-4a
Reconnaissance version.
Me A-5a
Definitive reconnaissance version used in small numbers at end of the war.[27]
Me B-1a
Two-seat trainer.[27]
Me B-1a/U1
Me B-1a trainers converted into provisional night fighters, FuG Neptun radar, with Hirschgeweih (eng:antler) eight-dipole antenna array.[citation needed]
Me B-2
Proposed night fighter version with stretched fuselage.
Me C
Proposed development prototypes in four differing designs, meant to augment or replace the Jumo jets with liquid-fueled rocket propulsion, as the "Home Protector" (Heimatschützer) series.
Me C-1a
Single prototype [made from Me A Werknummer ] of rocket-boosted interceptor (Heimatschützer I) with Walter HWK liquid-fuelled rocket in the tail, first flown with combined jet/rocket power on 27 February []
Me C-2b
Single prototype [made from Me A Werknummer ] of rocket-boosted interceptor (Heimatschützer II) with two BMW R "combined" powerplants (BMW turbojet, with a single &#;kN (2,&#;lbf) thrust BMW liquid-fuelled rocket engine mounted atop the rear of each jet exhaust) for boosted thrust, only flown once with combined jet/rocket power on 26 March []
Me C-3
Heimatschützer III – proposed version with Jumo turbojet engines replaced with Walter HWK RII Liquid-fuelled rocket engines.[]
Me C-3a
Heimatschützer IV - a rocket-boosted interceptor with a Walter HWK S-2 rocket motor housed in a permanent belly pack. Prototypes and initial production aircraft were captured before completion.[]
Me D-1
Proposed variant to carry Jagdfaust mortars.
Me E-1
Proposed variant based on A-1a/U4 with a 50&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon.[]
Me E-2
Proposed rocket-armed variant carrying up to 48 × R4M rockets.
Me HG-I
"High Speed" variant, modified A-1a with new "racing" style cockpit and additional pieces were added to wing roots at the front.[][][]
Me HG-II
Second "High Speed" variant, more heavily modified A-1a with "racing" style cockpit and wings swept at degree angle and engine nacelles were moved closer to fuselage. A new butterfly V-shaped tail was tested but was too unstable in wind tunnel tests, so normal tail was kept.[][][]
Me HG-III
Proposed Third "High Speed" variant, only progressed to wind tunnel model stage. This was the last and the pinnacle of the Me aerodynamical possibility, which would have been built from the ground up as a new Me instead of modifying older ones. In the Me HG-III, its wings were swept at 45 degrees, it also had the aforementioned "racing" style cockpit, however, the largest change was the moving of the engine nacelles right into the fuselage side and changing the engines to the more powerful Heinkel HeS engines.[][][]
Me S
Zero-series model for Me A-1a
Me W-1
Provisional designation for Me with 2x &#;kN (&#;lbf) Argus As pulse jet engines
Me W-3
Provisional designation for Me with 2x &#;kN (1,&#;lbf) "square-intake" Argus As pulse jet engines
Me Lorin
Provisional designation for Me with 2x Lorinramjet booster engines in "over-wing" mounts, one above each of the Jumo turbojet nacelles.

Rüstsätze (field modification kits)[edit]

Rüstsatze may be applied to various sub-types of their respective aircraft type, denoted as a suffix in the form /Rn. Data from: Messerschmitt Me A Schwalbe[][]

/R1: Underfuselage pylon for &#;l (&#;imp&#;gal; &#;US&#;gal) external fuel tank.
/R2: Ratog installation for two Rheinmetall solid rocket engines.
/R3: BMW R rocket boosted turbojet installation.
/R4: Installation of the FuG Zc Naxos radar warning receiver / detector.
/R5: The standard 4x 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon installation.
/R6: Jabo (JagdBomber) equipment, such as bombsights and bomb racks.
/R7: Underwing installation of 12x R4M rockets carried on wooden racks.
/R8: RBS Air to air rocket installation.
/R9: Ruhrstahl Ru X-4 air-to-air missile installation.

Postwar variants[edit]

Avia S[]
Czech-built Me A-1a (fighter)[]
Avia CS
Czech-built Me B-1a (fighter trainer, two seats)

Reproductions[edit]

A series of reproductions was constructed by American company Legend Flyers (later Me Project) of Everett, Washington.[] The Jumo engines of the original are replaced by more reliable General Electric CJ engines. The first Me reproduction (a two-seater) took off for the first time in December and the second one in August This one was delivered to the Messerschmitt Foundation and was presented at the ILA airshow in []

A-1c: American privately built, based on A-1a configuration.
B-1c: American privately built, based on B-1a configuration.
A/B-1c: American privately built, convertible between A-1c and B-1c configuration.

Operators[edit]

Surviving aircraft[edit]

Me A-2a (Black X), Australia,
Me B-1a/U1 (Red 8), South Africa,
Me B-1a (White 35), at Willow Grove, Pa., in ; relocated to and on display in Pensacola, Fl.
Me A-1a/R7, mlbjerseyschina.us White 3, III./JG 7
Deutsches Museum,[] Munich, Germany. This aircraft, flown by Hans Guido Mutke while a pilot of 9. Staffel/JG 7, was confiscated by Swiss authorities on 25 April after Mutke made an emergency landing in Switzerland due to lack of fuel (80 litres were remaining, 35 litres were usually burnt in one minute). Removed (?) from main museum for restoration and relocated to: Deutsches Museum Flugwerft Schleissheim, Ferdinand-Schulz-Allee (for navigation systems), Oberschleissheim, Germany.[]
Me A-1a
Reconstructed from parts of crashed and incomplete Me s. Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr, Germany.
Me A-1a mlbjerseyschina.us Yellow 5, 3./KG(J)6
National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, US.
Me A-1a/U3 mlbjerseyschina.us
Flying Heritage Collection, Everett, Washington, US, currently in US undergoing restoration to flying condition. It is intended to fly using its original Jumo engines.[] The aircraft was bought from The Planes of Fame, Chino, California.
Me A-1a/R7 mlbjerseyschina.us Yellow 7, II./JG 7
National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, US. Possesses twin original underwing racks for 24 R4M unguided rockets.
Me A-1a mlbjerseyschina.us
RAF MuseumCosford, Cosford, United Kingdom.
Me A-2a mlbjerseyschina.us Black X 9K+XK, 2 Staffel./KG 51
Australian War Memorial, Canberra, Australia. Built at Regensburg in March , same batch from which the Deutsches Museum White 3 was built. Flown by Fahnenjunker Oberfeldwebel Fröhlich and surrendered at Fassberg. It remains the only Me left in existence wearing original (albeit worn, as seen in the picture) colours. Its markings show both the Unit signatures along with the Air Ministry colours applied at Farnborough, where it was allocated reference Air Min 81. Restoration was completed in and the aircraft was put up on display. The Australian War Memorial's website states that the aircraft "is the only Me bomber variant to survive, and is the only remaining Me wearing its original paint".[]
Me B-1a/U1, mlbjerseyschina.us Red 8
South African National Museum of Military History, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Me B-1a, mlbjerseyschina.us White 35
National Museum of Naval Aviation, Pensacola, Florida (previously at NAS/JRB Willow Grove, Willow Grove, Pennsylvania, US)
Avia S
Prague Aviation Museum, Kbely, Prague, Czech Republic.
Avia CS
Prague Aviation Museum, Kbely, Prague, Czech Republic.

Specifications (Messerschmitt Me A-1a)[edit]

3-view drawing of the Messerschmitt Me

Data from Quest for Performance[22] Original Messerschmitt documents

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: &#;m (34&#;ft 9&#;in)
  • Wingspan: &#;m (41&#;ft 4&#;in)
  • Height: &#;m (11&#;ft 6&#;in)
  • Wing area: &#;m2 (&#;sq&#;ft)
  • Aspect ratio:
  • Empty weight: 3,&#;kg (8,&#;lb) []
  • Gross weight: 6,&#;kg (14,&#;lb) []
  • Max takeoff weight: 7,&#;kg (15,&#;lb) []
  • Powerplant: 2 × Junkers Jumo B-1 axial-flow turbojet engines, &#;kN (1,&#;lbf) thrust each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: &#;km/h (&#;mph, &#;kn)
  • Range: 1,&#;km (&#;mi, &#;nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 11,&#;m (37,&#;ft)
  • Rate of climb: 20&#;m/s (3,&#;ft/min) at max weight of 7,&#;kg (15,&#;lb)
  • Thrust/weight:

Armament

  • Guns: 4 × 30 mm MK cannon (the A-2a had only two cannons)
  • Rockets: 24 × 55&#;mm (&#;in) R4M rockets
  • Bombs: 2 × &#;kg (&#;lb) bombs or 2 × &#;kg (1,&#;lb) bombs (A-2a variant)

Notable appearances in media[edit]

Main article: Messerschmitt Me in fiction

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Morgan and Weal estimate that jet fighters of all types produced victories.
  2. ^The nosewheel was a 66&#;cm ×&#;16&#;cm (&#;in ×&#;&#;in) item identical to the Bf F's main gear wheel, fitted with a Buna rubber tire and pneumatic drum brake.
  3. ^According to Stapfer, the smaller fuel tank had a capacity of up to US gallons ( imperial gallons; litres).
  4. ^By comparison, a new Volkswagen Type 1 was priced at RM[38]
  5. ^For a list of Luftwaffe jet aces, see List of German World War II jet aces
  6. ^The leading edge slats, manufactured by Arwa Strumpfwerke of Auerbach, were divided into three unconnected sections on each wing and each was fastened to the wing by two hinges. The slats lowered the stalling speed of the aircraft to roughly to &#;km/h (86 to 92&#;kn; 99 to &#;mph) depending on load out. They deployed automatically below &#;km/h (&#;kn; &#;mph) on takeoff or landing and at &#;km/h (&#;kn; &#;mph) in turn or climb.
  7. ^According to aviation historian Mike Spick, it could take eight Mustangs to neutralize a single Me , by continually cutting across the circle inside it. Against multiple jet attackers, an effective defense was simply impossible.[70]
  8. ^Other aircraft based there included Bf and Fw day fighters and Bf and He night fighters. The base was closer to the town of Hopsten than the city of Rheine and is no longer active.
  9. ^As well as the flak guns, several piston engine fighter units based in the area were tasked to cover the jets as they landed.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ abBalous et al. , p.
  2. ^Kitchen, Martin (). Speer: Hitler's Architect. Yale University Press. pp.&#; & ISBN&#;.
  3. ^ abcdeChristopher, John. The Race for Hitler's X-Planes (The Mill, Gloucestershire: History Press, ), p.
  4. ^ abChristopher, p.
  5. ^ abChristopher, p.
  6. ^Bölkow, L. "Mit dem Pfeilflügel zum Hochgeschwindigkeitsflug." 50 Jahre Turbostrahlflug. Bonn: DGLR-Bericht, , pp. –
  7. ^Lednicer, David. The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage. Champaign, Illinois: UIUC Applied Aerodynamics Group, Retrieved: 19 May
  8. ^"Stormbirds History."mlbjerseyschina.us. Retrieved 19 May
  9. ^Speer , p.
  10. ^ abLoftin, L.K. Jr. Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft.NASA SP. Retrieved: 25 September Chapter 11 Part 2
  11. ^Christopher, John. The Race for Hitler's X-Planes (History Press, The Mill, Gloucestershire, , p.
  12. ^Operational performance and deployment of Me Major Ernst Englander.
  13. ^ abcdefghijFord, Roger (). Germany's Secret Weapons of World War II. London, United Kingdom: Amber Books. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  14. ^Warsitz , p.
  15. ^ abMeher-Homji; Cyrus B. (). "The Development of the Junkers Jumo B". Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. (4): doi/
  16. ^CIOS XXIV-6 "Gas Turbine Development: BMW-Junkers-Daimler-Benz" London, p. 24
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  18. ^Sir Frank Whittle, Jet: the Story of a Pioneer () pp. 92–93
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  20. ^Smith , p.
  21. ^Oliver, Kingsley M. The RAF Regiment at War –. Great Britain: Pen & Sword. pp.&#;–
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  23. ^de Zeng, H.L.; Stankey, D.G.; Creek, Eddie J. (). Bomber Units of the Luftwaffe –; A Reference Source, Volume 1. Ian Allan Publishing. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  24. ^Bergstrom, Christer (). = Bagration to Berlin: The Final Air Battles in the East: –. Great Britain: Ian Allan. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  25. ^Bergstrom, Christer (). = Bagration to Berlin: The Final Air Battles in the East: –. Great Britain: Ian Allan. pp.&#;– ISBN&#;.
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  32. ^ abThompson with Smith , p.
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  34. ^Brown , p.
  35. ^Press, Merriam (). World War 2 In Review No. German Airpower. mlbjerseyschina.us ISBN&#;.
  36. ^Spick , pp. –
  37. ^"Theories of Flight devices."mlbjerseyschina.us, Retrieved: 11 April
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  40. ^Spick , p.
  41. ^ abLevine , pp. ,
  42. ^Forsyth , pp. ,
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  46. ^Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, p.
  47. ^"Hawker Tempest."mlbjerseyschina.us Retrieved: 1 January
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  49. ^"Die Geschichte des Fliegerhorstes"mlbjerseyschina.us Retrieved: 7 July
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  51. ^Thomas and Shores , p.
  52. ^Carruthers, Bob (). Me. Stormbird ascending. Barnsley. ISBN&#;. OCLC&#;
  53. ^Flying Review, s, date unknown
  54. ^ de Bie, Rob. "Me B Komet – Me Production – Me B: Werknummern list."mlbjerseyschina.us Retrieved: 28 July
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  57. ^Blue, Allan G. "st Mission List – June TO April "Archived 5 September at the Wayback Machinemlbjerseyschina.us. Retrieved: 11 April
  58. ^Haunschmied et al. , p.
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  60. ^Pfeffer, Anshel. "Dark skies". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 6 July
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  62. ^Ethell and Price , p.
  63. ^Butler , p.&#;[page&#;needed].
  64. ^Blair ,[page&#;needed]
  65. ^"Aircraft Profiles: Configuration data."Me Project.. Retrieved 29 January
  66. ^Jim "Me Flys Again!" &#; via YouTube.
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  68. ^Bailey, Stewart. "New Me Reproduction lands at the Museum."Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum, 25 June Retrieved: 7 June
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  70. ^ abc"Luftwaffe Reconnaissance Camera Systems". mlbjerseyschina.us. Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 14 July
  71. ^Smith, J. Richard; Creek, Eddie (). Jet Planes of the Third Reich. Boylston, MA USA: Monogram Aviation Publications. pp.&#;–, – ISBN&#;.
  72. ^Reddin, Shamus. "Me Heimatschützer I. The Walter S1 Assisted Take-Off Unit."Archived 27 April at the Wayback MachineWalter Website (archived), 27 April Retrieved: 10 August
  73. ^"Video of BMW rocket engine test firing on this aircraft."German Jet Power, 1 August Retrieved: 10 August
  74. ^Baker, David (). Messerschmitt Me . Marlborough, Wiltshire [England]: Crowood. ISBN&#;.
  75. ^Reddin, Shamus. "Me Heimatschützer IV. The Walter S2 Assisted Take-Off Unit."Archived 27 April at the Wayback MachineWalter Website (archived), 27 April Retrieved: 10 August
  76. ^Green, William (28 March ). Famous Fighters Of The Second World War, Volume One. Pickle Partners Publishing. ISBN&#;.
  77. ^ abcLuftwaffe Secret Projects Fighters – by Walter Schick, Ingolf Meyer, Elke Weal, John Weal
  78. ^ abcmesserschmitt Geheimprojekte by Willy radinger and Walter Schick
  79. ^ abcLuftwaffe Secret Projects Fighters – by Walter Schick, Ingolf Meyer, Elke Weal, John Weal p. 85
  80. ^Peçzkowski, Robert ().
Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

Messerschmitt Me

World's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft

The Messerschmitt Me , nicknamed Schwalbe (German: "Swallow") in fighter versions, or Sturmvogel (German: "Storm Bird") in fighter-bomber versions, was the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft. Design work started before World War II began, but problems with engines, metallurgy and top-level interference kept the aircraft from operational status with the Luftwaffe until mid The Me was faster and more heavily armed than any Allied fighter, including the British jet-powered Gloster Meteor, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. One of the most advanced aviation designs in operational use during World War II, the Me 's roles included light bomber, reconnaissance and experimentalnight fighter versions.

Me pilots claimed a total of Allied aircraft shot down, although higher claims are sometimes made.[Note 1] The Allies countered its effectiveness in 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen air by attacking the aircraft on the ground and during takeoff and landing. Strategic materials shortages and design compromises on the Junkers Jumo axial-flow turbojet engines led to reliability problems. Attacks by Allied forces on fuel supplies during the deteriorating late-war situation also reduced the effectiveness of the aircraft as a fighting force. Armament production within Germany was focused on more easily manufactured aircraft.[9] In the end, the Me had a negligible impact on the course of the war as a result of its late introduction and the consequently small numbers put in operational service.

While German use of the aircraft ended with the close of World War II, a small number were operated by the Czechoslovak Air Force until It also heavily influenced several designs, such as the Sukhoi Su-9 () and Nakajima Kikka. Captured Me s were studied and flight-tested by the major powers, and ultimately influenced the designs of post-war 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen such as the North American F Sabre, MiG and Boeing B Stratojet. Several aircraft survive on static display in museums, and there are several privately built flying reproductions that use modern General Electric J85 engines.

Design and development[edit]

Origins[edit]

Several years before World War II, the Germans foresaw the great potential for aircraft that used the jet engine constructed by Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain in After the successful test flights of the world's first jet aircraft—the Heinkel He —within a week of the invasion of Poland to start the war, they adopted the jet engine for an advanced fighter aircraft. As a result, the Me was already under development as Projekt (P) before the start of World War II. The project originated with a request by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM, Ministry of Aviation) for a jet aircraft capable of one hour's endurance and a speed of at least &#;km/h (&#;mph; &#;kn).[11]Woldemar Voigt headed the design team, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, with Messerschmitt's chief of development, Robert Lusser, overseeing.[11]

Plans were first drawn up in Apriland the original design was very different from the aircraft that eventually entered service, with wing root-mounted engines,[11] rather than podded ones, when submitted in June [11] The progression of the original design was delayed greatly by technical issues involving the new jet engine. Because the engines were slow to arrive, Messerschmitt moved the engines from the wing roots to underwing pods, allowing them to be changed more readily if needed; this would turn out to be important, both for availability and maintenance.[12] Since the BMW jets proved heavier than anticipated, the wing was swept slightly, by °, to accommodate a change in the center of gravity.[12] Funding for the jet engine program was also initially lacking as many high-ranking officials thought the war could easily be won with conventional aircraft. Among those were Hermann Göring, head of the Luftwaffe, who cut the engine development program to just 35 engineers in February (the month before the first wooden mock-up was completed);[11]Willy Messerschmitt, who desired to maintain mass production of the piston-powered, origin Bf and the projected Me ; and Major GeneralAdolf Galland, who had initially supported Messerschmitt through the early development years, flying the Me himself on 22 April By that time, problems with engine development had slowed production of the aircraft considerably. One particularly acute problem arose with the lack of an alloy with a melting point high enough to endure the high temperatures involved, a problem that by the end of the war had not been adequately resolved. The aircraft made its first successful flight entirely on jet power on 18 Julypowered by a pair of Jumo engines, after a November flight (with BMW s) ended in a double flameout.[14]

The project aerodynamicist on the design of the Me was Ludwig Bölkow. He initially designed the wing using NACAairfoils modified with an elliptical nose section.[15] Later in the design process, these were changed to AVL derivatives of NACA airfoils, the NACA being used at the root and the NACA at the tip.[16] The elliptical nose derivatives of the NACA airfoils were used on the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces. Wings were of single-spar cantilever construction, with stressed skins, varying from 3&#;mm (&#;in) skin thickness at the root to 1&#;mm (&#;in) at the tip. To expedite construction, save weight and use less strategic materials, late in the war, wing interiors were not painted. The wings were fastened to the fuselage at four points, using a pair of 20&#;mm (&#;in) and forty-two 8&#;mm (&#;in) bolts.

In mid, Adolf Hitler envisioned the Me as a ground-attack/bomber aircraft rather than a defensive interceptor. The configuration of a high-speed, light-payload Schnellbomber ("fast bomber") was intended to penetrate enemy airspace during the expected Allied invasion of France. His edict resulted in the development of (and concentration on) the Sturmvogel variant. It is debatable to what extent Hitler's interference extended the delay in bringing the Schwalbe into operation;[19] it appears engine vibration issues were at least as costly, if not more so.[14]Albert Speer, then Minister of Armaments and War Production, in his memoirs claimed Hitler originally had blocked mass production of the Mebefore agreeing in early Hitler rejected arguments the aircraft would be more effective as a fighter against the Allied bombers destroying large parts of Germany and wanted it as a bomber for revenge attacks. According to Speer, Hitler felt its superior speed compared to other fighters of the era meant it could not be attacked, and so preferred it for high altitude straight flying.[21]

The Me is often referred to as a "swept wing" design as the production aircraft had a small, but significant leading edge sweep of ° which likely provided an advantage by increasing the critical Mach number.[22] Sweep, uncommon at the time, was added after the initial design of the aircraft. The engines proved heavier than originally expected, and the sweep was added primarily to position the center of lift properly relative to the center of mass. (The original 35° sweep, proposed by Adolf Busemann, was not adopted.)[23] On 1 Marchinstead of moving the wing backward on its mount, the outer wing was re-positioned slightly aft; the trailing edge of the midsection of the wing remained unswept. Based on data from the AVA Göttingen and wind tunnel results, the inboard section's leading edge (between the nacelle and wing root) was later swept to the same angle as the outer panels, from the "V6" sixth prototype onward throughout volume production.

Test flights[edit]

Testing showed that the Me handled much better than previous fighters such as the Bf or Fw Handling was so improved over the previous aircraft that a report by Major Ernst Englander stated that any Bf pilot could convert to the Me with only an hour of instruction. According to his report, even bomber pilots who converted to fly the Me only required three instruction flights, and less than 5% had any difficulty retraining. The Me had a gentle stall and gentle landing characteristics compared to previous German fighters. Its handling improved with speed and would lose much less speed during turning. It had a cruising speed of mph, which was faster than the top speed of most other fighters of the day. It also had far better visibility in every 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen compared to previous German fighters. Due to lack of engine torque, if a single engine was lost the aircraft remained easily controlled and landed without issue. Its only major deficiency was that brakes could not be used until the nose wheel had touched down, because engaging them before would smash the nose wheel strongly into the runway, potentially destroying the nose wheel and the aircraft. The quality of the aircraft was high, with only 10% of aircraft returned for minor defects such as wings being out of alignment by under 1 degree. It could reach mph without issue, although because it could reach extreme speeds in dives, components such as bomb racks would sometimes tear off.[26][unreliable source?]

Test flights began on 18 Aprilwith the Me V1 example, bearing its Stammkennzeichen radio code letters of PC+UA, but since its intended BMW turbojets were not ready for fitting, a conventional Junkers Jumo engine was mounted in the V1 prototype's nose, driving a propeller, to test the Me V1 airframe.[27] When the BMW engines were installed, the Jumo was retained for safety, which proved wise as both s failed during the first flight and the pilot had to land using the nose-mounted engine alone. The V1 through V4 prototype airframes all possessed what would become an uncharacteristic feature for most later jet aircraft designs, a fully retracting conventional gear setup with a retracting tailwheel—indeed, the very first prospective German "jet fighter" airframe design ever flown, the Heinkel Heused a retractable tricycle landing gear from its beginnings and flying on jet power alone as early as the end of March

Silhouette of the V3 prototype – V1 through V4 similar. Note retracting conventional 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen wheel gear

The V3 third prototype airframe, with the code PC+UC, became a true jet when it flew on 18 July in Leipheim near Günzburg, Germany, piloted by test pilot Fritz Wendel.[28] This was almost nine months ahead of the British Gloster Meteor's first flight on 5 March Its retracting conventional tail wheel gear (similar to other contemporary piston-powered propeller aircraft), a feature shared with the first four Me V-series airframes, caused its jet exhaust to deflect off the runway, with the wing's turbulence negating the effects of the elevators, and the first takeoff attempt was cut short.

On the second attempt, Wendel solved the problem by tapping the aircraft's brakes at takeoff speed, lifting the horizontal tail out of the wing's turbulence. The aforementioned initial four prototypes (V1-V4) were built with the conventional gear configuration. Changing to a tricycle arrangement—a permanently fixed undercarriage on the fifth prototype (V5, code PC+UE), with the definitive fully retractable nosewheel gear on the V6 (with Stammkennzeichen code VI+AA, from a new code block) and subsequent aircraft corrected this problem.[Note 2]

Test flights continued over the next year, but engine problems continued to plague the project, the Jumo being only marginally more reliable than the lower-thrust (&#;kN/1,&#;lbf) BMW Airframe modifications were complete by but, hampered by the lack of engines, serial production did not begin untiland deliveries were low, with 28 Me s in June, 59 in July, but only 20 in August.[page&#;needed]

By Summerthe Jumo A engine had passed several hour tests, with a time between overhauls of 50 hours being achieved.[32] However, the Jumo A engine proved unsuitable for full-scale production because of its considerable weight and its high utilization of strategic material (Ni, Co, Mo), which were in short supply. Consequently, the B engine was designed to use a minimum amount of strategic materials. All high heat-resistant metal parts, including the combustion chamber, were changed to mild steel (SAE ) and were protected only against oxidation by aluminum coating. The total engine represented a design compromise to minimize the use of strategic materials and to simplify manufacture.[32] With the lower-quality steels used in the B, the engine required overhaul after just 25 hours for a metallurgical test on the turbine. If it passed the test, the engine was refitted for a further 10 hours of usage, but 35 hours marked the absolute limit for the turbine wheel.[33] While BMW's and Junkers' axial compressor turbojet engines were characterised by a sophisticated design that could offer a considerable advantage – also used in a generalized form for the contemporary American Westinghouse J30 turbojet – the lack of rare materials for the Jumo design put it at a disadvantage compared to the "partly axial-flow" Power Jets W.2/ turbojet engine which, despite its own largely centrifugal compressor-influenced design, provided (between an operating overhaul interval of 60–65 hours[34]) an operational life span of hours. Frank Whittle concludes in his final assessment over the two engines: "it was in the quality of high temperature materials that the difference between German and British engines was most marked"[35]

Operationally, carrying 2, litres ( imperial gallons; US gallons) of fuel in two litre (imperial-gallon; US-gallon) tanks, one each fore and aft of the cockpit; and a litre (imperial-gallon; US-gallon) ventral fuselage tank beneath,[Note 3] the Me would have a total flight endurance of 60 to 90 minutes. Fuel was usually J2 (derived from brown coal), with the option of diesel or a mixture of oil and high octane B4 aviation petrol. Fuel consumption was double the rate of typical twin-engine fighter aircraft of the era, which led to the installation of a low-fuel warning indicator in the cockpit that notified pilots when remaining fuel fell below &#;l (55&#;imp&#;gal; 66&#;US&#;gal).

Unit cost for an Me airframe, less engines, armament, and electronics, was 87, RM.[Note 4] To build one airframe took around 6,man-hours.

Operational history[edit]

Me A-1a on display at RAF Cosford. Some A-1a aircraft (including this example), like the A-2a bomber variant, attached additional hardpoints for extra weapons near the ejector chutes of the cannons, such as a bomb rack under each side of the nose.

Introduction[edit]

On 19 AprilErprobungskommando was formed at Lechfeld just south of Augsburg, as a test unit (Jäger Erprobungskommando Thierfelder, commanded by HauptmannWerner Thierfelder) to introduce the Me into service and train a corps of pilots to fly it. On 26 JulyLeutnant Alfred Schreiber with the A-1a mlbjerseyschina.us damaged a Mosquito reconnaissance aircraft of No. Squadron RAF PR Squadron, which was allegedly lost in a crash upon landing at an air base in Italy. Other sources state the aircraft was damaged during evasive manoeuvres and escaped.

Major Walter Nowotny was assigned as commander after the death of Thierfelder in Julyand the unit redesignated Kommando Nowotny. Essentially a trials and development unit, it mounted the world's first jet fighter operations. Trials continued slowly, with initial operational missions against the Allies in Augustand the unit made claims for 19 Allied aircraft in exchange for six Me s lost.[43]

Despite orders to stay grounded, Nowotny chose to fly a mission against an enemy bomber formation flying some 9,&#;m (30,&#;ft) above, on 8 November He claimed two PDs destroyed before suffering engine failure at high altitude. Then, while diving and trying to restart his engines, he was attacked by other Mustangs, forced to bail out, and died. The Kommando was then withdrawn for further flight training and a revision of combat tactics to optimise the Me 's strengths.[citation needed]

On 26 Novembera Me A-2a Sturmvogel of III.Gruppe/KG 51 'Edelweiß' based at Rheine-Hopsten Air Base near Osnabrück was the first confirmed ground-to-air kill 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen a jet combat aircraft. The Me was shot down by a Bofors gun of B Detachment of Squadron RAF Regiment at the RAF forward airfield of Helmond, near Eindhoven. Others were lost to ground fire on 17 and 18 December when the same airfield was attacked at intervals by a total of 18 Me s and the guns of and Squadrons RAF Regiment damaged several, causing at least two to crash within a few miles of the ESET NOD32 Antivirus 14.2.24.0 Crack With License Key Full Download 2021. In Februarya B.6 gun detachment of Squadron RAF Regiment shot down another Me over the airfield of Volkel. The final appearance of s over Volkel was in when yet another fell to 's guns.[45]

By JanuaryJagdgeschwader 7 (JG 7) had been formed as a pure jet fighter wing, partly based at Parchim[46] although it was several weeks before it was operational. In the meantime, a bomber unit—I Gruppe, Kampfgeschwader 54 (KG(J) 54)—redesignated as such on 1 October [47] through being re-equipped with, and trained to use the Me A-2a fighter-bomber for use in a ground-attack role. However, the unit lost 12 jets in action in two weeks for minimal returns.[citation needed]Jagdverband 44 (JV 44) was another Me fighter unit, of squadron (Staffel) size given the low numbers of available personnel, formed in February by Lieutenant General Adolf Galland, who had recently been dismissed as Inspector of Fighters. Galland was able to draw into the unit many of the most experienced and decorated Luftwaffe fighter pilots from other units grounded by lack of fuel.

During March, Me fighter units were able, for the first time, to mount large-scale attacks on Allied bomber formations. On 18 Marchthirty-seven Me s of JG 7 intercepted a 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen of 1, bombers and escorting fighters. They shot down 12 bombers and one fighter for the loss of three Me s. Although a ratio was exactly what the Luftwaffe would have needed to make an impact on the war, the absolute scale of their success was minor, as it represented only 1% of the attacking force.

In the last days of the war, Me s from JG 7 and other units were committed in ground assault missions, in an attempt to support German troops fighting Red Army forces. Just south of Berlin, halfway between Spremberg and the German capital, Wehrmacht's 9th Army (with elements from the 12 Army and 4th Panzer Army) was assaulting the Red Army's 1st Ukrainian Front. To support this attack, on 24 April, JG 7 dispatched thirty-one Me s on a strafing mission in the Cottbus-Bautzen area. Luftwaffe pilots claimed six lorries and seven Soviet aircraft, but three German jets were lost. On the evening of 27 April, thirty-six Me s from JG 7, mlbjerseyschina.us(J)6 and KJ(J)54 were sent against Soviet forces that were attacking German troops in the forests north-east of Baruth. They succeeded in strafing 65 Soviet lorries, after which the Me s intercepted low flying Il-2 Sturmoviks searching for German tanks. The jet pilots claimed six Sturmoviks for the loss of three Messerschmitts. During operations between 28 April and 1 May Soviet fighters and ground fire downed at least ten more Me s from JG 7.[49] However, JG 7 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen to keep its jets operational until the end of the war. And on 8 May, at around &#;p.m. Oblt. Fritz Stehle of 2./JG 7, while flying a Me on the Erzgebirge, attacked a formation of Soviet aircraft. He claimed a Yakovlev Yak-9, but the plane shot down was probably a P Airacobra. Soviet records show that they lost two Airacobras, one of them probably downed by Stehle, who would thus have scored the 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen Luftwaffe air victory of the war.[50]

Me B-1a/U1 night fighter, Wrknr.with FuG Neptunantennae in the nose and second seat for a radar operator. This airframe was surrendered to the RAF at Schleswig in May and taken to the UK for testing.

Several two-seat trainer variants Category Archives: Sound Enhancer tool the Methe Me B-1a, had been adapted through the Umrüst-Bausatz 1 factory refit package as night fighters, complete with on-board FuG Neptun high-VHF band radar, using Hirschgeweih ("stag's antlers") antennae with a set of dipole elements shorter than the Lichtenstein SN-2 had used, as the B-1a/U1 version. Serving with StaffelNachtjagdgeschwader 11, near Berlin, these few aircraft (alongside several single-seat examples) accounted for most of the 13 Mosquitoes lost over Berlin in the first three months of [51] Intercepts were generally or entirely made using Wilde Sau methods, rather than AI radar-controlled interception, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. As the two-seat trainer was largely unavailable, many pilots made their first jet flight in a single-seater without an instructor.[52]

Despite its deficiencies, the Me clearly marked the beginning of the end of piston-engined aircraft as effective fighting machines. Once airborne, it could accelerate to speeds over &#;km/h (&#;mph), about &#;km/h (93&#;mph) faster than any Allied fighter operational in the European Theater of Operations.[53]

The Me 's top ace[Note 5] was probably HauptmannFranz Schall with 17 kills, including six four-engine bombers and ten P Mustang fighters, although fighter ace OberleutnantKurt Welter claimed 25 Mosquitos and two four-engine bombers shot down by night and two further Mosquitos by day. Most of Welter's claimed night kills 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen achieved by eye, even though Welter had tested a prototype Me fitted with FuG Neptun radar. Another candidate for top ace on the aircraft was OberstleutnantHeinrich Bär, who is credited with 16 enemy aircraft[54] while flying Mes out of his total of aircraft shot down.[55]

Anti-bomber tactics[edit]

The other main USAAF bomber was the B Liberator. This aircraft "Do Bunny" was shot down by a Me on 25 March over Soltau, Germany

The Me was so fast that German pilots needed new tactics to attack Allied bombers. In the head-on attack, the combined closing speed of about &#;m/s (&#;mph) was too high for accurate shooting, with ordnance that could only fire about 44 shells a second ( rounds/min from each cannon) in total from the quartet of them. Even from astern, the closing speed was too great to use the short-ranged quartet of MK cannon to maximum effect. Therefore, a roller-coaster attack was devised. The Me s approached from astern and about 1,&#;m higher (5,&#;ft) than the bombers. From about five&#;km behind (&#;mi), they went into a shallow dive that took them through the escort fighters with little risk of interception. When they were about &#;km astern (&#;mi) and &#;m (1,&#;ft) below the bombers, they pulled up sharply to reduce speed. On levelling off, they were one&#;km astern (1,&#;yd) and overtaking the bombers at about &#;km/h (93&#;mph), well placed to attack them.[56]

Since the 30mm MK cannon's short barrels and low muzzle velocity (only &#;m/s (1,&#;km/h; 1,&#;mph)) rendered it inaccurate beyond &#;m (&#;yd; 2,&#;ft), coupled with the jet's velocity, which required breaking off at &#;m (&#;yd; &#;ft) to avoid colliding with the target, Me pilots normally commenced firing at &#;m (&#;yd; 1,&#;ft).[57] Gunners of Allied bomber aircraft found their electrically powered gun turrets had problems tracking the jets. Target acquisition was difficult because the jets closed into firing range quickly and remained in firing position only briefly, using their standard attack profile, which proved more effective.[58]

Mock-up of an Me A-1a/R7 with R4M underwing rocket racks on display at the Technikmuseum Speyer, Germany.

A prominent Royal Navy test pilot, Captain Eric Brown, chief naval test pilot and commanding officer of the Captured Enemy Aircraft Flight Royal Aircraft Establishment, who tested the Me noted:

This was a Blitzkrieg aircraft. You whack in at your bomber. It was never meant to be a dogfighter, it was meant to be a destroyer of bombers The great problem with it was it did not have dive brakes. For example, if you want to fight and destroy a B, you come in on a dive. The 30mm cannon were 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen so accurate beyond metres [&#;yd; 2,&#;ft]. So you normally came in at yards [&#;m; 1,&#;ft] and would open fire on your B And your closing speed was still high and since you had to break away at metres [&#;yd; &#;ft] to 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen a collision, you only had two seconds firing time. Now, in two seconds, you can't sight. You can fire randomly and hope for the best. If you want to sight and fire, you need to double that time to four seconds. And with dive brakes, you could have done that.[57]

Eventually, German pilots developed new combat tactics to counter Allied bombers' defences. Me s, equipped with up to 24 unguided folding-fin R4M rockets—12 in each of two underwing racks, outboard of the engine nacelle—approached from the side of a bomber formation, where their silhouettes were widest, and while still out of range of the bombers' machine guns, fired a salvo of rockets with strongly brisantHexogen-filled warheads, exactly the same explosive in the shells fired by the Me A's quartet of MK cannon. One or two of these rockets could down even the famously rugged Boeing B Flying Fortress,[59] from the "metal-shattering" brisant effect of the fast-flying rocket's &#;g (18&#;oz) explosive warhead. The much more massive BR 21 large-calibre rockets, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, used from their tubular launchers in undernose locations for an Me A's use (one either side of the nosewheel well) were only as fast as the MK 's shells.

Though this broadside-attack tactic was effective, it came too late to have a real effect on the war, and only small numbers of Me s were equipped with the rocket packs. Most of those so equipped were Me A-1a models, members of Jagdgeschwader 7. This method of attacking bombers became the standard, and mass deployment of Ruhrstahl X-4 guided missiles was cancelled. Some nicknamed this tactic the Luftwaffe's Wolf Pack, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, as the fighters often made runs in groups of two or three, fired their rockets, then returned to base. On 1 SeptemberUSAAF GeneralCarl Spaatz expressed the fear that if greater numbers of German jets appeared, they could inflict losses heavy enough to force cancellation of the Allied bombing offensive by daylight.[62]

Counter-jet tactics[edit]

This airframe, Wrknr. , was the first Me to come into Allied hands when its German test pilot defected on 31 March The aircraft was then shipped to the United States for testing.

The Me was difficult to counter because its high speed and rate of climb made it hard to intercept. However, as with other turbojet engines at the time, the Me 's engines did not provide sufficient thrust at low airspeeds and throttle response was slow, so that in certain circumstances such as takeoff and landing the aircraft became a vulnerable target. Another disadvantage that 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen jet aircraft of the World War II era shared, was the high risk of compressor stall and if throttle movements were too rapid, the engine(s) could suffer a flameout. The coarse opening of the throttle would cause fuel surging and lead to excessive jet pipe temperatures. Pilots were instructed to operate the throttle gently and avoid quick changes. German engineers introduced an automatic throttle regulator later in the war but it only partly alleviated the problem.[citation needed]

The plane had, by contemporary standards, a high wing loading (&#;kg/m2, &#;lbs/ft2) that required higher takeoff and landing speeds. Due to poor throttle response, the engines' tendency for airflow disruption that could cause the compressor to stall was ubiquitous. The high speed of the Me also presented problems when engaging enemy aircraft, the high-speed convergence allowing Me pilots little time to line up their targets or acquire the appropriate amount of deflection. This problem faces any aircraft that approaches another from behind at much higher speed, as the slower aircraft in front can always pull a tighter turn, forcing the faster aircraft to overshoot.[citation needed]

I passed one that looked as if it was hanging motionless in the air (I am too fast!). The one above me went into a steep right-hand turn, his pale blue underside standing out against the purple sky. Another banked right in front of the Me's nose. Violent jolt as I flew through his airscrew eddies. Maybe a wing's length away. That one in the gentle left-hand curve! Swing her round. I was coming from underneath, eye glued to the sight (pull her tighter!). A throbbing in the wings as my cannon pounded briefly. Missed him. Way behind his tail. It was exasperating. I would never be able to shoot one down like this. They were like a sack of fleas. A prick of doubt: is this really such a good fighter? Could one in fact, successfully attack a group of erratically banking fighters with the Me ?

—&#;Johannes Steinhoff, Luftwaffe fighter ace[64]

Luftwaffe pilots eventually learned how to handle the Me 's higher speed and the Me soon proved a formidable air superiority fighter, with pilots such as Franz Schall managing to shoot down seventeen enemy fighters in the Meten of them American P Mustangs. Other notable Me aces included Georg-Peter Eder, with twelve enemy fighters to his credit (including nine Ps), Erich Rudorffer also with twelve enemy fighters to his credit, Walther Dahl with eleven (including three Lavochkin La-7s and six Ps) and Heinz-Helmut Baudach with six (including one Spitfire and two Ps) amongst many others.[citation needed]

Pilots soon learned that the Me was quite maneuverable despite its high wing loading and lack of low-speed thrust, especially if attention was drawn to its effective maneuvering speeds. The controls were light and effective right up to the maximum permissible speed and perfectly harmonised. The inclusion of full span automatic leading-edge slats,[Note 6] something of a "tradition" on Messerschmitt fighters dating back to the original Bf 's outer wing slots of a similar type, helped increase the overall lift produced by the wing by as much as 35% in tight turns or at low speeds, greatly improving the aircraft's turn performance as well as its landing and takeoff characteristics.[67] As many pilots soon found out, the Me 's clean design also meant that it, like all jets, held its speed in tight turns much better than conventional propeller-driven fighters, which was a great potential advantage in a dogfight as it meant better energy retention in maneuvers.[68][69]

January Me being shot down. Note jettisoned canopy and empty cockpit. As seen from USAAFP Mustang gun camera

Too fast to catch for the escorting Allied fighters, the Me s were almost impossible to head off. [Note 7] As a result, Me pilots were relatively safe from the Allied fighters, as long as they did not allow themselves to get drawn into low-speed turning contests 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen saved their maneuvering for higher speeds. Combating the Allied fighters could be effectively done the same way as the U.S. fighters fought the more nimble, but slower, Japanese fighters in the Pacific.[citation needed]

Allied pilots soon found that the only reliable way to destroy the jets, as with the even faster Me B Komet rocket fighters, was to attack them on the ground or during takeoff or landing. Luftwaffe airfields identified as jet bases were frequently bombed by medium bombers, and Allied fighters patrolled over the fields to attack jets trying to land. The Luftwaffe countered by installing extensive Flak alleys of anti-aircraft guns along the approach lines to protect the Me s from the ground—and by providing top cover during the jets' takeoff and landing with the most advanced Luftwaffe single-engined fighters, the Focke-Wulf Fw D and (just becoming available in ) Focke-Wulf Ta H.[71] Nevertheless, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, in March–AprilAllied fighter patrol patterns over Me airfields resulted in numerous jet losses.[citation needed]

As the Me A's pioneering Junkers Jumo axial-flowjet engines needed careful nursing by their pilots, these jet aircraft were particularly vulnerable during takeoff and landing.[72] Lt. Chuck Yeager of the th Fighter Group was one of the first American pilots to shoot down an Mewhich he caught during its landing approach.[73][74] On 7 OctoberLt. Urban Drew of the th Fighter Group shot down two Me s that were taking off, while on the same day Lt. Col. Hubert Zemke, who had transferred to the Mustang equipped th Fighter Group, shot down what he thought was a Bfonly to have his gun camera film reveal that it may have been an Me [75] On 25 FebruaryMustangs of the 55th Fighter Group surprised an entire Staffel of Me As at takeoff and destroyed six jets.[76]

The British Hawker Tempest scored several kills against the new German jets, including the Messerschmitt Me Hubert Lange, a Me pilot, said: "the Messerschmitt Me 's most dangerous opponent was the British Hawker Tempest—extremely fast at low altitudes, highly manoeuvrable and heavily armed."[77] Some were 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen with a tactic known to the Tempest-equipped No. Wing RAF as the "Rat Scramble":[78] Tempests on immediate alert took off when an Me was reported airborne. They did not intercept the jet, but instead flew towards the Me and Ar base at Hopsten air base.[79][Note 8] The aim was to attack jets on their landing approach, when they were at their most vulnerable, travelling slowly, with flaps down and incapable of rapid acceleration. The German response was the construction of a "flak lane" of over emplacements of the 20&#;mm Flakvierling quadruple autocannon batteries at 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen to protect the approaches.[80][Note 9] After seven Tempests were lost to flak at Hopsten in a week, the "Rat Scramble" was discontinued.[81]

High-speed research[edit]

Adolf Busemann had proposed swept wings as early as ; Messerschmitt researched the topic from In AprilBusemann proposed fitting a 35° swept wing (Pfeilflügel II, literally "arrow 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen II") to the Methe same wing-sweep angle later used on both the American F Sabre and Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG fighter jets. Though this was not implemented, he continued with the projected HG II and HG III (Hochgeschwindigkeit, "high-speed") derivatives indesigned with a 35° and 45° wing sweep, respectively.

Interest in high-speed flight, which led him to initiate work on swept wings starting inis evident from the advanced developments Messerschmitt had on his drawing board in While the Me V9 Hochgeschwindigkeit I (HG I) flight-tested in had only small changes compared to combat aircraft, most notably a low-profile canopy—tried as the Rennkabine (literally "racing cabin") on the ninth Me prototype for a short time—to reduce drag, the HG II and HG III designs were far more radical. The projected HG II combined the low-drag canopy with a 35° wing sweep and a V-tail (butterfly tail). The HG III had a conventional tail, but a 45° wing sweep and turbines embedded in the wing roots.

Messerschmitt also conducted a series of flight tests with the series production Me Dive tests determined that the Me went out of control in a dive at Mach&#;, and that higher Mach numbers would cause a nose-down trim that the pilot could not counter. The resulting steepening of the dive would lead to even higher speeds and the airframe would disintegrate from excessive negative g loads.[citation needed]

Messerschmitt believed the HG 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen of Me derivatives was capable of reaching transonic Mach numbers in level flight, with the top speed of the HG III being projected as Mach at 6,&#;m (20,&#;ft) altitude.[85] After the war, the Royal Aircraft Establishment, at that time one of the leading institutions in high-speed research, re-tested the Me to help with British attempts at exceeding Mach&#;1. The RAE achieved speeds of up to Mach&#; and confirmed the results from the Messerschmitt dive-tests. The Soviets ran similar tests.

After Willy Messerschmitt's death inthe former Me pilot Hans Guido Mutke claimed to have exceeded Mach&#;1 on 9 April in a Me in a "straight-down" 90° dive. This claim relies solely on Mutke's memory of the incident, which recalls effects other Me pilots observed below the speed of sound at high indicated airspeed, but with no altitude reading required to determine the speed. The pitot tube used to measure airspeed in aircraft can give falsely elevated readings as the pressure builds up inside the tube at high speeds. The Me wing had only a slight sweep, incorporated for trim (center of gravity) reasons and likely would have suffered structural failure due to divergence at high transonic speeds. One airframe—the aforementioned Me V9, Werknummerwith Stammkennzeichen of VI+AD, was prepared as the HG I test airframe with the low-profile Rennkabine racing-canopy and may have achieved an unofficial record speed for a turbojet-powered aircraft of &#;km/h (&#;mph), altitude unspecified,[87] even with the recorded wartime airspeed record being set on 6 Julyby another Messerschmitt design—the Me B V18 rocket fighter setting a 1,&#;km/h (&#;mph) record, but landing with a nearly disintegrated rudder surface.[88][89]

Production[edit]

Underground manufacture of Me s

About 1, planes were produced, but a maximum of were operational at any one time. According to sources they destroyed from to enemy planes, with the Allies destroying about one hundred Me s in the air.[71] While Germany was bombed intensively, production of the Me was dispersed into low-profile production facilities, sometimes little more than clearings in the forests of Germany and occupied countries. From the end of February to the end of Marchapproximately sixty Me s were destroyed in attacks on Obertraubling and thirty at Leipheim;[90] the Neuburg jet plant itself was bombed on 19 March [91]

Large, heavily protected underground factories were constructed – as with the partly-buried Weingut I complex for Jumo jet engine production – to take up production of the Mesafe from bomb attacks. A disused mine complex under the Walpersberg mountain was adapted for the production of complete aircraft. These were hauled to the flat top of the hill where a runway had been cleared and flown out. Between 20 and 30 Me s were built here, the underground factory being overrun by Allied troops before it could reach a meaningful output. Wings were produced in Germany's oldest motorway tunnel at Engelberg, to the west of Stuttgart. At B8 Bergkristall-Esche II, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, a vast network of tunnels was excavated beneath St. Georgen/Gusen, Austria, where slave labourers of concentration camp Gusen II produced fully equipped fuselages for the Me at a monthly rate of units on large assembly lines from early [92] Gusen II was known as one of the harshest concentration camps; the typical life expectancy was six months.[93] An estimated 35, to 50, people died on the forced labour details for the Me [94]

Postwar history[edit]

After the end of the war, the Me and other advanced German technologies were quickly swept up by the Soviets, British and Americans, as part of the USAAF's Operation Lusty. Many Me s were found in readily repairable condition and were confiscated. The Soviets, British and Americans wished to evaluate the technology, particularly the engines.

During testing, the Me was found to be faster than the British Gloster Meteor jet fighter, and had better visibility to the sides and rear (mostly due to the canopy frames and the discoloration caused by the plastics used in the Meteor's construction), and was a superior gun platform to the Meteor F.1 which had a tendency to snake at high speed and exhibited "weak" aileron response.[95] The Me had a shorter range than the Meteor and had less reliable engines.

The USAAF compared the P Shooting Star and Meconcluding that the Me was superior in acceleration and speed, with similar climb performance. The Me appeared to have a higher critical Mach number than any American fighter.[96]

The Americans also tested a Me A-1a/U3 unarmed photo reconnaissance version, which was fitted with a fighter nose and a smooth finish. Between May and Augustthe aircraft completed eight flights, lasting four hours and forty minutes. Testing was discontinued after four engine changes were required during the course of the tests, culminating in two single-engine landings.[97] These aircraft were extensively studied, aiding development of early US, British and Soviet jet fighters. The F, designed by engineerEdgar Schmued, used a 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen design based on the Me 's.[98]

Avia S, Kbely Museum, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen,

The Czechoslovak aircraft industry continued to produce single-seat (Avia S) and two-seat (Avia CS) variants of the Me after World War II. From Augusta total of nine Ss and three two-seater CSs were completed and test flown. They were introduced in and in were supplied to the 5th Fighter Squadron, becoming the first jet fighters to serve in the Czechoslovak Air Force. These were kept flying until ,[4] when they were replaced in service by Soviet jet fighters. Both versions are on display at the PragueAviation museum in Kbely.

Flyable reproductions[edit]

Me (A-1c) replica of (A1-a), Berlin air show,

In Januarythe American Me Project, based in Everett, Washington, completed flight testing to allow the delivery of partially updated spec reproductions of several versions of the Me including at least two B-1c two-seater variants, one A-1c single-seater and two "convertibles" that could be switched between the A-1c and B-1c configurations. All are powered by General Electric CJ engines and feature additional safety features, such as upgraded brakes and strengthened landing gear. The "c" suffix refers to the new CJ powerplant and has been informally assigned with the approval of the Messerschmitt Foundation in Germany[99] (the Werknummer of the reproductions picked up where the last wartime produced Me left off – a continuous Serato DJ Pro 2.5.6 Crack With Activation Key Free Download 2021 serial number 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen with a near year production break).

Flight testing of the first newly manufactured Me A-1c (single-seat) variant (Werknummer ) was completed in August The first of these machines (Werknummer ) went to a private owner in the southwestern United States, while the second (Werknummer ) was delivered to the Messerschmitt Foundation at Manching, Germany. This aircraft conducted a private test flight in late April and made its public debut in May at the ILA The new Me flew during the public flight demonstrations.[] Me Werknummer was delivered to the Collings Foundation as White 1 of JG 7; this aircraft offered ride-along flights starting in [] The third replica, a non-flyable Me A-1c, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen delivered to the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum in May []

Variants[edit]

Note:- U = 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen – conversion kit installed at factory level, denoted as a suffix in the form /Un.[]

Me A-0
Pre-production aircraft fitted with two Jumo B turbojet engines, 23 built.
Me A-1a "Schwalbe"
Primary production version, usable as both fighter (interceptor) and fighter-bomber.[27]
Me A-1a/U1
Single prototype with a total of six nose mounted guns, two 20&#;mm (&#;in) MG /20 cannon, two 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon, and two 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon.[27]
Me A-1a/U2
Single prototype with FuG Lichtenstein SN-2 90&#;MHz radar transceiver and Hirschgeweih (stag's antlers) antenna array, for trials as a night-fighter.[27]
Me A-1a/U3
Reconnaissance version modified in small numbers, with Rb 20/30[] cameras mounted in the nose or alternatively one Rb 20/20[] and one Rb 75/30[] (Rb – Reihenbildner – series-picture, topographic camera). Some retained one 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon, but most were unarmed.
Me A-1a/U4
Bomber destroyer version, two prototypes with an adapted 50&#;mm (&#;in) MK (intended armament) or BK 5 (test ordnance only) anti-tank gun in the nose.[27]
Me A-1a/U5
Heavy jet fighter with six 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon in the nose.[27]
Me A-1b
Trio of A-1a evaluation versions, starting with Werknummerre-engined with two BMW A turbojets in place of the Jumo s, maximum speed &#;km/h (&#;mph; &#;kn).[]
Me A-2a "Sturmvogel"
Definitive bomber version retaining only the two lower 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon.[27]
Me A-2a/U1
Single prototype with advanced bombsight.
Me A-2a/U2
Two prototypes with glazed nose for accommodating a bombardier.[27]
Me A-3a
Proposed ground-attack version.
Me A-4a
Reconnaissance version.
Me A-5a
Definitive reconnaissance version used in small numbers at end of the war.[27]
Me B-1a
Two-seat trainer.[27]
Me B-1a/U1
Me B-1a trainers converted into provisional night fighters, FuG Neptun radar, with Hirschgeweih (eng:antler) eight-dipole antenna array.[citation needed]
Me B-2
Proposed night fighter version with stretched fuselage.
Me C
Proposed development prototypes in four differing designs, meant to augment or replace the Jumo jets with liquid-fueled rocket propulsion, as the "Home Protector" (Heimatschützer) series.
Me C-1a
Single prototype [made from Me A Werknummer ] of rocket-boosted interceptor (Heimatschützer I) with Walter HWK liquid-fuelled rocket in the tail, first flown with combined jet/rocket power on 27 February []
Me C-2b
Single prototype [made from Me A Werknummer ] of rocket-boosted interceptor (Heimatschützer II) with two BMW R "combined" powerplants (BMW turbojet, with a single &#;kN (2,&#;lbf) thrust BMW liquid-fuelled rocket engine mounted atop the rear of each jet exhaust) for boosted thrust, only flown once with combined jet/rocket power on 26 March []
Me C-3
Heimatschützer III – proposed version with Jumo turbojet engines replaced with Walter HWK RII Liquid-fuelled rocket engines.[]
Me C-3a
Heimatschützer IV - a rocket-boosted interceptor with a Walter HWK S-2 rocket motor housed in a permanent belly pack. Prototypes and initial production aircraft were captured before completion.[]
Me D-1
Proposed variant to carry Jagdfaust mortars.
Me E-1
Proposed variant based on A-1a/U4 with a 50&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon.[]
Me E-2
Proposed rocket-armed variant carrying up to 48 × R4M rockets.
Me HG-I
"High Speed" variant, modified A-1a with new "racing" style cockpit and additional pieces were added to wing roots at the front.[][][]
Me HG-II
Second "High Speed" variant, more heavily modified A-1a with "racing" style cockpit and wings swept at degree angle and engine nacelles were moved closer to fuselage. A new butterfly V-shaped tail was tested but was too unstable in wind tunnel tests, so normal tail was kept.[][][]
Me HG-III
Proposed Third "High Speed" variant, only progressed to wind tunnel model stage. This was the last and the pinnacle of the Me aerodynamical possibility, which would have been built from the ground up as a new Me instead of modifying older ones. In the Me HG-III, its wings were swept at 45 degrees, it also had the aforementioned "racing" style cockpit, however, the largest change was the moving of the engine nacelles right into the fuselage side and changing the engines to the more powerful Heinkel HeS engines.[][][]
Me S
Zero-series model for Me A-1a
Me W-1
Provisional designation for Me with 2x &#;kN (&#;lbf) Argus As pulse jet engines
Me W-3
Provisional designation for Me with 2x &#;kN (1,&#;lbf) "square-intake" Argus As pulse jet engines
Me Lorin
Provisional designation for Me with 2x Lorinramjet booster engines in "over-wing" mounts, one above each of the Jumo turbojet nacelles.

Rüstsätze (field modification kits)[edit]

Rüstsatze may be applied to various sub-types of their respective aircraft type, denoted as a suffix in the form /Rn. Data from: Messerschmitt Me A Schwalbe[][]

/R1: Underfuselage pylon for &#;l (&#;imp&#;gal; &#;US&#;gal) external fuel tank.
/R2: Ratog installation for two Rheinmetall solid rocket engines.
/R3: BMW R rocket boosted turbojet installation.
/R4: Installation of the FuG Zc Naxos radar warning receiver / detector.
/R5: The standard 4x 30&#;mm (&#;in) MK cannon installation.
/R6: Jabo (JagdBomber) equipment, such as bombsights and bomb racks.
/R7: Underwing installation of 12x R4M rockets carried on wooden racks.
/R8: RBS Air to air rocket installation.
/R9: Ruhrstahl Ru X-4 air-to-air missile installation.

Postwar variants[edit]

Avia S[]
Czech-built Me A-1a (fighter)[]
Avia CS
Czech-built Me B-1a (fighter trainer, two seats)

Reproductions[edit]

A series of reproductions was constructed by American company Legend Flyers (later Me Project) of Everett, Washington.[] The Jumo engines of the original are replaced by more reliable General Electric CJ engines. The first Me reproduction (a two-seater) took off for the first time in December and the second one in August This one was delivered to the Messerschmitt Foundation and was presented at the ILA airshow in []

A-1c: American privately built, based on A-1a configuration.
B-1c: American privately built, based on B-1a configuration.
A/B-1c: American privately built, convertible between A-1c and B-1c configuration.

Operators[edit]

Surviving aircraft[edit]

Me A-2a (Black X), Australia, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen,
Me B-1a/U1 (Red 8), South Africa,
Me B-1a (White 35), at Willow Grove, Pa., in ; relocated to and on display in Pensacola, Fl.
Me A-1a/R7, mlbjerseyschina.us White 3, III./JG 7
Deutsches Museum,[] Munich, Germany. This aircraft, flown by Hans Guido Mutke while a pilot of 9. Staffel/JG 7, was confiscated by Swiss authorities on 25 April after Mutke made an emergency landing in Switzerland due to lack of fuel (80 litres were remaining, 35 litres were usually burnt in one minute). Removed (?) from main museum for restoration and relocated to: Deutsches Museum Flugwerft Schleissheim, Ferdinand-Schulz-Allee (for navigation systems), Oberschleissheim, Germany.[]
Me A-1a
Reconstructed from parts of crashed and incomplete Me s. Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr, Germany.
Me A-1a mlbjerseyschina.us Yellow 5, 3./KG(J)6
National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, US.
Me A-1a/U3 mlbjerseyschina.us
Flying Heritage Collection, Everett, Washington, US, currently in US undergoing restoration to flying MAZTERIZE. It is intended to fly using its original Jumo engines.[] The aircraft was bought from The Planes of Fame, Chino, California.
Me A-1a/R7 mlbjerseyschina.us Yellow 7, II./JG 7
National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, US. Possesses twin original underwing racks for 24 R4M unguided rockets.
Me A-1a mlbjerseyschina.us
RAF MuseumCosford, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, Cosford, United Kingdom.
Me A-2a mlbjerseyschina.us Black X 9K+XK, 2 Staffel./KG 51
Australian War Memorial, Canberra, Australia. Built at Regensburg in Marchsame batch from which the Deutsches Museum White 3 was built. Flown by Fahnenjunker Oberfeldwebel Fröhlich and surrendered at Fassberg. It remains the only Me left in existence wearing original (albeit worn, as seen in the picture) colours. Its 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen show both the 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen signatures along with the Air Ministry colours applied at Farnborough, where it was allocated reference Air Min 81. Restoration was completed in and the aircraft was put up on display. The Australian War Memorial's website states that the aircraft "is the only Me bomber variant to survive, and is the only remaining Me wearing its original paint".[]
Me B-1a/U1, mlbjerseyschina.us Red 8
South African National Museum of Military History, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Me B-1a, mlbjerseyschina.us White 35
National Museum of Naval Aviation, Pensacola, Florida (previously at NAS/JRB Willow Grove, Willow Grove, Pennsylvania, US)
Avia S
Prague Aviation Museum, Kbely, Prague, Czech Republic.
Avia CS
Prague Aviation Museum, Kbely, Prague, Czech Republic.

Specifications (Messerschmitt Me A-1a)[edit]

3-view drawing of the Messerschmitt Me

Data from Quest for Performance[22] Original Messerschmitt documents

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: &#;m (34&#;ft 9&#;in)
  • Wingspan: &#;m (41&#;ft 4&#;in)
  • Height: &#;m (11&#;ft 6&#;in)
  • Wing area: &#;m2 (&#;sq&#;ft)
  • Aspect ratio:
  • Empty weight: 3,&#;kg (8,&#;lb) []
  • Gross weight: 6,&#;kg (14,&#;lb) []
  • Max takeoff weight: 7,&#;kg (15,&#;lb) []
  • Powerplant: 2 × Junkers Jumo B-1 axial-flow turbojet engines, &#;kN (1,&#;lbf) thrust each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: &#;km/h (&#;mph, &#;kn)
  • Range: 1,&#;km (&#;mi, &#;nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 11,&#;m (37,&#;ft)
  • Rate of climb: 20&#;m/s (3,&#;ft/min) at max weight of 7,&#;kg (15,&#;lb)
  • Thrust/weight: 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen 4 × 30 mm MK cannon (the A-2a had only two cannons)
  • Rockets: 24 × 55&#;mm (&#;in) R4M rockets
  • Bombs: 2 × &#;kg (&#;lb) bombs or 2 × &#;kg (1,&#;lb) bombs (A-2a variant)

Notable appearances in media[edit]

Main article: Messerschmitt 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen in fiction

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Morgan and Weal estimate that jet fighters of all types produced victories.
  2. ^The nosewheel was a 66&#;cm ×&#;16&#;cm (&#;in ×&#;&#;in) item identical to the Bf F's main gear wheel, fitted with a Buna rubber tire and pneumatic drum brake.
  3. ^According to Stapfer, the smaller fuel tank had a capacity of up to US gallons ( imperial gallons; litres).
  4. ^By comparison, a new Volkswagen Type 1 was priced at RM[38]
  5. ^For a list of Luftwaffe jet aces, see List of German World War II jet aces
  6. ^The leading edge slats, manufactured by Arwa Strumpfwerke of Auerbach, were divided into three unconnected sections on each wing and each was fastened to the wing by two hinges. The slats lowered the stalling speed of the aircraft to roughly to &#;km/h (86 to 92&#;kn; 99 to &#;mph) depending on load out. They deployed automatically below &#;km/h (&#;kn; &#;mph) on takeoff or landing and at &#;km/h (&#;kn; &#;mph) in turn or climb.
  7. ^According to aviation historian Mike Spick, it could take eight Mustangs to neutralize a single Meby continually cutting across the circle inside it. Against multiple jet attackers, an effective defense was simply impossible.[70]
  8. ^Other aircraft based there included Bf and Fw day fighters and Bf and He night fighters, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. The base was closer to the town of Hopsten than the city of Rheine and is no longer active.
  9. ^As well as the flak guns, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, several piston engine fighter units based in the area were tasked to cover the jets as they landed.

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  3. ^ abcdeChristopher, John. The Race for Hitler's X-Planes (The Mill, Gloucestershire: History Press, ), p.
  4. ^ abChristopher, p.
  5. ^ abChristopher, p.
  6. ^Bölkow, L. "Mit dem Pfeilflügel zum Hochgeschwindigkeitsflug." 50 Jahre Turbostrahlflug. Bonn: DGLR-Bericht,pp. –
  7. ^Lednicer, David. The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage. Champaign, Illinois: UIUC Applied Aerodynamics Group, Retrieved: 19 May
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  10. ^ abLoftin, L.K. Jr. Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft.NASA SP. Retrieved: 25 September Chapter 11 Part 2
  11. ^Christopher, John. The Race for Hitler's X-Planes (History Press, The Mill, Gloucestershire,p.
  12. ^Operational performance and deployment of Me Major Ernst Englander.
  13. ^ abcdefghijFord, Roger (). Germany's Secret Weapons of World War II. London, United Kingdom: Amber Books. p.&#; ISBN&#.
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  19. ^Gilmore, Robert. The KdF Wagens: Germany's Car for the Masses, in VW Trends, Februarypp. 36–
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  68. ^Bailey, Stewart. "New Me Reproduction lands at the Museum."Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum, 25 June Retrieved: 7 June
  69. ^ abParsch, Andreas. "German Military Aircraft Designations (–)". mlbjerseyschina.us. Retrieved 14 July
  70. ^ abc"Luftwaffe Reconnaissance Camera Systems". mlbjerseyschina.us. Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 14 July
  71. ^Smith, J. Richard; Creek, Eddie (). Jet Planes of the Third Reich. Boylston, MA USA: Monogram Aviation Publications. pp.&#;–, – ISBN&#.
  72. ^Reddin, Shamus. "Me Heimatschützer I. The Walter S1 Assisted Take-Off Unit."Archived 27 April at the Wayback MachineWalter Website (archived), 27 April Retrieved: 10 August
  73. ^"Video of BMW rocket engine test firing on this aircraft."German Jet Power, 1 August Retrieved: 10 August
  74. ^Baker, David (). Messerschmitt Me . Marlborough, Wiltshire [England]: Crowood. ISBN&#.
  75. ^Reddin, Shamus. "Me Heimatschützer IV. The Walter S2 Assisted Take-Off Unit."Archived 27 April at the Wayback MachineWalter 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen (archived), 27 April Retrieved: 10 August
  76. ^Green, William (28 March ). Famous Fighters Of The Second World War, Volume One. Pickle Partners Publishing. ISBN&#.
  77. ^ abcLuftwaffe Secret Projects Fighters – by Walter Schick, Ingolf Meyer, Elke Weal, John Weal
  78. ^ abcmesserschmitt Geheimprojekte by Willy radinger and Walter Schick
  79. ^ abcLuftwaffe Secret Projects Fighters – by Walter Schick, Ingolf Meyer, Elke Weal, John Weal p. 85
  80. ^Peçzkowski, Robert ().
Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

First, Last, and Only

The AMC Museum is proud to be home to a number of especially significant vintage aircraft. All of the museum’s aircraft are relevant to our American heritage, but the following planes stand out as historically important.

C-5A Galaxy

The museum's C-5A Galaxy, serial numberwas the first and only aircraft in history that launched an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) in flight. In Octoberair dropped an 86,lb ICBM from 20, feet over the Pacific Ocean to add one more option to the strategic missile inventory of the United States. Inwas the first factory new C-5A assigned to Dover AFB, Delaware, and on 20 October it retired to the AMC Museum marking the first time a C-5 was retired to a museum.

CA Starlifter

The museum's CA Starlifter, serial numberwas the first of Cs manufactured. It first flew on 17 December60 years to the day from the Wright Brothers first flight. It was the first jet aircraft specifically designed as a cargo plane. It is one of only two remaining A models and the only known four-engine jet used to tow a glider. It was also used by NASA to test different space shuttle launch options.

CB Starlifter

The museum's CB Starlifter, serial numberwas the very last C stationed at Dover AFB, Delaware, retiring in February After leaving Dover AFB it was transferred to McGuire AFB, New Jersey. A crack in the main landing gear trunnion was discovered when it passed through Dover AFB on a mission and it was retired in place and transferred to the museum.

C-9A Nightingale

The museum's C-9A Nightingale, serial numberwas the first C-9 accepted for the Military Airlift Command. The C-9s were the first purpose-built aeromedical evacuation aircraft in the U.S. Air Force. This C-9 served for 37 years before being retired in

VC-9C

The museum's VC-9C, serial numberwas the first to be Air Force Two. It was the first VC-9 configured with a special radio communications package so it could serve as Air Force One or Two, although usually it served as Air Force Two or for transport of America's First Ladies and other dignitaries.

CB Cargomaster

The museum's CB Cargomaster, serial numberwas the last of 50 Cs built in and retired in when it was replaced by the C-5A Galaxy. It is the largest turbo-prop aircraft in the U.S. powered by the largest turbo-prop engines ever built, the Pratt & Whitney T

BG Flying Fortress

The museum's BG Flying Fortress, serial numberwas the last to drop bombs. While assigned to Eglin AFB, Florida, in a test squadron in the late s it was used to drop bombs during public airpower demonstrations to compare it with modern bombers. It is also the only surviving veteran of the Flying Bomb Project as a MBG, where it was used as a remote controlled aircraft flying bombs.

KCE Stratotanker

The museum's KCE Stratotanker, serial numberwas the first all jet tanker assigned to the Air National Guard (ANG) in April While assigned to the th Air Refueling Wing, New Jersey ANG, it flew the last operational mission for any KCE on 14 July

CM Skymaster

The museum's CM Skymaster, serial numberis the only surviving M model Skymaster. It was one of 38 aircraft that was specially modified to haul coal during the Berlin Airlift. It served in the Pacific during World War II (WWII) and was retired in It then served as a ground trainer at the FBI Training Academy in the Sky Marshal program. It has been restored to its original WWII markings.

CA Globemaster II

The museum's CA Globemaster II, serial numberis the only surviving A model Globemaster II, making it also the oldest C in the world. It was assigned to the Strategic Air Command (SAC), the Tactical Air Command, (TAC), the Military Air Transport Service (MATS) and the Air Force Reserve (AFRES) during its long career. To our knowledge no other type of cargo aircraft served in all four of these commands.

FA Delta Dart

The museum's FA Delta Dart, serial numberis the only surviving F Delta Dart that was actually stationed at Dover AFB. More than 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen were built for air defense of the U.S. The 95th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Dover AFB flew 16 aircraft from to including serial number It was transferred to the New Jersey Air National Guard in and retired in to become one of over flying target drones. This aircraft is one of six that survived the program.

CG Expeditor

The museum's CG Expeditor, serial numberwas the first C (Beech 18) obtained by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). It was used to transport agents in Southeast Asia from to Originally built in as an AT Trainer, it was then rebuilt in as a CG and then turned over to the CIA in with civilian registration NC.

Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

Zodiac Killer

Pseudonym of a serial killer in California

For the New York City Zodiac copycat, see Heriberto Seda. For the Japanese Zodiac copycat, see Kobe child murders.

The Zodiac Killer, or simply Zodiac or the Zodiac, is the pseudonym of a serial killer[1] who operated in Northern California in the late s.[n 1] The case has been described as the most famous unsolved murder case in American history[2] and has become a fixture of popular culture, inspiring amateur detectives to attempt to resolve it and entertainment such as films, television, novels, and video games.

The Zodiac murdered five known victims in the San Francisco Bay Area between December and Octoberoperating in rural, urban and suburban settings. He targeted young couples and a lone male cab driver, and his known attacks took place in Benicia, Vallejo, unincorporated Napa County, and the city of San Francisco proper. Two of his attempted victims survived. The Zodiac himself claimed to have murdered 37 victims, and he has been linked to several other cold cases, some in Southern California or outside the state.

The Zodiac originated the name himself in a series of taunting letters and cards that he mailed to regional newspapers, threatening killing sprees and bombings if they were not printed. Some of the letters included cryptograms, or ciphers, in which the killer claimed that he was collecting his victims as slaves for the afterlife. Of the four ciphers he produced, two remain unsolved, and one took 51 years to crack. While many theories regarding the identity of the killer have been suggested, the only suspect authorities ever publicly named was Arthur Leigh Allen,[3] a former elementary school teacher and convicted sex offender who died in

Although the Zodiac ceased written communications aroundthe unusual nature of the case led to international interest that has sustained throughout the years.[4] The San Francisco Police Department marked the case "inactive" in Aprilbut re-opened it at some point prior to March [5][6] The case also remains open in the city of Vallejo, as well as in Napa County and Solano County.[7] The California Department of Justice has maintained an open case file on the Zodiac murders since [8]

Murders and correspondence

Confirmed murders

Although the Zodiac claimed to have committed 37 murders in letters to the newspapers, investigators agree on only seven confirmed victims, two of whom survived. They are:

  • David Arthur Faraday, 17, and Betty Lou Jensen, shot and killed on December 20,on Lake Herman Road, within 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen city limits of Benicia.
  • Michael Renault Mageau, 19, and Darlene Elizabeth Ferrin, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, shot on July 4,in the parking lot of Blue Rock Springs Park in Vallejo. While Mageau survived the attack, Ferrin was pronounced dead on arrival at Kaiser Foundation Hospital.
  • Bryan Calvin Hartnell, 20, and Cecelia Ann Shepard, stabbed on September 27,at Lake Berryessa in Napa County. Hartnell survived eight stab wounds to the back, but Shepard died as a result of her injuries on September 29,
  • Paul Lee Stine, shot and killed on October 11,in the Presidio Heights neighborhood in San Francisco.

Lake Herman Road murders

David Arthur Faraday and Betty Lou Jensen

The first murders widely attributed to the Zodiac Killer were the shootings of high school students Betty Lou Jensen and David Arthur 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen on December 20, on Lake Herman Road, just inside Benicia city limits. The couple were on their first date and planned to attend a Christmas concert at Hogan High School, about three blocks from Jensen's home. They instead visited a friend before stopping at a local restaurant and then driving out on Lake Herman Road. At about &#;p.m., Faraday parked his mother's Rambler in a gravel turnout, which was a well-known lovers' lane, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. Shortly after &#;p.m., their bodies were found by Stella Borges, who lived nearby. The Solano County Sheriff's Department investigated the crime but no leads developed.[9]

Utilizing available forensic data, Robert Graysmith postulated that another car pulled into the turnout just prior to &#;p.m. and parked beside the couple. The killer may have then exited the second car and walked toward the Rambler, possibly ordering the couple out of it. It appeared that Jensen had exited the car first, but when Faraday was halfway out, the killer shot him in the head. The killer then shot Jensen five times in the back as she fled; her body was found 28 feet from the car. The killer then drove off.[10]

Blue Rock Springs murder

Just before midnight on July 4,Darlene Ferrin and Michael Mageau drove into the Blue Rock Springs Park in Vallejo, four miles (&#;km) from the Lake Herman Road murder site, and parked. While the couple sat in Ferrin's car, a second car drove into the lot and parked alongside them but almost immediately drove away. Returning about 10 minutes later, this second car parked behind them. The driver of the second car then exited the vehicle, approaching the passenger side door of Ferrin's car, carrying a flashlight and a 9&#;mm Luger. The killer directed the flashlight into Mageau's and Ferrin's eyes before shooting at them, firing five times. Both victims were hit, and several bullets had passed through Mageau and into Ferrin. The killer walked away from the car but upon hearing Mageau's moaning, returned and shot each victim twice more before driving off.[11]

On July 5,at &#;a.m., a man phoned the Vallejo Police Department to report and claim responsibility for the attack. The caller also took credit for the murders of Jensen and Faraday six and a half months earlier. Police traced the call to a phone booth at a gas station at Springs Road and Tuolumne, located about three-tenths of a mile (&#;m) from Ferrin's home and only a few blocks from the Vallejo Police Department.[12] Ferrin was pronounced dead at the hospital, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. Mageau survived the attack despite being shot in the face, neck and chest.[13] Mageau described his attacker as a toyear-old, topound (88 to 91&#;kg) or possibly even more, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, 5-footinch (&#;m) white male with short, light brown curly hair.

First letters from the Zodiac

"I like killing people because it is so much fun it is more fun than killing wild game in the forrest because man is the most dangeroue anamal of all to kill something gives me the most thrilling experence it is even better than getting your rocks off with a girl the best part of it is thae when I die I will be reborn in paradice and all the I have killed will become my slaves I will not give you my name because you will try to sloi down or atop my collectiog of slaves for my afterlife 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen

—The solution to Zodiac's symbol cipher, solved in Augustincluding faithful transliterations of spelling and grammar errors in the original. The meaning, if any, of the final eighteen letters has not been determined.[n 2][14]

On August 1,three letters prepared by the killer were received at the Vallejo Times Herald, the San Francisco Chronicle, and The San Francisco Examiner. The nearly identical letters, subsequently described by a psychiatrist to have been written by "someone you would expect to be brooding and isolated",[15] took credit for the shootings at Lake Herman Road and Blue Rock Springs. Each letter also included one-third of a symbol cryptogram which the killer claimed contained his identity. The killer demanded they be printed on each paper's front page or he would "cruse [sic] around all weekend killing lone people in the night then move on to kill again, until I end up with a dozen people over the weekend".[16]

The Chronicle published its third of the cryptogram on page four of the next day's edition. An article printed alongside the code quoted Vallejo Police Chief Jack E. Stiltz as saying "We're not satisfied that the letter was written by the murderer" and requested the writer send a second letter with more facts to prove his identity.[17] The threatened murders did not happen, and all three parts were eventually published.

On August 7,1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, another letter was received at The San Francisco Examiner with the salutation "Dear Editor This is the Zodiac speaking." This was the first time the killer had used this name for identification. The letter was a response to Chief Stiltz's request for more details that would prove he had killed Faraday, Jensen and Ferrin. In it, the Zodiac included details about the murders that had not yet been released to the public, as well as a message to the police that when they cracked his code "they will have me".[18]

On August 8,Donald and Bettye Harden of Salinas, California cracked the symbol cryptogram. It contained a misspelled message in which the killer seemed to reference "The Most Dangerous Game". The author also said that he was collecting slaves for his afterlife.[n 3] No name appears in this decoded text, and the killer said that he would not give away his identity because it would slow down or stop his slave collection.[14]

Lake Berryessa murder

Photo of Bryan Hartnell's car door, onto which the Zodiac Killer wrote details of his attack upon Hartnell and Cecelia Shepard

On September 27,Pacific Union College students Bryan Hartnell and Cecelia Shepard were picnicking at Lake Berryessa on a small island connected by a sand spit to Twin Oak Ridge. A white man, about 5&#;feet 11&#;inches (&#;m) weighing more than pounds (77&#;kg), approached them wearing a black executioner's-type hood with clip-on sunglasses over the eye-holes and a bib-like device on his chest that had a white three-by-three-inch 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen ×&#;&#;cm) cross-circle symbol on it. He approached them with a gun, which Hartnell believed to be a The hooded man claimed to be an 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen convict from a jail with a 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen name, in either Colorado or Montana (a police officer later inferred that the man had been referring to a jail in Deer Lodge, Montana), where he had killed a guard and subsequently stolen a car, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen that he now needed their car and money to travel to Mexico because the vehicle that he had been driving was "too hot".[20]

The killer had brought precut lengths of plastic clothesline and told Shepard to tie up Hartnell before he tied her up. The killer checked, and tightened Hartnell's bonds after discovering that Shepard had bound Hartnell's hands loosely. Hartnell initially believed this event to be a bizarre robbery, but the man drew a knife and stabbed them both repeatedly, Hartnell suffering six and Shepard ten wounds in the process.[21][22] The killer then hiked yards (&#;m) back up to Knoxville Road, drew the cross-circle symbol on Hartnell's car door with a black felt-tip pen, and wrote beneath it:[23][24]

Vallejo


Sept 27–69–
by knife[23][24]

At &#;p.m., the 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen called the Napa County Sheriff's office from a pay telephone to report this latest crime. The caller first stated to the operator that he wished to "report a murder – no, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, a double murder,"[25] before stating that he had been the perpetrator of the crime. The phone was found, still off the hook, minutes later at the Napa Car Wash on Main Street in Napa by KVON radio reporter Pat Stanley, only a few blocks from the sheriff's office, yet 27 miles (43&#;km) from the crime scene. Detectives were able to lift a still-wet palm print from the telephone but were never able to match it to any suspect.[26]

After hearing the victims' screams for help, a man and his son who were fishing in a nearby cove discovered the victims and summoned help by contacting park rangers. Napa County Sheriff's deputies Dave Collins and Ray Land were the first law enforcement officers to arrive at the crime scene.[27] Shepard was conscious when Collins arrived, providing him with a detailed description of the attacker. Hartnell and Shepard were taken to Queen of the Valley Hospital in Napa by ambulance. Shepard lapsed into a coma during transport and never regained consciousness. She died 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen days later, but Hartnell survived to recount his tale to the press.[28][29] Napa County detective Ken Narlow, who was assigned to the case from the outset, worked on solving the crime until his retirement from the department in [30]

Presidio Heights murder

San Francisco from the Presidio,

Two weeks later, on October 11,1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, a white male passenger entered the cab driven by Paul Stine at the intersection of Mason and Geary Streets (one block west from Union Square) in San Francisco, requesting to be driven to Washington and Maple Streets in Presidio Heights. For reasons unknown, Stine drove one block past Maple to Cherry Street. The passenger then shot Stine once in the head with a 9&#;mm handgun, took Stine's wallet and car keys, and tore away a section of Stine's bloodstained shirt tail. The perpetrator was observed by three teenagers across the street at &#;p.m., and they phoned the police while the crime was in progress. They observed a man wiping the cab down before walking away toward the Presidio, one block to the north.[31] Two blocks from the crime scene, patrol officers Don Fouke and Eric Zelms, responding to the call, observed a white man walking along the sidewalk east on Jackson Street and stepping onto a stairway leading up to the front yard of one of the homes on the north side of the street; the encounter 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen only five to ten seconds.[32]

Fouke estimated the white male pedestrian to be 35 to 45 years old, 5'10" tall with a crew cut, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, similar to but slightly older than the description provided by the teenagers who observed the killer in and out of Stine's cab. The teenagers described the suspect to be 25 to 30 years old with a crew cut and standing approximately 5&#;feet 8&#;inches (&#;m) to 5&#;feet 9&#;inches (&#;m) tall. However, the police radio dispatcher had alerted officers to look out for a black suspect, so Fouke and Zelms drove past the perpetrator without stopping; the mixup in descriptions remains unexplained. A search ensued, but no suspects were found. This was the last officially confirmed murder by the Zodiac Killer.

The Stine murder was initially believed to be a routine robbery that had escalated into homicidal 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. However, on October 13, the San Francisco Chronicle received a new letter from Zodiac that claimed credit for the 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen and contained a torn section of Stine's bloody shirt to "prove this" fact.[33] The three teen witnesses worked with a police artist to prepare a composite sketch of Stine's killer; a few days later, this police artist returned, working with the witnesses to prepare a second composite sketch. Detectives Bill Armstrong and Dave Toschi were assigned to the case.[n 4] The San Francisco Police Department investigated an estimated 2, suspects over a period of years.[35]

mailings and breakthrough

"I hope you are having lots of fan in trying to catch me that wasnt me on the tv show which bringo up a point about me I am not afraid of the gas chamber becaase it will send me to paradlce all the sooher because e now have enough slaves to worv for me where every one else has nothing when they reach paradice so they are afraid of death I am not afraid because i vnow that my new life is life will be an easy one in paradice death"

—The solution to Zodiac's symbol cipher, solved in Decemberincluding faithful transliterations of spelling and grammar errors in the original.[n 5][36][37]

On October 14,1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, the Chronicle received another letter from the Zodiac, this time containing a swatch of Paul Stine's shirt tail as proof he was the killer; it also included a threat about killing schoolchildren on a school bus. To do this, Zodiac wrote, "just shoot out the front tire & then pick off the kiddies as they come bouncing out". At &#;p.m. on October 20,someone claiming to be the Zodiac called the Oakland Police Department (OPD), demanding that one of two prominent lawyers, F. Lee Bailey or Melvin Belli, appear on A.M. San Francisco, a talk show on KGO-TV hosted by Jim Dunbar. Bailey was not available, but Belli did appear on the show. Dunbar appealed to the viewers to keep the lines open. Someone claiming to be the Zodiac called several times, and Belli asked the caller for a less ominous name and the caller picked "Sam". The caller said he would not reveal his true identity as he was afraid of being sent to the gas chamber (then California's capital punishment method). Belli arranged a rendezvous to meet the caller outside a shop on Mission Street in Daly City, but no one arrived. The call was later traced back to a patient in a mental institution, and investigators concluded that the man was not the Zodiac.[38]

On November 8,the Zodiac mailed a card with another cryptogram consisting of characters.[39] This cipher, dubbed "Z", remained unsolved for over 51 years. On December 5,it was deciphered by an international team of private citizens, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, including American software engineer David Oranchak, Australian mathematician Sam Blake and Belgian programmer Jarl Van Eycke. In the decrypted message, the Zodiac denied being the "Sam" who spoke on A.M. San Francisco, explaining that he was not afraid of the 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen chamber "because it will send me to paradice [sic] all the sooner".[40] The team submitted their findings to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which verified the discovery.[40] The FBI stated that the decoded message gave no further clues to the identity of Zodiac.[41][42]

On November 9,the Zodiac mailed a seven-page letter stating that two policemen stopped and actually spoke with him three minutes after he shot Stine. Excerpts from the letter were published in the Chronicle on November 12, including the Zodiac's claim;[43][44] that same day, Officer Don Fouke wrote a memo explaining what had happened on the night of Stine's murder. On December 20,exactly one year after the murders of David Faraday and Betty Lou Jensen, the Zodiac mailed a letter to Belli that included another swatch of Stine's shirt; the Zodiac said that he wanted Belli to help him.[45]

Public speculation and Zodiac claims

Various authors speculated at the time of the killings that other murders and attacks may have been the work of the Zodiac, but none have been confirmed:

  • Robert George Domingos, 18, and Linda Faye Edwards, shot and killed on June 4, on a beach near Gaviota. There are some specific similarities between their attack and the Zodiac's attack at Lake Berryessa five years later.
  • Cheri Jo Bates, stabbed to death and nearly decapitated on October 30,at Riverside City College in Riverside. Bates's possible connection to the Zodiac only appeared four years after her murder when San Francisco Chronicle reporter Paul Avery received a tip regarding similarities between the Zodiac killings and the circumstances surrounding Bates's death.[46]
  • Donna Ann Lass, last seen September 6, in ISpring Suite 10.1.1 Build 3005 Crack Full Version Download, Nevada. A postcard bearing an advertisement for Forest Pines condominiums (near Incline Village at Lake Tahoe) pasted on the back was received at the Chronicle on March 22, No evidence has been uncovered to connect Lass's disappearance with the Zodiac Killer.[47]
  • Kathleen Johns, allegedly abducted on March 22, on Highway 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen I, in an area west of Modesto. Johns escaped from the car of a man who drove her and her infant daughter around the area between Stockton and Patterson for approximately 1½ hours.[48]

Kathleen Johns' report

On the night of March 22,Kathleen Johns was driving from San Bernardino to Petaluma to visit her mother. She was seven months pregnant and had her month-old daughter beside her.[49] While heading west on Highway near Modesto, a car behind her began honking its horn and flashing its headlights. She pulled off the road and stopped. The man in the car parked behind her, approached her car, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, stated that he observed that her right rear wheel was wobbling, and offered to tighten the lug nuts. After finishing his work, the man drove off; yet when Johns pulled forward to re-enter the highway the wheel almost immediately came off the car. The man returned, offering to drive her to the nearest gas station for help. She and her daughter climbed into his car.

During the ride, the car passed several service stations, but the man did not stop. For about 90 minutes, he drove back and forth around the back roads near Tracy. When Johns asked why he was not stopping, he would change the subject. When the driver finally stopped at an intersection, Johns jumped out with her daughter and hid in a field. The driver searched for her using a flashlight, telling her that he would not hurt her, before eventually giving up. Unable to find her, he got back into the car and drove off. Johns hitched a ride to the police station in Patterson.[48]

When Johns gave her statement to the sergeant on duty, she noticed the police composite sketch of Paul Stine's killer and recognized him as the man who had abducted her and her child.[50] Fearing that he might return to kill them all, the sergeant had Johns wait in the dark at nearby Mil's Restaurant. When her car was found, it had been gutted and torched.[50]

Most accounts say that the man threatened to kill Johns and her daughter while driving them around,[51] but at least one police report disputes that.[48] Johns's account to Paul Avery of the Chronicle indicates that her abductor left his car and searched for her in the dark with a flashlight;[52] however, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, in one report she made to the police, she stated that he did not leave the vehicle.[48][original research?]

Further Zodiac communications

The crosshair-like symbol with which the Zodiac signed his letters

Zodiac continued to communicate with authorities for the remainder of via letters and greeting cards to the press. In a letter postmarked April 20,the Zodiac wrote, Microsoft Project 2019 Crack + Product Key Free Download name is _____," followed by a character cipher that hasn't been solved to this day.[53] The Zodiac went on to state that he was not responsible for the recent bombing of a police station in San Francisco (referring to the February 18,death of Sgt. Brian McDonnell two days after the bombing at Park Station in Golden Gate Park)[54] but added "there is more glory to killing a cop than a cid [sic] because a cop can shoot back." The letter included a diagram of a bomb the Zodiac claimed that he would use to blow up a school bus. At the bottom of the diagram, he wrote: "Zodiac Killer mlbjerseyschina.us = 10, SFPD = 0."[55]

Zodiac sent a greeting card postmarked April 28, to the Chronicle. Written on the card was "I hope you enjoy yourselves when I have my BLAST," followed by the Zodiac's cross-circle signature. On the back of the card, the Zodiac threatened to use the bus bomb soon unless the newspaper published the full details that he had written. He also wanted to start seeing people wearing "some nice Zodiac butons [sic]".[56]

In a letter postmarked June 26,the Zodiac stated that he was upset that he did not see people wearing Zodiac buttons. He wrote, "I shot a man sitting in a parked car with a "[57] The Zodiac was possibly referring to the murder of year-old Sgt. Richard Radetich one week earlier. At &#;a.m. on June 19, Radetich was writing a parking ticket in his squad car when an assailant unrelated to the traffic violation shot him in the head with a caliber pistol through the closed driver's side window.[58] Radetich died 15 hours later. The San Francisco Police Department (SFPD) denies that the Zodiac was involved; the murder remains unsolved.[54]

Included with the letter was a Phillips 66 roadmap of the San Francisco Bay area. On the image of Mount Diablo, the Zodiac had drawn a crossed circle similar to those from previous correspondence. At the top of the crossed circle, he placed a zero, a three, six, and a nine. The accompanying instructions stated that the zero was "to be set to Mag. N."[59] The letter also included a letter 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen that the killer claimed would, in conjunction with the code, lead to the location of a bomb that he had buried and set to detonate in the fall. The cipher was never decoded, and the alleged bomb was never located. The killer signed the note with "Zodiac Killer mlbjerseyschina.us - 12, SFPD - 0".

In a letter to the Chronicle postmarked July 24,the Zodiac took credit for Kathleen Johns's abduction, four months after the incident.[60] In a July 26, letter, the YouTube By Click Premium 2.3.12 With Crack paraphrased a song from The Mikado, adding his own lyrics about making a "little list" of the ways in which he planned to torture his "slaves" in "paradice [sic]".[61] The letter was signed with a large, exaggerated crossed-circle symbol and a new score: "Zodiac Killer mlbjerseyschina.us1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen height="22"> = 13, SFPD = 0".[62] A final note at the bottom of the letter stated, "P.S. The Mt. Diablo code concerns Radians + # inches 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen the radians."[63] Ina close examination of the radian hint by Zodiac researcher Gareth Penn led to the discovery that a radian angle, when placed over the map per Zodiac's instructions, pointed to the locations of two Zodiac attacks.[64]

On October 7,the Chronicle received a three-by-five inch card signed by the Zodiac with the Zodiac Killer mlbjerseyschina.us and a small cross reportedly drawn with blood, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. The card's message was formed by 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen words and letters from an edition of the Chronicle, and thirteen holes were punched across the card. Inspectors Armstrong and Toschi agreed that it was "highly probable" that the card had been sent by the Zodiac.[65]

Letter to Paul Avery

The Halloween card addressed to Paul Avery on October 27,

On October 27,Chronicle reporter Paul Avery (who had been covering the Zodiac case) received a Halloween card signed with a letter 'Z' and the Zodiac's crossed-circle symbol. Handwritten inside the card was the note "Peek-a-boo, you are doomed." The threat was taken seriously and was the subject of a front-page story in the Chronicle.[46] Soon after receiving the letter, Avery received an anonymous letter alerting him to the similarities between the Zodiac's activities and the unsolved 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen of Cheri Jo Bates, which had occurred four years earlier at the city college in Riverside in the Greater Los Angeles Area, more than miles (&#;km) south of San Francisco.[66] Avery reported his findings in the Chronicle on November 16,

Main article: Murder of Cheri Jo Bates

On October 30,1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, an year-old student at Riverside City College, Cheri Jo Bates, spent the evening at 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen campus library annex until it closed at &#;p.m. Neighbors reported hearing a scream around &#;p.m. Bates was found dead the next morning, a short distance from the library, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, between two abandoned houses slated to be demolished for campus renovations. The wires in her Volkswagen's distributor cap had been pulled out. She was brutally beaten and stabbed to death. A man's Timex watch with a torn wristband was found nearby.[67] The watch had stopped at ,[68] but police believe that the attack had occurred much earlier.[67]

A month later, on November 29,nearly identical typewritten letters were mailed to the Riverside police and the Riverside Press-Enterprise, titled "The Confession". The author claimed responsibility for the Bates murder, providing details of the crime that were not released to the public. The author warned that Bates "is not 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen first and she will not be the last".[69] In Decembera poem was discovered carved into the bottom side of a desktop in the Riverside City College library. Titled "Sick of living/unwilling to die", the poem's language and handwriting resembled that of the Zodiac's letters. It was signed with what were assumed to be the initials rh. During the investigation, Sherwood Morrill, California's top "questioned documents" examiner, expressed his opinion that the poem was written by the Zodiac.[70]

On April 30,exactly six months after the Bates murder, Bates' father Joseph, the Press-Enterprise, and the Riverside police all received nearly identical letters. In handwritten scrawl, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, the Press-Enterprise and police copies read "Bates had to die there will be more," with a small scribble at the bottom that resembled the letter Z. Joseph Bates' copy read "She had to die there will be more," this time without the Z signature.[71] In Augustthe Riverside Police Department's Homicide Cold Case Unit announced that the author of the handwritten letters anonymously contacted investigators in and was identified via DNA analysis in He admitted the correspondence was a distasteful hoax and apologized, explaining that he had been a troubled teenager and wrote the letters as a means of seeking attention. Investigators confirmed that the author was not the Zodiac.[72]

On March 13,five months after Avery's article linking the Zodiac to the Riverside murder, the Zodiac mailed a letter to the Los Angeles Times. In the letter he credited the police, instead of Avery, for discovering his "Riverside activity, but they are only finding the easy ones, there are a hell of a lot more down there".[73]

The connection between Cheri Jo Bates, Riverside and the Zodiac remains uncertain. Paul Avery and the Riverside Police Department maintain that the Bates homicide was not committed by the Zodiac, but did concede that some of the Bates letters may have been his work to claim credit falsely.[74]

Lake Tahoe disappearance

The Lake Tahoe card addressed to Paul Avery on March 22,

On March 22,a postcard to the Chronicle, addressed to "Paul Averly" [sic] and believed to be from the Zodiac, appeared to claim responsibility for the disappearance of Donna Lass on September 6, [47] Made from a collage of advertisements and magazine lettering, it featured a scene from an advertisement for Forest Pines condominiums and the text "Sierra Club", "Sought Victim 12",[75] "peek through the pines", "pass Lake Tahoe areas", Dr. Salmans WinBooster Version: 1.2 crack serial keygen "around in the snow". The Zodiac's crossed-circle symbol was in both the place of the usual return address and the lower-right section of the front face of the postcard.[76]

Lass was a nurse at the Sahara Tahoe hotel and casino. She worked until about &#;a.m. on September 6, ,[76] treating her last patient at &#;a.m. Later that same day, both Lass's employer and her landlord received phone calls from an unknown male falsely claiming that Lass had left town because of a family emergency.[77] Lass was never found. What appeared to be a gravesite was discovered near the Clair Tappaan Lodge in Norden, California, on Sierra Club property.[78] No evidence has been uncovered to definitively connect the Lass disappearance with the Zodiac Killer.

Santa Barbara County murders

In a Vallejo Times-Herald story appearing on November 13, ,[79] Bill Baker of the Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office postulated that the murders of a young couple in northern Santa Barbara County might have been the work of the Zodiac Killer. On June 4,high school senior Robert Domingos and his fiancée Linda Edwards were shot 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen on a beach near Lompoc, having skipped school that day for "Senior Ditch Day". Police believed that the assailant attempted to bind the victims, but when they freed themselves and attempted to flee, the killer shot them repeatedly in the back and chest with a caliber weapon. The killer then placed their bodies in a small shack and then tried, unsuccessfully, to burn the structure to the ground.[80]

Final Zodiac letter

After the Lake Tahoe card, the Zodiac remained silent for nearly three years. The Chronicle then received a letter from the Zodiac, postmarked January 29,praising The Exorcist as "the best saterical comidy [sic] that I have ever seen". The letter included a snippet of verse from The Mikado and an unusual symbol at 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen bottom that has remained unexplained by researchers. Zodiac concluded the letter with a new score, "Me = 37, SFPD = 0".[81]

Later letters of suspicious authorship

Of further communications sent by the public to members of the news media, some contained similar characteristics of previous Zodiac writings. The Chronicle received a letter postmarked February 14,informing the editor that the initials for the Symbionese Liberation Army spelled out an Old Norse word meaning "kill".[82] However, the handwriting was not authenticated as the Zodiac's.[83]

A letter to the Chronicle, postmarked May 8,featured a complaint that the movie Badlands was "murder-glorification" and asked the paper to cut its advertisements. Signed only "A citizen", the handwriting, tone, and surface irony were all similar to earlier Zodiac communications.[84] The Chronicle subsequently received an anonymous letter postmarked July 8,complaining of their publishing the writings of the antifeminist columnist Marco Spinelli. The letter was signed "the Red Phantom (red with rage)". The Zodiac's authorship of this letter is debated.[84]

A letter, dated April 24,was initially deemed authentic but was declared a hoax less than three months later by three experts. Dave Toschi, the SFPD homicide detective who had worked the case since the Stine murder, was thought to have forged the letter. Author Armistead Maupin believed the letter to be similar to "fan mail" that praised the work of Toschi in the investigation, which he received in ; he believed both letters were written by Toschi. While he admitted to writing the fan mail, Toschi denied forging the Zodiac letter and was eventually cleared of any charges. The authenticity of this letter remains unverified.

On March 3,an American GreetingsChristmas card sent to the Chronicle, postmarked in Eureka, was re-discovered in their photo files by editorial assistant Daniel King. This letter was handed over to the Vallejo police.[85] Inside the envelope, with the card, was a photocopy of two U.S. Postal keys on a magnet keychain. The handwriting on the envelope resembles Zodiac's print but was declared inauthentic by forensic document examiner Lloyd Cunningham; however, not all Zodiac experts agree with Cunningham's analysis.[86] There is no return address on the envelope nor is his crossed-circle signature to be found. The card itself is unmarked, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. The Chronicle turned over all the material to the Vallejo Police Department for further analysis.

21st century developments

In Aprilthe SFPD marked the case "inactive", citing caseload pressure and resource demands, effectively closing the case.[87][88] However, they re-opened their case sometime before March [6][89] The case is open in Napa County[90] and in the city of Riverside.[91]

In Februarylocal historian Kristi Hawthorne put forth the idea that the Zodiac may have murdered cab driver Ray Davis in April in Oceanside, California. On 9 Aprilthe day before the murder, an individual believed to be the culprit had phoned the Oceanside Police Department and told them “I am going to pull something here in Oceanside and you’ll never be able to figure it out”. A few days after the murder, the police received another call from who is presumed to be the same individual, in which he told police details of the murder and said he would kill a bus driver next. Following Hawthorne's research Oceanside police announced that they were "looking into" possible connections between the murder and the Zodiac.[92][93][94][95]

In May1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, the Vallejo Police Department announced their intention to attempt to collect the Zodiac Killer's DNA from the back of stamps he used during his correspondence. The analysis, by a private laboratory, was expected to check the DNA against GEDmatch.[96][97] It was hoped the Zodiac Killer may be caught in a similar fashion to the "Golden State Killer" Joseph James DeAngelo. In Maya Vallejo police detective said that results were expected in several weeks. However, as of Septemberno results have been reported.[98][99][]

In Octoberthe Case Breakers, a team of over 40 cold case investigators composed of former law enforcement investigators, military intelligence officers, and journalists, claimed to have identified the Zodiac Killer as Gary Francis Poste, who died in The team claimed to have uncovered forensic evidence and photos from Poste's darkroom, and noted that scars on Poste's forehead matched those they said were described on the killer. They also claimed that removing the letters of Poste's name from one of Zodiac's cryptograms revealed an alternate message.[] The FBI subsequently stated that the case remained open and that there is "no new information to report," while local law enforcement expressed skepticism of the team's findings to the Chronicle.[] Riverside police officer Ryan Railsback said the Case Breakers' claims largely relied on circumstantial evidence,[3][] and author Tom Voigt, a Zodiac Killer investigator, called the claims "bullshit." Voigt noted that no witnesses in the case described Zodiac as having scars on his forehead.[]

Arthur Leigh Allen

Robert Graysmith's book Zodiac advanced Arthur Leigh Allen, who died inas a potential suspect based on circumstantial evidence. Allen had been interviewed by police from the early days of the Zodiac investigations and was the subject of several search warrants over a year period. InGraysmith noted that several police detectives described Allen as the most likely suspect.[] InDave Toschi stated that all the evidence against Allen ultimately "turned out to be negative".[] Toschi's daughter said in that her father had always thought Allen had been the killer, but they did not have the evidence to prove it. Mark Ruffalo, who portrayed Toschi in the film Zodiac, commented, "If you get into who these cops were, you realize how they have to take their hunches, their personal beliefs, out of it. Dave Toschi said to me, 'As soon as that guy walked in the door, I knew it was him.' He was sure he had him, but he never had a solid piece of evidence. So he had to keep investigating every other lead."[]

On October 6,Allen was interviewed by detective John Lynch of the Vallejo Police Department, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. Allen had been reported in the vicinity of the Lake Berryessa attack against Hartnell and Shepard on September 27, ; he described himself scuba diving at Salt Point on the day of the attacks.[] Allen again came to police attention in when his friend Donald Cheney reported to police in Manhattan Beach, California, that Allen had spoken of his desire to kill people, use the name Zodiac, and secured a flashlight to a firearm for visibility at night. According to Cheney, this conversation occurred no later than January 1, []

Jack Mulanax of the Vallejo Police Department subsequently wrote Allen had received an other than honorable discharge from the U.S. Navy inand had been fired from his job as an elementary school teacher in March after allegations of sexual misconduct with students. He was generally well-regarded by those who knew him, but he was also described as "fixated on young children and angry at women".

In SeptemberSan Francisco police obtained a search warrant for Allen's residence.[] InAllen was arrested for sexually assaulting a year-old boy;[] he pleaded guilty and served two years imprisonment.

Vallejo police served another search warrant at Allen's residence in February [] Two days after Allen's death inVallejo police served another warrant and seized property from Allen's residence.[] In Julyvictim Mike Mageau identified Allen as the man who shot him in from a photo line-up, saying "That's him! That's the man who shot me".[][] However police officer Donald Fouke, who is speculated to have seen the Zodiac fleeing from the Stine killing, said in the documentary His Name Was Arthur Leigh Allen that Allen weighed about pounds more than the man he saw, adding that his face was "too round". While Nancy Slover, who received the call from the Zodiac in the aftermath of the Mageau/Ferrin shooting said that Allen did not sound like the man on the phone.[]

Other evidence existed against Allen, albeit entirely circumstantial. A letter sent to the Riverside Police Department from Bates's killer was typed with a Royal typewriter with an Elite type, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, the same brand found during the February search of Allen's residence. He owned and wore a Zodiac brand wristwatch. He lived in Vallejo and worked minutes away from where one of the Zodiac victims (Ferrin) lived and from where one of the killings took place.[]

Inthe SFPD developed a partial DNA profile from the saliva on stamps and envelopes of Zodiac's letters. The SFPD compared this partial DNA to the DNA of Arthur Leigh Allen.[][] A DNA comparison was also made with the DNA of Don Cheney, who was Allen's former close friend and the first person to suggest Allen may be the Zodiac Killer. Since neither test result indicated a match, Allen and Cheney were excluded as the contributors of the DNA.[]

Retired police handwriting expert Lloyd Cunningham, who worked on the Zodiac case for decades, stated, "They gave me banana boxes full of Allen's writing, and none of his writing even came close to the Zodiac. Nor did DNA extracted from 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen envelopes (on the Zodiac letters) come close to Arthur Leigh Allen."[4]

Public speculation

  • Ross Sullivan became a person of interest through the possible link between the Zodiac Killer and the murder of Cheri Jo Bates in Riverside. Sullivan was a library assistant at Riverside City College and was suspected by coworkers who said that he went missing for several days after the murder. Sullivan resembled sketches of the Zodiac and wore military-style boots with footprints like those found at the Lake Berryessa crime scene. Sullivan was hospitalized multiple times for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.[]
  • Lawrence Kaye, later Lawrence Kane: Kathleen Johns, who claimed to have been abducted by the Zodiac Killer, picked out Kane in a photo lineup. Patrol officer Don Fouke, who possibly observed the Zodiac Killer following the murder of Paul Stine, said that Kane closely resembled the man he and Eric Zelms encountered. Kane worked at the same Nevada hotel as possible Zodiac victim Donna Lass. Kane was diagnosed with impulse-control disorder after suffering brain injuries in 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen accident. He was arrested for voyeurism and prowling.[] Fayçal Ziraoui, a French-Moroccan business consultant, claimed in that he solved the Z13 cipher and the solution to the puzzle reads "My name is Kayr", which he said is a likely typo for Kaye. Others disputed that Ziraoui could have solved the cypher, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. Kane died in []
  • Police informants accused Richard Marshall of being the Zodiac Killer, claiming that he privately hinted at being a murderer. Marshall lived in Riverside in and San Francisco inclose to the scenes of the Bates and Stine murders. He was a silent film enthusiast and projectionist, screening Segundo de Chomón's The Red Phantom (), a name used by the author of a possible Zodiac letter. Detective Ken Narlow said that "Marshall makes good reading but [is] not a very good suspect in my estimation."[]
  • Ted Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber, was investigated for possible connections to the Zodiac Killer in Kaczynski worked in northern California at the time of the Zodiac murders and, like the Zodiac, had an interest in cryptography and threatened the press into publishing his communications.[] Kaczynski was ruled out by both the FBI and SFPD based on fingerprint and handwriting comparison, and by his absence from California on certain dates of known Zodiac activity.[]
  • The Manson Family: following the capture of Charles Manson and his murderous cult, a report by the California Bureau of Criminal Identification and Investigation stated that all male members of the Manson Family had been investigated and eliminated as Zodiac suspects.[]
  • InDennis Kaufman claimed that his stepfather Jack Tarrance was the Zodiac.[] Kaufman turned several items over to the FBI, including a hood similar to the one worn by the Zodiac. According to news sources, DNA analysis conducted by the FBI on the items was deemed inconclusive in []
  • Informer lawyer Robert Tarbox, who was disbarred in August by the California Supreme Court for failure to pay some clients,[][] said that in the early s a merchant mariner walked into his office and confessed to him that he was the Zodiac Killer. The seemingly lucid seaman, whose name Tarbox would not reveal based on confidentiality, described his crimes briefly but persuasively enough to convince Tarbox. The man said he was trying to stop himself from his "opportunistic" murder spree but never returned to see Tarbox again. Tarbox took out a full-page ad in the Vallejo Times-Herald that he claimed would 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen the name of Arthur Leigh Allen as a killer, his only reason for revealing the story 30 years after the fact. Robert Graysmith, the author of several books on Zodiac, said Tarbox's story was "entirely plausible".
  • Inan episode of the History Channel television series MysteryQuest looked at newspaper editor Richard Gaikowski. During the time of the murders, Gaikowski worked for Good Times, a San Francisco counterculture newspaper. His appearance resembled the composite sketch, and Nancy Slover, the Vallejo police dispatcher who was contacted by the Zodiac shortly after the Blue Rock Springs Attack, identified a recording of Gaikowski's voice as being the same as the Zodiac's.[]
  • Retired police detective Steve Hodel argues in his book The Black Dahlia Avenger that his father, George Hodel, was the Black Dahlia killer, whose victims include Elizabeth Short.[] The book led to the release of previously suppressed files and wire recordings by the Los Angeles district attorney's office of his father, which showed that the 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen Hodel had indeed been a prime suspect in Short's murder. District Attorney Steve Kaye subsequently wrote a letter which is published in the revised edition stating that if George Hodel were still alive he would be prosecuted for the crimes.[] In a follow-up book, Hodel argued a circumstantial case that his father was also the Zodiac Killer based upon a police sketch, the similarity of the style of the Zodiac letters to the Black Dahlia Avenger letters and questioned document examination.[]
  • On February 19,America's Most Wanted featured a story about the Zodiac Killer. Ina picture surfaced of known Zodiac victim Darlene Ferrin and an unknown man who closely resembles the composite sketch, formed based on eyewitnesses' descriptions, of the Zodiac Killer. Police believe the photo was taken in San Francisco in the middle of or []
  • Convicted serial killer Edward Edwards, who committed five murders between andwas linked to the Zodiac murders and several other unsolved cases by former cold case detective John A. Cameron. Cameron's theories were met with "almost universal disdain, especially from law enforcement".[]
  • Former California Highway Patrol officer Lyndon Lafferty said the Zodiac Killer was a year-old Solano County, California, man he referred to by the pseudonym George Russell Tucker.[] Using a group of retired law enforcement officers called the Mandamus Seven, Lafferty discovered Tucker and outlined an alleged cover-up for why he was not pursued.[] Tucker died in February and was not named because he was not considered a suspect by police.[]
  • In Februaryit was reported that Louis Joseph Myers had confessed to a friend in that he was the Zodiac Killer after learning that he was dying from cirrhosis of the liver. He requested that his friend, Randy Kenney, go to the police upon his death. Myers died inbut Kenney allegedly had difficulties getting officers to cooperate and take the claims seriously. There are several potential connections between Myers and the Zodiac case; Myers attended the same high schools as victims David Farraday and Betty Lou Jensen, and allegedly worked in the same restaurant as victim Darlene Ferrin. During the – period, when no Zodiac letters were received, Myers was stationed overseas with the military. Kenney says that Myers confessed he targeted couples because he had had a bad breakup with a girlfriend. While officers associated with the case are skeptical, they believe the story is credible enough to investigate if Kenney could produce credible evidence.[]
  • Robert Ivan Nichols, also known as Joseph Newton Chandler III, was a formerly unidentifiedidentity thief who committed suicide in Eastlake, Ohio, in July After his death, investigators were unable to locate his family and discovered that he had stolen the identity of an eight-year-old boy who was killed in a car crash in Texas in The lengths to which Nichols went to 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen his identity led to speculation that he was a violent fugitive, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. The U.S. Marshals Service announced his identification at a press conference in Cleveland on June 21, Some Internet sleuths suggested that he might have been the Zodiac Killer, as he resembled police sketches of the Zodiac and had lived in California, where the Zodiac operated.[][][]
  • InGary Stewart published a book, The Most Dangerous Animal of All, in which he claimed his search for his biological father, Earl Van Best Jr., led him to conclude Van Best was the Zodiac Killer. Inthe book was adapted for FX Network as a documentary series.[]
  • Sincea journalistic inquiry on a connection between the Zodiac and Monster of Florence cases is being published on the website of Italian magazine Tempi,[] also appearing in newspapers Libero[] and Il Giornale[] (which following the publication of Amicone's first article in Libero in retreated).[] The suspect is a former superintendent of the Florence American Cemetery in Italy, Joseph "Joe" Bevilacqua, also known as Giuseppe, who was born on December 20, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen,in Totowa, New Jersey, and had a years career in the Microsoft office 2007 Enterprise Edition serial when he left it to move to Florence in [][] Francesco Amicone, the author of inquiry, wrote an account of a Bevilacqua's partial admission, in which he would have confessed to Amicone to being responsible of the murders attributed to the Zodiac killer and the Monster of Florence in an unregistered conversation occurred on September 11, After the release of the first part of the inquiry in MayBevilacqua denied his admission; even though he threatened him with a lawsuit, Amicone did not stop to accuse him. InAmicone reported that Bevilacqua would have been an undercover CID agent assigned to an investigation in San Francisco concerning SMA William O. Wooldridge and other Army sergeants at the time of Zodiac's homicides in and While Army criminal investigator in Italy in the early s, Bevilacqua would have had access to a case file of a double murder that occurred near Florence in where bullets and shell casings had been improperly stored.[] Bevilacqua replaced the pieces of evidence with spent cartridges shot by the gun he would use in the Monster of Florence's homicides in order to link his future crimes to those murders for which he had an alibi.[] Italian authorities collected Bevilacqua's DNA in late []
  • On October 6,The Case Breakers, an independent team of 40 former law enforcement investigators, military intelligence officers and journalists, claimed to have identified 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen Zodiac Killer as Gary Francis Poste, but this information was not confirmed by the Vallejo Police Department. The Case Breakers have requested that police test the Zodiac Killer's DNA evidence to confirm it matches the DNA of Gary Francis Poste.[][][] The police, however, said that the case is not solved and that the killer was not identified yet. "The Zodiac Killer case remains open. We have no new information to share at the moment", an FBI spokesman told CNN.[]

Letters and ciphers gallery

  • Zodiac's letter sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on July 31,

  • The decryption of the July 31, cipher by Donald and Bettye Harden

  • Zodiac's letter sent to the Vallejo Times-Herald on July 31,

  • Zodiac's letter sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on November 8, with the Cipher, which was decrypted on December 5,

  • Zodiac's letter sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on April 20,

  • Zodiac's bomb schematic sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on April 20,

See also

Notes

  1. ^ abWell into the s, the Zodiac wrote letters claiming responsibility for earlier and later killings, but he has never been definitively linked to any crime that took place before or after
  2. ^When corrected for most errors, excluding the distinctive spelling of paradice, the Z message says:
    I like killing people because it is so much fun. It is more fun than killing wild game in the forest because man is the most dangerous animal of all. To kill something gives me the most thrilling experience. It is even better than getting your rocks off with a girl. The best part of it is that when I die, I will be reborn in paradice and all that I have killed will become my slaves. I will not give you my name because you will try to slow down or stop my collection of slaves for my afterlife. ebeorietemethhpiti
  3. ^Shortly after the decoding of this cipher, Vallejo police contacted a Vacaville-based psychiatrist to review the contents. This expert determined the contents were typical of a brooding and isolated individual, adding the fact the author compared the thrill of murder to the satisfaction of sex was "usually an expression of inadequacy" from a male who senses extreme rejection. The fact the author claimed to be collecting slaves for his afterlife revealed this individual's sense of omnipotence.[19]
  4. ^InToschi would opine his belief to a reporter from the Fort Scott Tribune that the Zodiac killer lived in the San Francisco Bay area, and that the letters he had sent had been an "ego game" for him, adding: "He's a weekend killer. Why can't he get away Monday through Thursday? Does his job keep him close to home? I would speculate he maybe has a menial job, is well 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen of and blends into the crowd I think he's quite intelligent and better educated than someone who misspells words as frequently as he does in his letters."[34]
  5. ^When corrected for most errors, excluding the distinctive spelling of paradice, the Z message says:
    I hope you are having lots of fun in trying to catch me. That wasn't me on the TV show, which brings up a point about me. I am not afraid of the gas chamber because it will send me to paradice all the sooner, because I now have enough slaves to work for me where everyone else has nothing when they reach paradice, so they are afraid of death. I am not afraid because I know that my new life is life will be an easy one in paradice death.

References

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  84. ^Williams, Lance. "Zodiac's written clues fascinate document expert", Archived September 16,at the Wayback MachineSan Francisco Chronicle, March 3, Retrieved March 15,
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  95. ^Chabria, Anita (May 2, ). "Vallejo police have sent Zodiac Killer DNA to a lab. Results could come in weeks". The Sacramento Bee.
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Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

 

THE 12 TYPES OF CYBER CRIME

There are literally a dozen ways in which a cybercrime can be perpretrated, and you need to know what they are

In order to protect yourself you need to know about the different ways in which your computer can be compromised and your privacy infringed. In this section, we discuss a few common tools and techniques employed by the cyber criminals. This isn’t an exhaustive list by any means, but will give you a comprehensive idea of the loopholes in

networks and security systems, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, which can be exploited by 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, and also their possible motives for doing so.

1. Hacking

In simple words, hacking is an act committed by an intruder by accessing your computer system without your permission. Hackers (the people doing the ‘hacking’) are basically computer programmers, who have an advanced understanding of computers and commonly misuse this knowledge for devious 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. They’re usually technology buffs who have expert-level skills in one particular software program or language. As for motives, there could be several, but the most common are pretty simple and can be explained by a human tendancy such as greed, fame, power, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, etc. Some people do it purely to show-off their expertise – ranging from relatively harmless activities such as modifying software (and even hardware) to carry out tasks that are outside the creator’s intent, others just want to cause destruction.

Greed and sometimes voyeuristic tendancies may cause a hacker to break into systems to steal personal banking information, a corporation’s financial data, etc. They also try and modify systems so hat they can execute tasks at their whims. Hackers displaying such destructive conduct are also called “Crackers” at times. they are also called “Black Hat” hackers On the other hand, there are those who develop an interest in computer hacking just out of intellectual curiosity. Some companies hire these computer enthusiasts to find flaws in their security systems and help fix them. Referred to as “White Hat” hackers, these guys are against the abuse of computer systems. They attempt to break into network systems purely to alert the owners of flaws. It’s not always altruistic, though, because many do this for fame as well, in order to land jobs with top 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, or just to be termed as security experts. “Grey Hat” is another term used to refer to hacking activities that are a cross between black and white 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen of the most famous computer geniuses were once hackers who went on to use their skills for constructive technological development. Dennis Ritchie and Ken 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, the creators of the UNIX operating system (Linux’s predecessor), Prezi Pro 6.26.0 Crack + Keygen Free Download [LATEST] two of them. Shawn Fanning, the developer of Napster, Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook fame, and many more are also examples. The first step towards preventing hackers from gaining access to your systems is to learn how hacking is done. Of course it is beyond the scope of this Fast Track to go into great details, but we will cover the various techniques used by hackers to get to you via the internet.

a. SQL Injections: An SQL injection is a technique that allows hackers to play upon the security vulnerabilities of the software 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen runs a web site. It can be used to attack any type of unprotected or improperly protected SQL database. This process involves entering portions of SQL code into a web form entry field – most commonly usernames and passwords – to give the hacker further access to the site backend, or to a particular

user’s account. When you enter logon information into sign-in fields, this information is typically converted to an SQL command. This command checks the data you’ve entered against the relevant table in the database, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. If your input data matches the data in the table, you’re granted access, if not, you get the kind of error you would have seen when you put in a wrong password. An SQL injection is usually an additional command that when inserted into the web form, tries to change the content of the database to reflect a successful login. It can also be used to retrieve information such as credit card numbers or passwords from unprotected sites.

b. Theft of FTP Passwords: This is another very common way to tamper with web sites. FTP password hacking takes advantage of the fact that many webmasters store their website login information on their poorly protected PCs. The thief searches the victim’s system for FTP login details, and then relays them to his own remote computer. He then logs into the web site via the remote computer and modifies the web pages as he or she pleases.

c. Cross-site scripting:

Also known as XSS (formerly CSS, but renamed due to confusion with cascading style sheets), is a very easy way of circumventing a security system. Cross-site scripting is a hard-to-find loophole in a web site, making it vulnerable to attack. In a typical XSS attack, the hacker infects a web page with a malicious client-side script or program. When you visit this web page, the script is automatically downloaded to your browser and executed. Typically, attackers inject HTML, JavaScript, VBScript, ActiveX or Flash into a vulnerable application to deceive you and gather confidential information. If you want to protect your PC from malicious hackers, investing in a good firewall should be first and foremost. Hacking is done through a network, so it’s very important to stay safe while using the internet. You’ll read more about safety tips in the last chapter of this book.

2. Virus dissemination

Viruses are computer programs that attach themselves to or infect a system or files, and have a tendency to circulate to other computers on a network. They disrupt the computer operation and affect the data stored – either by modifying it or by deleting it altogether. “Worms” unlike viruses don’t need a host to cling on to. They merely replicate until they eat up all available memory in the system. The term “worm” is sometimes used to mean selfreplicating “malware” (MALicious softWARE). These terms are often used interchangeably in the context of the hybrid viruses/worms that dominate

Although mankind’s best invention, the net is still a minefield of threats

the current virus scenario. 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen horses” are different from viruses in their manner of propagation.

They masquerade as a legitimate file, such as an email attachment from a supposed friend with a very believable name, and don’t disseminate themselves. The user can also unknowingly install a Trojan-infected program via drive-by downloads when visiting a website, playing online games or using internet-driven applications. A Trojan horse can cause damage similar to other viruses, such as steal information or hamper/disrupt the functioning of computer systems.

A simple diagram to show how malware can propogate

 

How does this happen? Well, the malicious code or virus is inserted into the chain of command so that when the infected program is run, the viral code is also executed (or in some cases, runs instead of the legitimate program). Viruses are usually seen as extraneous code attached to a host program, but this isn’t always the case. Sometimes, the environment is manipulated so that calling a legitimate uninfected program calls the viral program. The viral program may also be executed before any other program is run. This can virtually infect every executable file on the computer, even though none of those files’ code was actually tampered with. Viruses that follow this modus operandi include “cluster” or “FAT” (File Allocation Table) viruses, which redirect system pointers to infected files, associate viruses and viruses that modify the Windows Registry directory entries so that their own code is executed before any other legitimate program.

 

Computer viruses usually spread via removable media or the internet. A flash disk, CD-ROM, magnetic tape or other storage device that has been in an infected computer infects all future computers in which it’s used. Your computer can also contract viruses from sinister email attachments, rogue web sites or infected software. And these disseminate to every other computer on your network.

 

All computer viruses cause direct or indirect economic damages. Based on this, there are two categories of viruses:

1) Those that only disseminate and don’t cause intentional damage

2) Those which are programmed to cause damage.

However, even by disseminating, they take up plenty of memory space, and time and resources that are spent on the clean-up job. Direct economic damages are caused when viruses alter the information during digital transmission. Considerable expenses are incurred by individuals, firms and authorities for developing and implementing the anti-virus tools to protect computer systems.

3. Logic bombs

A logic bomb, also known as “slag code”, is a malicious piece of code which is intentionally inserted into software to execute a malicious task when triggered by a specific event. It’s not a virus, although it usually behaves in a similar manner. It is stealthily inserted into the program where it lies dormant until specified conditions are met. Malicious software such as viruses and worms often contain logic bombs which are triggered at a specific payload or at a predefined time. The payload of a logic bomb is unknown to the user of the software, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, and the task that it executes unwanted. Program codes that are scheduled to execute at a particular time are known as “time-bombs&rdquo. For example, the infamous “Friday the 13th” virus which attacked the host systems only on specific dates; it “exploded” (duplicated itself) every Friday that happened to be the thirteenth of a month, thus causing system slowdowns.

Logic bombs are usually employed by disgruntled employees working in the IT sector. You may have heard of “disgruntled employee syndrome” wherein angry employees who’ve been fired use logic bombs to delete the databases of their employers, stultify the network for a while or even do insider trading. Triggers associated with the execution of logic bombs can be a specific date and time, a missing entry from a database or not putting in a command at the usual time, meaning the person doesn’t work there anymore. Most logic bombs stay only in the network they were employed in. So in most cases, they’re an insider job. This makes them easier to design and execute than a virus. It doesn’t need to replicate; which is a more complex job. To keep your network protected from the logic bombs, you need constant monitoring of the data and efficient anti-virus software on each of the computers in the network.

 

There’s another use for the type of action carried out in a logic bomb “explosion” – to make restricted software trials. The embedded piece of code destroys the software after a defined period of time or renders it unusable until the user pays for its further use. Although this piece of code uses the same technique as a logic bomb, it has a non-destructive, non-malicious and user-transparent use, and is not typically referred to as one.

4. Denial-of-Service attack

A Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack is an explicit attempt by attackers to deny service to intended users of that service. It involves flooding a computer resource with more requests than it can handle consuming its available bandwidth which results in server overload. This causes the resource (e.g. a web server) to crash or slow down significantly so that no one can access it. Using this technique, the attacker can render a web site inoperable by sending massive amounts of traffic to the targeted site. A site may temporarily malfunction or crash completely, in any case resulting in inability of the system to communicate adequately. DoS attacks violate the acceptable use policies of virtually all internet service providers.

Another variation to a denial-of-service attack is known as a “Distributed Denial of Service” (DDoS) attack wherein a number of geographically widespread perpetrators flood the network traffic, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. Denial-of-Service attacks typically target high profile web site servers belonging to banks and credit card payment gateways. Websites of companies such as Amazon, CNN, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, Yahoo, Twitter and eBay! are not spared either.

5. Phishing

This a technique of extracting confidential information such as credit card numbers and username password combos by masquerading as a legitimate enterprise. Phishing is typically carried out by email spoofing. You’ve probably received email containing links to legitimate appearing websites. You probably found it suspicious and didn’t click the link. Smart move.

How phishing can net some really interesting catches

The malware would have installed itself on your computer and stolen private information. Cyber-criminals use social engineering to trick you into downloading malware off the internet or make you fill in your personal information under false pretenses. A phishing scam in an email message can be evaded by keeping certain things in mind.

 

  • Look for spelling mistakes in the text. Cyber-criminals are not known for their grammar and spelling.

  • Hover your cursor over the hyperlinked URL but don’t click. Check if the address matches with the one written in the message.

  • Watch out for fake threats. Did you receive a message saying “Your email account will be closed if you don’t reply to this email”? They might trick you by threatening that your security has been compromised.

  • Attackers use 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen names and logos of well-known web sites to deceive you, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. The graphics and the web addresses used in the email are strikingly similar to the legitimate ones, but they lead you to phony sites.

 

Not all phishing is done via email or web sites. Vishing (voice phishing) involves calls to victims using fake identity fooling you into considering the call to be from a trusted organisation. They may claim to be from a bank asking you to dial a number (provided by VoIP service and owned by attacker) and enter your account details. Once you do that, your account security is compromised. Treat all unsolicited phone calls with skepticism and never provide any personal information. Many banks have issued preemptive warnings informing their users of phishing scams and the do’s and don’ts regarding your account information. Those of you reading Digit for long enough will remember that we successfully phished hundreds of our readers by reporting a way to hack other people’s gmail accounts by sending an email to a made up account with your own username and password… and we did that years ago in a story aboutyes, you guessed it, phishing!

6. Email bombing and spamming

Email bombing is characterised by an abuser sending huge volumes of email to a target address resulting in victim’s email account or mail servers crashing. The message is meaningless and excessively long in order to consume network resources. If multiple accounts of a mail server are targeted, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen, it may have a denial-of-service impact. Such mail arriving frequently in your inbox can be easily detected by spam filters. Email bombing is commonly carried out using botnets (private internet connected computers whose security has been compromised by malware and under the attacker’s control) as a DDoS attack.

This type of attack is more difficult to control due to multiple source addresses and the bots which are programmed to send different messages to defeat spam filters, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. “Spamming” is a variant of email bombing. Here unsolicited bulk messages are sent to a large number of users, indiscriminately. Opening links given in spam mails may lead you to phishing web sites hosting malware. Spam mail may also have infected files as attachments. Email spamming worsens when the recipient replies to the email causing all the original addressees to receive the reply. Spammers collect email addresses from customer lists, newsgroups, chat-rooms, web sites and viruses which harvest users’ address books, and sell them to other spammers as well. A large amount of spam is sent to invalid email addresses.

Email 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen cleaning out spam mail

Sending spam violates the acceptable use policy (AUP) of almost all internet service providers. If your system suddenly becomes 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen (email loads slowly or doesn’t appear to be sent or received), the reason may be that your mailer is processing a large number of messages. Unfortunately, at this time, there’s no way to completely prevent email bombing and spam mails as it’s impossible to predict the origin of the next attack. However, what you can do is identify the source of the spam mails and have your router configured to block any incoming packets from that address.

7. Web jacking

Web jacking derives its name from “hijacking&rdquo. Here, the hacker takes control of a web site fraudulently. He may change the content of the original site or even redirect the user to another fake similar looking page controlled by him. The owner of the web site has no more control and the attacker may use the web site for his own selfish interests. Cases have been reported where the attacker has asked for ransom, and even posted obscene material on the site.

The web jacking method attack may be used to create a clone of the web site, and present the victim with the new link saying that the site has moved. Unlike usual phishing methods, when you hover your cursor over the link provided, the URL presented will be the original one, and not the attacker’s site. But when you click on the new link, it opens and is quickly replaced with the malicious web server. The name on the address bar will be slightly different from the original website that can trick the user into thinking it’s a legitimate site. For example, “gmail” may direct you to “gmai1&rdquo. Notice the one in place of ‘L&rsquo. It can be easily overlooked.

Obviously not mlbjerseyschina.us, but still enough people click

 

Web jacking can also be done by sending a counterfeit message to the registrar controlling the domain name registration, under a false identity asking him to connect a domain name to the webjacker’s IP address, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen sending unsuspecting consumers who enter that particular domain name to a website controlled by the webjacker. The purpose of this attack is to try to harvest the credentials, usernames, passwords and account numbers of users by using a fake web page with a valid link which opens when the user is redirected to it after opening the legitimate site.

8. Cyber stalking

Cyber stalking is a new form of internet crime in our society when a person is pursued or followed online. A cyber stalker doesn’t physically follow his victim; he does it virtually by following his online activity to harvest information about the stalkee and harass him or her and make threats using verbal intimidation, 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen. It’s an invasion of one’s online privacy.

Cyber stalking uses the internet or any other electronic means and is different from offline stalking, but is usually accompanied by it. Most victims of this crime are women who are stalked by men and children who are stalked by adult predators and pedophiles. Cyber stalkers thrive on inexperienced web users who are not well aware of netiquette and the rules of internet safety. A cyber stalker may be a stranger, but could just as easily be someone you know.

 

Cyber stalkers harass their victims via email, chat rooms, web sites, discussion forums and open publishing web sites (e.g. blogs). The availability of free email / web site space and the anonymity provided by chat rooms and forums has contributed to the increase of cyber stalking incidents. Everyone has an online presence nowadays, and it’s really easy to do a Google search and get one’s name, alias, contact number and address, contributing to the menace that is cyber stalking. As the internet is increasingly becoming an integral part of our personal and professional lives, stalkers can take advantage of the ease of communications and the availability of personal information only a few mouse clicks away. In addition, the anonymous and non-confrontational nature of internet communications further tosses away any disincentives in the way of cyber stalking. Cyber stalking is done in two primary ways:

 

  • Internet Stalking: Here the stalker harasses the victim via the internet. Unsolicited email is the most common way of threatening someone, and the stalker may even send obscene content and viruses by email. However, viruses and unsolicited telemarketing email alone do not constitute cyber stalking. But if email is sent repeatedly in an attempt Multimedia Archives - PC Product key intimidate the recipient, they may be considered as stalking. Internet stalking is not limited to email; stalkers can more comprehensively use the internet to harass the victims. Any other cyber-crime that we’ve already read about, if done with an intention to threaten, harass, or slander the victim may amount to cyber stalking.

 

  • Computer Stalking: The more technologically advanced stalkers apply their computer skills to assist them with the crime. They gain unauthorised control of the victim’s computer by exploiting the working of the internet and the Windows operating system. Though this is usually done by proficient and computer savvy stalkers, instructions on how to accomplish this are easily available on the internet.

 

Cyber stalking has now spread its wings to social networking. With the increased use of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and YouTube, your profile, photos, and status updates are up for the world to see. Your online presence provides enough information for you to become a potential victim of stalking without even being aware of the risk. With the “check-ins”, the “life-events”, apps which access your personal 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen and the need to put up just about everything that you’re doing and where you’re doing it, one doesn’t really leave anything for the stalkers to figure out for themselves. Social networking technology provides a social and collaborative platform for internet users to interact, express their thoughts and share almost everything about their lives. Though it promotes socialisation amongst people, along the way it contributes to the rise of internet violations.

9. Data diddling

Data Diddling is unauthorised altering of data DriverMax Pro 12.15.0.15 Crack Full Version Download or during entry into a computer system, and then changing it back after processing is done. Using this technique, the attacker may modify the expected output and is difficult to track. In other words, the original information to be entered is changed, either by a person typing in the data, a virus that’s programmed to change the data, the programmer of the database or application, or anyone else involved in the process of creating, recording, encoding, examining, checking, converting or transmitting data.

This is one of the simplest methods of committing a computer-related crime, because even a computer amateur can do it. Despite this being an effortless task, it can have detrimental effects. For example, a person responsible for accounting may change data about themselves or a friend or relative showing that they’re paid in full. By altering or failing to enter the information, they’re able to steal from the enterprise. Other examples include forging or counterfeiting documents and exchanging valid computer tapes or cards with prepared replacements. Electricity boards in India have been victims of data diddling by computer criminals when private parties 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen computerizing their systems.

Identity Theft and Credit Card Fraud

Identity theft occurs when someone steals your identity and pretends to be you to access resources such as credit cards, bank accounts and other benefits in your name. The imposter may also 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen your identity to commit other crimes. “Credit card fraud” is a wide ranging term for crimes involving identity theft where the criminal uses your credit card to fund his transactions. Credit card fraud is identity theft in its simplest form. The most common case of credit card fraud is your pre-approved card falling into someone else’s hands.

Credit card fraud is the most common way for hackers to steal yoiur money

He can use it to buy anything until you report to the authorities and get your card blocked. The only security measure on credit card purchases is the signature on the receipt but that can very easily be forged. However, in some countries the merchant 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen even ask you for an ID or a PIN. Some credit card companies have software to estimate the probability of fraud. If an unusually large transaction is made, the issuer may even call you to verify.

 

Often people forget to collect their copy of the credit card receipt after eating at restaurants or elsewhere when they pay by credit card. These receipts have your credit card number and your signature for anyone to see and use. With only this information, someone can make purchases online or by phone. You won’t notice it until you get your monthly statement, which is why you should carefully 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen your statements. Make sure the website is trustworthy and secure when shopping online. Some hackers may get a hold of your credit card number by employing phishing techniques. Sometimes a tiny padlock icon appears on the left screen corner of the address bar on your browser which provides a higher level of security for data transmission. If you click on it, it will also tell you the encryption software it uses.

 

A more serious concern is the use of your personal information with the help of stolen or fake documents to open accounts (or even worse, using your existing account) to take a loan in your name. These unscrupulous people can collect your personal details from your mailbox or trash can (remember to shred all sensitive documents). Think of all the important details printed on those receipts, pay stubs and other documents. You won’t know a thing until the credit card people track you down and tail you until you clear all your dues. Then 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen months and months you’ll be fighting to get your credit restored and your name cleared.

 

With rising cases of credit card fraud, many financial institutions have stepped in with software solutions to monitor your credit and guard your identity. ID theft insurance can be taken to recover lost wages and restore your credit. But before you spend a fortune on these services, apply the no-cost, common sense measures to avert such a crime.

Salami slicing attack

A “salami slicing attack” or “salami fraud” is a technique by which cyber-criminals steal money or resources a bit at a time so that there’s no noticeable difference in overall size. The perpetrator gets away with these little pieces from a large number of resources and thus accumulates a considerable amount over a period of time. The essence of this method is the failure to detect the misappropriation. The most classic approach is “collect-the-roundoff” technique. Most calculations are carried out in a particular currency are rounded off up to the nearest number about half the time and down the rest of the time. If a programmer decides to collect these excess fractions of rupees to a separate account, no net loss 1st Mail Bomber v9.2 crack serial keygen the system seems apparent. This is done by carefully transferring the funds into the perpetrator’s account.

Attackers insert a program into the system to automatically carry out the task. Logic bombs may also be employed by unsatisfied greedy employees who exploit their know-how of the network and/or privileged access to the system. In this technique, the criminal programs the arithmetic calculators to automatically modify data, such as in interest calculations.

 

Stealing money electronically is the most common use of the salami slicing technique, but it’s not restricted to money laundering. The salami technique can also be applied to gather little bits of information over a period of time to deduce an overall picture of an organisation. This act of distributed information gathering may be against an individual or an organisation. Data can be collected from web sites, advertisements, documents collected from trash cans, and the like, gradually building up a whole database of factual

intelligence about the target.

 

Since the amount of misappropriation is just below the threshold of perception, we need to be more vigilant. Careful examination of our assets, transactions and every other dealing including sharing of confidential information with others might help reduce the chances of an attack by this method.

Software Piracy

Thanks to the internet and torrents, you can find almost any movie, software or song from any origin for free. Internet piracy is an integral part of our lives which knowingly or unknowingly we all contribute to. This way, the profits of the resource developers are being cut down. It’s not just about using someone else’s intellectual property illegally but also passing it on to your friends further reducing the revenue they deserve.

Piracy is rampant in India, but you knew that

Software piracy is the unauthorised use and distribution of computer software. Software developers work hard to develop these programs, and piracy curbs their ability to generate enoughrevenue to sustain application development. This affects the whole global economy as funds are relayed from other sectors which results in less investment in marketing and research.

The following constitute software piracy:

 

  • Loading unlicensed software on your PC

  • Using single-licensed software on multiple computers

  • Using a key generator to circumvent copy protection

  • Distributing a licensed or unlicensed (“cracked”) version of software over the internet and offline

 

“Cloning” is another threat. It happens when someone copies the idea behind your software and writes his own code. Since ideas are not copy protected across borders all the time, this isn’t strictly illegal. A software “crack” is an illegally obtained version of the software which works its way around the encoded copy prevention. Users of pirated software may use a key generator to generate a “serial” number which unlocks an evaluation version of the software, thus defeating the copy protection. Software cracking and using unauthorised keys are illegal acts of copyright infringement.

 

Using pirated material comes with its own risks. The pirated software may contain Trojans, viruses, worms and other malware, since pirates will often infect software with malicious code. Users of pirated software may be punished by the law for illegal use of copyrighted material. Plus you won’t get the software support that is provided by the developers.

To protect your software from piracy if you’re a developer, you should apply strong safeguards. Some websites sell software with a “digital fingerprint” that helps in tracing back the pirated copies to the source. Another common method is hardware locking. Using this, the software license is locked to a specific computer hardware, such that it runs only on that computer. Unfortunately, hackers continue to find their way around these measures.

Others

So far we’ve discussed the dedicated methods of committing cyber crimes. In a nutshell, any offence committed using electronic means such as net extortion, cyber bullying, child pornography and internet fraud is termed as cyber crime. The internet is a huge breeding ground for pornography, which has often been subject to censorship on grounds of obscenity. But what may be considered obscene in India, might not be considered so in other countries.

Since every country has a different legal stand on this subject matter, pornography is rampant online. However, according to the Indian Constitution, largely, pornography falls under the category of obscenity and is punishable by law. Child pornography is a serious offence, and can attract the harshest punishments provided for by law.  Pedophiles lurk in chat rooms to lure children. The internet allows long-term victimisation of such children, because the pictures once put up, spread like wild-fire, and may never get taken down completely. Internet crimes against children are a matter of grave concern, and are being addressed by the authorities, but this problem has no easy solution.

 

Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

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