The History of Delta Omega | Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

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Delta Omega was founded at The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health in May by two graduate students, Edgar Erskine Hume and Claude W. Mitchell. At the time, public health as a profession was still in its infancy and the graduate schools of public health had only recently come into being.6 In the years before the establishment of university-based education in public health, entrance into the field had been largely through the gate of practical experience and political favor. To promote graduate study in public health, it seemed appropriate to Hume and Mitchell to organize an honorary society to recognize outstanding achievement in the new field.7

Edgar Erskine Hume was born in Frankfort, Kentucky on December 26, He received ArcGIS Pro 2.6.1 Crack Archives BA from Centre College in Danville, Kentucky, in and an master's degree in He attended the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, earning his medical degree in He later completed his Public Health doctorate at The Johns Hopkins University School Sketch 53 amc Archives Hygiene and Public Health in

Hume served for most of his life in public health efforts in Sketch 53 amc Archives military. He was in the Army Medical Corps from to where he became a leading medical authority involved in combating disease all over the world. He fought typhus epidemics in Siberia, Russia and in Naples, Italy. During World War II, he headed military governments for the American troops occupying Naples, Milan, Rome and Florence. One of the most decorated soldiers in American history, Hume Download Fraps 3.5.99 Crack Archives also a librarian at the Army Medical Library for part of his career (, and ). The author Sketch 53 amc Archives more than books and articles on scientific and historical topics, Hume died in

Claude William Mitchell was born in Kansas on May 27, Sketch 53 amc Archives, He MacX Video Converter Pro 6.5.5 Crack + Keygen [Latest 2022] his BA inhis MA in and his PhD inall from the University of Nebraska, Sketch 53 amc Archives. He earned his medical degree Sketch 53 amc Archives Rush Medical College in and his doctorate in Public Deepnude keygen,serial,crack,generator,unlock,key from The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health in An assistant surgeon in the United States Public Health Service from tohe later went into private practice in Silver Spring, Maryland. Mitchell died in

The School of Hygiene and Public Health at Johns Hopkins was established in The University, however, did not finish construction of the new public health building on Wolfe Street until The School, meanwhile, operated out of temporary quarters in downtown Baltimore in buildings formerly used by the University's Arts and Sciences division. Most of the school's activities took place in the old physics building

A number of students attending the new Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health worked, or were on military duty, in nearby Washington D.C. They commuted to school and work via the one-hour train ride between Washington and Baltimore

The idea for Delta Omega arose during the train rides that Hume and Mitchell shared as they commuted. They both felt that if public health was to occupy a position comparable to that of the other professions, it should have an honorary fraternity One of the primary objects of such a society, as they saw it, would be to link those institutions engaged in giving graduate instruction in public health in this country

Their goal was to strengthen the fledgling profession and put it on a more equal footing with the already established specialties.

Mitchell was originally in favor of a social fraternity. Hume, however, felt that there was no need for such an organization at Hopkins. What the profession needed was an honor society comparable to those in medicine, law, theology and other professions Mitchell eventually agreed. The pair then consulted William Henry Welch, the director of the School and probably the most influential person in the field of medicine and public health at the time. They also consulted William Henry Howell, the great Hopkins physiologist, and Wade Hampton Frost, professor of epidemiology. Welch and Howell were enthusiastic and offered support. Mitchell and Hume, therefore, proceeded to organize the new society.

Early inMitchell and Hume organized two preliminary meetings to discuss the Society. Nine students attended the first meeting; thirteen attended the second. The group agreed to proceed with the organization. They then appointed temporary officers to govern until they could decide on the full membership. They elected Mitchell temporary chairman, who, in turn, appointed Milford E. Barnes as temporary secretary-treasurer.

The group then appointed a committee to choose the charter members. They decided on seventeen regular members, one faculty member and one alumnus. Beside the founders, Doctors Mitchell and Hume, the other charter members included Charles A. Bailey, Milford E. Barnes, Yves M. Biraud, James B. Black, John W. Brown, W. Thurber Fales, Martin Frobisher Jr., Raymond D. Fear, John F. Kendrick, Shelton S. King, Edward A. Lane, Hilario Lara, Hynek J. Pelc, Persis Putnam and George H. Ramsey. The group chose William Henry Welch as the first faculty member. They then picked James Angus Doull as the first alumnus member. Many in this group eventually became leaders in the field of public health. (For brief biographical sketches of these individuals, see Appendix A at the close of this history).

After the group chose the Sketch 53 amc Archives members, they then proceeded to appoint committees. They established committees for membership and insignia design, a committee on certificates and one to draft a constitution. Finally, they appointed a committee to arrange the annual dinner.

After having consulted with Doctor Welch, the membership committee reported its findings. The committee felt that the only real justification for Delta Omega at Johns Hopkins should be to recognize and stimulate scholarship in the School or to recognize some other clearly stated achievement in the field of public health. If Delta Omega limited itself to these goals, Sketch 53 amc Archives, the Society would then stand for something definite and worthwhile. The group suggested that the faculty select a certain number of outstanding students each year, these students to automatically become members of the Society. Candidates who were not students could be elected based upon past degrees taken, past positions held or other public health accomplishments. Doctor Welch suggested certain modifications in student selection. He agreed that the faculty would furnish recommendations but was adamant that the regular membership vote on all the new members. The issue of membership criteria never did quite meet everyone's expectations and caused problems for Delta Omega throughout its early history

The Society next proceeded to adopt a tentative constitution and to elect permanent officers. The first set of elected officers were Claude Mitchell as President, Charles Bailey as Vice President, Persis Putnam as Treasurer and Milford Barnes as Secretary.

On May 6,the insignia committee reported on their deliberations. The insignia of the Society would be a golden key with a circular center approximately the size Sketch 53 amc Archives a dime. It would have the Greek letter Delta Omega on its face. On the back would be the initials of the University, the member's name, year of election and the Greek letter for the local chapter, Sketch 53 amc Archives. The local chapter at The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health chose the name Alpha because it was the first chapter. The keys would cost nine dollars for the first group of members and six dollars thereafter.

There is some dispute regarding the origin of the name Delta Omega. Justin Andrews, an early president of the Society, and a faculty member in Sketch 53 amc Archives Zoology, recalled that the name Delta Omega was chosen by the charter members because the word Delta (a Greek triangle) "represented physicians, sanitarians & research workers, the three classes of students interested in public health." He also recalled that the word Omega was chosen because the Society "was from an honorary standpoint the last and final one which a public health worker in the field or laboratory might be elected."16

In later years (), however, Edgar Hume the co-founder stated that he coined the name arbitrarily and that the letters had no special significance In any event, after the insignia committee reported, the group spent the next few meetings drawing up the Society's constitution. They approved it on May 14, after review by Doctor Welch. The constitution outlined the mission of the Society and the requirements for group and individual eligibility, Sketch 53 amc Archives. It also outlined governance on the national and local levels. Finally, it called for an annual convention.

After approving the constitution, the Society proceeded to elect the first group of members under the terms outlined. The faculty suggested a list of the Sketch 53 amc Archives candidates consisting of sixty-one names. The group chose eleven new members from this pool. They were Richard A. Bolt, William A. McIntosh, Doris A. Murray and George H. Boyd, Mary J. Chapman, Anna Baetjer, Martha Eckford, Harry Kruse, Francis A. Coventry, Sketch 53 amc Archives I. Parsons and Thomas F. Sellers. The chapter also chose Huo-Ki Hu, Carl R. Doering, Thomas J. LeBlanc, Thomas S. Sweeney, Lemuel R. Cleveland, Joseph M. Scott, John A. Ferrell and Raymond C. Salter as alumni members.

Delta Omega also elected three honorary members in These were Sir Arthur Newsholme, Watson S. Rankin Sketch 53 amc Archives Sara Days Gone Free Download Baker. The criterion for electing honorary members was such that any chapter could nominate someone. Eighty percent of the parent chapter, however, had to approve them. Nominees were to have exceptional credentials in the field of public health. The first three chosen certainly met this qualification.

Sir Arthur Newsholme was one of the leading British public health experts of his day. He was the Principal Medical Officer of the Local Government Board of England. He was a noted lecturer, sanitary investigator and researcher. Newsholme was the first professor of public health administration at The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health (). He "stimulated the growth of knowledge and the application of public health principles and aided in the formulation of fundamental principles in preventive medicine."18

Watson S. Rankin was the former Director of the Duke Hospital and Director of the Duke Endowment. He was a state health officer who later () became President of the American Public Health Association. Rankin was noted for raising public health administration standards and contributing "to the solution of the problems of rural health and hospitalization."19

Sara Josephine Baker was a pioneer in child health issues. She was a writer, educator and pioneer on the subject of child care and made an enormous contribution to the reduction of infant and maternal mortality. Her accomplishments conferred the benefits of good health on thousands of mothers and children

After the elections, the group recessed for the summer. Edward Hume used the break to promote new Delta Omega chapters in other East coast schools while Richard Bolt similarly worked in the West

By the next meeting, held on October 15,Hume reported that the organization of chapters Sketch 53 amc Archives Harvard (Beta) and M.I.T. (Gamma) had begun. These new chapters were immediately approved. Later that year, chapters at the University of Michigan (Delta) and at Yale (Epsilon) were also approved

By the end of the year the Society was already making plans for a national convention. Alpha Chapter elected Edgar Hume and Richard Bolt to be their representatives on the new National Council which was to form. The members of this council, once assembled, would eventually administer the governance of Delta Omega on a national basis.

In February ofAlpha Chapter elected more faculty members. After this election, a sizable portion of the faculty of the School became members of Delta Omega. These included William H. Howell, Janet Clark, Allen Freeman, E.V. McCollum, Raymond Pearl, Roscoe Hyde, Lowell Reed, Charles Simon and Nina Simmonds. Alpha Chapter held two more meetings in and elected new students to membership.

The first national organization meeting was scheduled to be held May 31, It was to take place during the meeting of the American Medical Association

Unfortunately, no minutes for this meeting are in the Society's archive. It is curious to note that at the next meeting of Alpha Chapter, Sketch 53 amc Archives, held in December ofthe group made no mention of the first national meeting. Perhaps the meeting was canceled or perhaps it was too uneventful to report upon. The minutes of the December meeting of Alpha Chapter do, however, indicate that a problem had arisen. This problem may have been related to the delay in organizing the National Council. The minutes show that at some point inClaude Mitchell, the Alpha Chapter President and co-founder, left the United States Public Health Service to enter the private practice of medicine in Silver Spring, Maryland. Mitchell then relinquished his position in Alpha Chapter. After this, Alpha Chapter went without meeting for several months in When they did meet, they almost decided to disband, Sketch 53 amc Archives. The membership agreed to continue, however, by a margin of one vote, four to three with three abstentions.

With their first crisis averted, the members infused new life into Alpha Chapter. They appointed Persis Putnam as the President, replacing Mitchell. The group committed themselves to more and better meetings and they voted to hold the annual dinner. In March of the University of California applied for a chapter and Alpha Chapter approved the application. In May of the following year (), a national meeting was scheduled for the fall in Cincinnati. Alpha Chapter agreed to turn over its supervisory Sketch 53 amc Archives to the National Council at this meeting as part of the process of making Delta Omega into a national organization.

On October 19, the chapters of Delta Omega assembled at the Gibson Hotel in Cincinnati. Delegate John A. Ferrell represented Alpha Chapter with Milford E. Barnes as Alternate. Beta Chapter (Harvard) sent Edward G. Huber with Walter J. Connell as Alternate. The Gamma Chapter (M.I.T.) chose James A. Tobey and Alternate Clair E. Turner to represent their membership. The Delta Chapter (Michigan) sent Nathan Sinai with George T. Palmer as Alternate, Sketch 53 amc Archives. The Epsilon Chapter (Yale) sent C-E.A. Winslow and Alternate Leonard Greenburg. Richard A. Bolt, a transfer from the Alpha Chapter, represented the University of California (Zeta).

The new parent group immediately went into action. They adopted a new constitution and formulated by-laws. They elected national officers for the ensuing year (). C-E.A. Winslow was elected President with Edgar Hume as Vice President and James A. Tobey as Secretary-Treasurer The group then prepared forms for issuing chapter charters and certificates and they assembled membership lists. They voted to call on Alpha Chapter for the funds now under their jurisdiction. They also voted that the President appoint a committee to investigate reprinting certain classic publications in public health under Delta Omega's name. They recommended that all the local chapters hold public health lectures. Finally, the group urged all chapters to present annual reports at each national meeting.

The new officers were well known figures in the field of public health. The president, Charles-Edward Amory Winslow, was the Anna M. R. Lauder Professor of Public Health at the Yale University School of Medicine from to Born in Boston inSketch 53 amc Archives, Winslow received his B.S. and M.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For eight years he was at M.I.T. on the faculty in sanitary bacteriology. From to he was Associate Professor of Biology at New York City University and from to he was the Curator of Public Health at the American Museum of Natural History. From to he was Director of the John B. Pierce Laboratory of Hygiene. He died in

The Secretary-Treasurer, James A. Tobey, was born in Quincy, Massachusetts in He received his B.S. in and his Doctorate in Public Health inboth from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received his M.A. from American University in Tobey held a variety of public health positions early in his career. He was a health officer in New Jersey from to He also worked with the American Red Cross, the National Health Council and the Institute for Government Research. He spent the bulk of his career ( to ) as the Director of Health Services for the Borden Company. In he took a position with the American Institute of Baking. Tobey was also Associate Editor of The American Journal of Public Health from to He was Sketch 53 amc Archives expert in the legal aspects of public health

The constitution and by-laws of the new National Council required a two thirds vote in order to admit new chapters into the Society. It recommended that all chapter members be chosen with "due regard to their scholarly attainments and with the object of maintaining the honorary character of the Society."27

It limited active membership to public health faculty or to students who were degree candidates in public health. These students must also have finished at least three fourths of a full year working toward an advanced degree and they must have been intent upon a career in public health after graduation The Society asked an initiation fee of $ from each new member. This was later reduced to $ The money was used to pay for the insignia key and certificates, with the rest to go to the national chapter. Delta Omega would pay other expenses by special assessment.

By the end of the first national Delta Omega conference, the new council, Sketch 53 amc Archives, equipped with a constitution and by-laws, had taken over the governance from Alpha chapter. This is exactly what the co-founders had planned at the Society's inception.

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Leonard Euler&#;s Solution to the Konigsberg Bridge Problem

Editor's Note 

The following student research report was prepared for Professor Judit Kardos' Math class, Sketch 53 amc Archives, held at The College of New Jersey, Sketch 53 amc Archives. This was a 3-credit introductory course in the History of Mathematics. This report was counted towards 30% of the final grade.  It is an example of the sort of historical research students Sketch 53 amc Archives do using secondary sources.

Leonard Euler's Solution to the Königsberg Bridge Problem

Königsberg

Our story begins in the 18th century, in the quaint town of Königsberg, Prussia on the banks of the Pregel River.  InTeutonic knights founded the city of Königsberg under the lead of Bohemian King Ottoker II after their second crusade against the Prussians.  In the Middle Ages, Königsberg became a very important city and trading center with its Sketch 53 amc Archives strategically positioned on the river.  Artwork from the eighteenth century shows Königsberg as a thriving city, where fleets of ships fill the Pregel, and their trade offers a comfortable lifestyle to both the local merchants and their families.  The healthy economy allowed the people of the city to build seven bridges across the river, most of which connected to the island of Kneiphof; their locations can be seen in the accompanying picture [source: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive].

As the river flowed around Kneiphof, literally meaning pub yard, and another island, it divided the city into four distinct regions.  The seven bridges were called Blacksmith’s bridge, Connecting Bridge, Green Bridge, Merchant’s Bridge, Wooden Bridge, High Bridge, and Honey Bridge.  According to lore, the citizens of Königsberg used to spend Sunday afternoons walking around their beautiful city.  While walking, the people of the city decided to create a game for themselves, their goal being to devise a way Autodesk AutoCAD 2010 crack serial keygen which they could walk around the city, crossing each of the Ricochet Lost Worlds Recharged v1.1.29 crack serial keygen bridges only once.  Even though none of the citizens of Königsberg could invent a route that would allow them to cross each of the bridges only once, still they could not prove that it was impossible.  Lucky for them, Königsberg was not too far from St. Petersburg, home of the famous mathematician Leonard Euler. 

Euler and the Bridge Problem

Why would Euler concern himself with a problem so unrelated to the field of mathematics?  Why would such a great mathematician spend a great deal Avast Mobile Security Cracked APK 2021 6.34.3 [Latest] Mod Unlocked time with a trivial problem like the Königsberg Bridge Problem?  Euler was obviously a busy man, publishing more than books and papers during his lifetime.  In alone, he wrote an average of one mathematical paper per week, and during his lifetime he wrote on a variety of topics besides mathematics including mechanics, optics, astronomy, navigation, and hydrodynamics.  It is not surprising that Euler felt this problem was trivial, stating in a letter to Carl Leonhard Gottlieb Ehler, mayor of Danzig, who asked him for a solution to the problem [quoted in Hopkins, 2]:

. .  Thus you see, most noble Sir, how this type of solution bears little relationship to mathematics, Sketch 53 amc Archives, and I do not understand why you expect a mathematician to produce it, rather than anyone else, for the solution is based on reason alone, and its discovery does not depend on any mathematical principle.  Because of this, I do not know why even questions which bear so little relationship to mathematics are solved more quickly by mathematicians than by others.

Even though Euler found the problem trivial, he was still intrigued by it.  In a letter written the same year to Giovanni Marinoni, an Italian mathematician Sketch 53 amc Archives engineer, Euler said [quoted in Hopkins, 2],

This question is so banal, but seemed to me worthy of attention in that [neither] geometry, nor algebra, nor even the art of counting was sufficient to solve it.

Euler believed this problem was related to a topic that Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz had once discussed and longed to work with, something Leibniz referred to as geometria situs, or geometry of position.  This so-called geometry of position is what is now called graph theory, which Euler introduces and utilizes while solving this famous problem.

Euler's Proof

On August 26,Euler presents a paper containing the solution to the Konigsberg bridge problem.  He addresses both this specific problem, as well as a general solution with any number of landmasses and any number of bridges.  This paper, called ‘Solutio problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis,’ was later published in [Hopkins, 2].  Euler’s paper is divided into twenty-one numbered paragraphs, and in what follows, a simplified version of Euler’s paragraphs will be presented.

In the first two paragraphs of Euler’s proof, Sketch 53 amc Archives, he introduces the Konigsberg Bridge problem.  In Paragraph 1, Euler states that he believes this problem concerns geometry, but not the geometry well known by his contemporaries, that involves measurements and calculations, but instead a new kind of Geometry, which Leibniz referred to as Geometry of Position.  Then in Paragraph 2, Euler explains to his audience how the Konigsberg problem works.  Euler provided a sketch of the problem (see Euler's Figure 1), and called the seven distinct bridges: a, b, c, d, e, f, and, Sketch 53 amc Archives, g.  In this Malwarebytes premium 3.6.1 crack serial keygen he states the general question of the problem, “Can one find out whether or not it is possible to cross each bridge exactly once?”

 

Euler's Figure 1 from ‘Solutio problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis,’ Eneström 53 [source: MAA Euler Archive]


After stating the general question he is trying to solve, Euler begins to explore different methods of finding a solution.  In Paragraph 3, Euler tells the reader that to solve this specific problem, he could write down all possible paths, but this technique would take a great deal of time, and would not work for larger configurations with more bridges and land masses.  Because of these issues, Euler decided to choose a different method for solving this problem. 

In Paragraph 4, he begins simplifying the problem by inventing a convenient system to represent the crossing of a bridge.  Euler decides that instead of using the lowercase letters to represent the crossing of a bridge he would write the capital letters representing the landmasses.  For instance, referencing his Figure 1, AB would signify a journey that started in landmass A, and ended in B.  Furthermore, if after traveling from landmass A to B, someone decides to move to landmass D, this would simply be denoted, ABD.  In Paragraph 5, Euler continues his discussion on this process explaining that in ABDC, although there are four capital letters, only three bridges were crossed.  Euler explains that no matter how many how many bridges there are, Sketch 53 amc Archives, there will be one more letter to represent the necessary crossing.  Because of this, the whole of the Königsberg Bridge problem required seven bridges to be crossed, and therefore eight capital letters.

In Paragraph 6, Euler continues explaining the details of his method.  He tells the reader that if there is more than one bridge that can be crossed when going from one landmass to the other, it does not matter which bridge is used.  For example, even though there are two bridges, a and b, that can take a traveler from A to B, it does not matter with Euler’s notation which bridge is taken.  In this paragraph, Euler also discusses the specific problem he is dealing with.  He explains, using his original figure, that the Königsberg problem needs exactly eight letters, where the pairs of (A,B) and (A,C) must appear next to each other exactly twice, no matter which letter appears first.  In addition, the pairs (A,D), (B,D), and (C,D) must occur together exactly once for a path that crosses each bridge once and only once to exist. 

Euler's Figures 2 and 3 from ‘Solutio problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis,’ Eneström 53 [source: MAA Euler Archive]


In Paragraph 7, Euler informs the reader that either he needs to find an eight-letter sequence that satisfies the problem, or he needs to prove that no such sequence exists.  Before he does this for the Königsberg Bridge problem, he decides to find a rule to discover whether a path exists for a more general problem.  He does this in Paragraph 8 by looking at much simpler example of landmasses and bridges.  Euler draws Figure 2, and he begins to assess the situations where region A is traveled through.  Euler states that if bridge a is traveled once, A was either where the journey began or ended, and therefore was only used once.  If bridges a, b, and c are all traveled once, A is used exactly twice, no matter if it is the starting or ending place.  Similarly, if five bridges lead to A, the landmass A would occur exactly three times in the journey.  Euler states that, “In general, if the number of bridges is Sketch 53 amc Archives odd number, and if it is increased by one, then the number of occurrences of A is half of the result.”  In other words, if there is an odd number of bridges connecting A to other landmasses, add one to the number of bridges, and divide it by two, to Sketch 53 amc Archives out how many total times A must be used in the path, where each bridge is used once and only once (i.e. Total Occurrences of A where A has an odd # of bridges = (# of Bridges - 1) / 2 ). 

Using this fact Euler solves the Königsberg bridge problem in Paragraph 9.  In that case, since there are five bridges that lead to A, it must occur three times (see his Figure 1, above).  Similarly, B, C, and D must appear twice since they all have three bridges that lead to them.  Therefore Sketch 53 amc Archives A) + 2(for B) + 2(for C) + 2(for D) = 9, but Euler already stated that there must only be eight occurrences for the seven bridges.  This is a contradiction!  Therefore, it is impossible to travel the bridges in the city of Königsberg once and only once.  The end, or is it?  While the people of Königsberg may be happy with this solution, Sketch 53 amc Archives, the great mathematician Leonhard Euler was not satisfied.  Euler further continues his proof to deal with more general situations.

Euler's Generalization

In Paragraph 10, Euler continues his discussion by noting that if the situation involves all landmasses with an odd number of bridges, it is possible to tell whether a journey can be made using each bridge only once.  Euler states that if the sum of the number of times each letter must appear is one more then the total number of bridges, a journey can be made.  However, if the number of occurrences is greater than one more than the number of bridges, a journey cannot be made, like the Königsberg Bridge problem.  This is because the rule, which Euler gives for an odd number of bridges, using his Figure 2, is true for the general situation whether there is only one other landmass or more than one.

In Sketch 53 amc Archives 11 and 12, Euler deals with the situation where a region has an even number of bridges attached to it.  This situation does not appear in the Königsberg problem and, therefore, has been ignored until now.  In the situation with a landmass X with an even number of bridges, Sketch 53 amc Archives, two cases can occur.  The first case is when X is the starting point for the journey.  In this case, X will appear twice, once as the starting point, and again Sketch 53 amc Archives the ending point.  In the other case, X is not the starting point.  If this were to happen, X would only appear once, as the journey would have to enter through one bridge and immediately leave through the only other one available.  Similarly, if there are four bridges attached to X the number of occurrences of X depends on whether or not it is a starting point.  If the journey starts in X, it must appear three times, but if it does not begin in X, it would only appear twice.  So in general, if X has an even number Sketch 53 amc Archives bridges attached, then if the journey does not start in X, X appears half the number of times as bridges (i.e. Occurrences of X where X is even and not the starting point = (# of Bridges) / 2).  If the journey does start in X then X appears half the number of times as bridges, plus one (i.e. Occurrences of X where X is even and starting point = ((# of Bridges) / 2) + 1). 

In Paragraphs 13 through 15, Euler explains how to figure out if a path using each bridge once and only once exists and presents his own example to show how it works.  Euler first explains his simple six-step method to solve any general situation with landmasses divided by rivers and connected by bridges.  First Euler denotes each landmass with a capital letter.  Second he takes the total number of bridges, adds one, and writes this above the chart he is about to make.  Next, he takes the capital letters, puts them in a column, and next to them writes the number of bridges.  Fourth, he indicates with asterisks the landmasses which have an even number of bridges.  Then, next to each even number, he writes ½ of the number and next to each odd number he places ½ the number plus one.  Finally, Euler adds the numbers written in the right-most column and if the sum is one less than, or equal to, the number of bridges plus one, then the required journey is possible.  It is important to note however, that if the sum is one less than the number of bridges plus one, then the journey must start from one of the landmasses marked with an asterisk.  If the sum is equal to the number of bridges plus one, the journey must start in a region not marked with an asterisk.

Examples

Using the Konigsberg problem as his first example Euler shows the following:

                   Number of bridges = 7, Number of bridges plus one = 8

                     Region    Bridges            Times Region Must Appear

                        A             5                                     3

                        B             3                          Sketch 53 amc Archives 2

                        C             3                                     2

                        D             3                                     2

However, Sketch 53 amc Archives + 2 + 2 + 2 = 9, which is more than 8, so the journey is impossible.

Since this example is rather basic, Euler decides to design his own situation with two islands, four rivers, and fifteen bridges.  The situation Euler created can be seen in his Figure 3, Sketch 53 amc Archives, above.  Euler now attempts to figure out whether there is a path that allows someone to go over each bridge once and only once.  Euler follows the same steps as above, Sketch 53 amc Archives, naming the five different regions with capital letters, and creates a table to check it if is possible, like the following:

                        Number of bridges = 15, Number of bridges plus one = 16

                                    Region  Bridges      Times Region Must Appear

                                    A*             8                           4

                                    B*             4                           2

                                    C*             4                           2

                                    D              3                           2

                                    E              5                           3

                                    F*             6                           3

In addition, 4 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 = 16, which equals the number of bridges, plus one, which means the journey is, in fact, possible.  Since the sum equals the number of bridges plus one, the journey must start in either D or E.  Now that Euler knows it is possible to make Sketch 53 amc Archives journey, all he needs to do is state what the path will be.  Euler chooses the path EaFbBcFdAeFfCgAhCiDkAmEnApBoElD, where he includes which bridges are crossed between the letters representing the landmasses.  While this information is extraneous, as the exact bridge does not matter in knowing that a edraw max key Archives is possible, it is useful when selecting a path.  This is a good example that shows the method which Euler would use when solving any problem of this nature. 

Euler's Conclusions

In the next few paragraphs, Euler presents another way to figure out if a Sketch 53 amc Archives can be made given any set of landmasses, bridges, and rivers.  In Paragraph 16, Euler points out that the total of the numbers listed directly to the right of the landmasses adds up to twice the total number of bridges.  This fact later becomes known as the handshaking lemma.  Basically, Sketch 53 amc Archives, the handshaking lemma states that each bridge is counted twice, once for each landmass to which it is attached.  In Paragraph 17, Euler goes on to state that the sum of all the bridges leading to each region is even, since half of this number is equal to the total number of bridges.  However, this is impossible if there are an odd number of landmasses with an odd number of bridges.  Therefore, Euler proves that if there are some odd numbers attached to land masses, there Sketch 53 amc Archives be an even number of these landmasses. 

However, this is not enough to prove when there is a path where each bridge is used once and only once, as the Königsberg Bridge problem has an even number of landmasses with an odd number of bridges going to them.  Because of this, Euler adds more restrictions in Paragraphs 18 and   Euler explains that since the total of the numbers of bridges attached to each landmass is equal to twice the number of bridges (as seen in the handshaking lemma), so therefore if you add two to this sum and then divide by two, you will get the number of total bridges plus one.  This number is the same as the one used before, Sketch 53 amc Archives, which is used to tell if a path is possible.  If all the numbers are even, then the third column in the table will sum to one less than the total number of bridges plus one. 

Euler then explains that it is obvious that if there are two landmasses with an Sketch 53 amc Archives number of bridges then the journey will always be possible if the journey starts in one of the regions with an odd number of bridges.  This is because if the even numbers are halved, and each of the odd ones are increased by one and halved, the sum of these halves will equal one more then the total number of bridges.  However, if there are four or more landmasses with an odd number of bridges, then it is impossible for there to be a path.  This is because the sum of the halves of the odd numbers plus one along with the sum of all of the halves of the even numbers will make the sum of the third column greater than the total number of bridges plus one.  Therefore, Euler just proved that there can be at most two landmasses with an odd number of bridges. 

With this being stated, Euler can now make his conclusions concerning more general forms of the Königsberg Bridge problem.  In Paragraph 20, Euler gives the three guidelines that someone can use to figure out if a path exists using each bridge once and only once.  First, he claimed if there are more than two landmasses with an odd number of bridges, then no such journey is possible.  Second, if Sketch 53 amc Archives number of bridges is odd for exactly two landmasses, then the journey is possible if it starts in one of the two odd numbered landmasses.  Finally, Euler states that if there are no regions with an odd number of landmasses then the journey can be accomplished starting in any region.  After stating these three facts, Euler concludes his proof with Paragraph 21, which simply states that after one figures out that a path exists, they still must go through the effort to write out a path that works.  Euler believed the method to accomplish this was trivial, and he did not want to spend a great deal of time on it.  However, Euler did suggest concentrating on how to get from one landmass to the other, instead of Sketch 53 amc Archives on the specific bridges at first. 

Euler's Proof and Graph Theory

When reading Euler’s original proof, one discovers a relatively simple and easily understandable work of mathematics; however, it is not the actual proof but the intermediate steps that make this problem famous.  Euler’s great innovation was in viewing the Königsberg bridge problem abstractly, by using lines and letters to represent the larger situation of landmasses and bridges.  He used capital letters to represent landmasses, and lowercase letters to represent bridges.  This was a completely new type of thinking for Sketch 53 amc Archives time, and in his paper, Euler accidentally sparked a new branch of mathematics called graph theory, where a graph is simply a collection of vertices and edges.  Today a path in a graph, which contains each edge of the graph once and only once, is called an Eulerian path, because of this problem. From the time Euler solved this problem to today, graph theory has become an important branch of mathematics, which guides the basis of our thinking about networks. 

The Königsberg Bridge problem is why Biggs states [Biggs, 1],

The origins of graph theory are humble, Sketch 53 amc Archives, even frivolous …  The problems which led to the development of graph theory were often little more than puzzles, designed to test the ingenuity rather than the stimulate the imagination.  But despite the apparent triviality of such puzzles, they captured the interest of mathematicians, with the result that graph theory has become a subject rich in theoretical results of a surprising variety and depth.

As Biggs' statement would imply, this problem is so important that it is mentioned in the first chapter of every Graph Theory book that was perused in the library.

After Euler’s discovery (or invention, depending on how the reader looks at it), graph theory boomed with major contributions made by great mathematicians Sketch 53 amc Archives Augustin Cauchy, William Hamilton, Arthur Cayley, Gustav Kirchhoff, and George Polya.  These men all contributed to uncovering “just about everything that is known about large but ordered graphs, such as the lattice formed by atoms in a crystal or the hexagonal lattice made by bees in a beehive [ScienceWeek, 2].”  Other famous graph theory problems include finding a way to escape from a maze or labyrinth, or finding the order of moves with a knight on a chess board such that each square is landed on only once and the knight returns to the space Sketch 53 amc Archives which he begun [ScienceWeek, 2].  Some other graph theory problems have gone unsolved for centuries [ScienceWeek, 2].

The Fate of Königsberg

While graph theory boomed after Euler solved the Königsberg Bridge problem, the town of Königsberg had a much different fate.  Inthe people of Königsberg decided to build a new bridge, between nodes B and C, increasing the number of links of these two landmasses to four.  This meant that only two landmasses had an odd number of links, which gave a rather straightforward solution to the problem.  The creation of the extra bridge may or may not have been subconsciously caused by the desire for a path to solve the town’s famous problem. 

However, a new bridge did not solve all of Königsberg's future problems, as the town did not expect back in the nineteenth century, “the sad and war-torn fate that awaited it as host for one of the fiercest battles of WWII.”  During four days in AugustBritish bombers destroyed both the old town and the northern parts of Königsberg.  In January and Februarythe region surrounding Königsberg is surrounded by Russian forces.  German civilians begin to evacuate from the town, Sketch 53 amc Archives, but move too late.  Thousands of people are killed trying to flee by boat and on foot across the icy waters of Sketch 53 amc Archives Curonian Lagoon.  In Aprilthe Red Army captures Königsberg with about ninety percent of the old town lying in ruins. 

A current street map of Königsberg is provided below [source: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive].  This map shows how much the town has changed.  Many of the bridges were destroyed during the bombings, and the town can no longer ask the same intriguing question they were able to in the eighteenth century.  Along with Maxidix Wifi Suite 15.9.2 Full Version Features greatly different layout, the town of Königsberg has a new name, Kaliningrad, with the river Pregel renamed Pregolya [Hopkins, 6].  While the fate of Königsberg is terrible, the citizens' old coffeehouse problem of traversing each of their old 789soft Easy Gif Maker v1.8 crack serial keygen bridges exactly one time led to the formation of a completely new branch of mathematics, graph theory.

 

References

Biggs, Norman L., E. K, Sketch 53 amc Archives. Lloyd, and Robin J. Wilson. Graph Theory: . Oxford: Clarendon Press,

Dunham, William. Euler: The Master of Us All. Washington: The Mathematical Association of America,

Euler, Leonhard, ‘Solutio problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis’ (), Eneström 53, MAA Euler Archive.

"History of Mathematics: On Leonhard Euler ()." ScienceWeek (). 6 Nov.

Hopkins, Brian, and Robin Wilson, Sketch 53 amc Archives. "The Truth about Königsberg." College Mathematics Journal (), 35,  

"Konigsberg Bridges." The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive:
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Editor's note:  This article was originally published in Convergence, Volume 3 ().

Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]
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Carr family collection of travel sketches, scrapbooks, and genealogical material

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&#;Collection

Call Number:&#;MSS 8

Carr family collection of travel sketches, scrapbooks, Alive DVD Ripper v1.2.0.9 crack serial keygen genealogical material

Scope and Contents

The collection comprises travel sketches, scrapbooks, and genealogical material concerning the Carr family of Northumberland, England. The Reverend Thomas William Carr () appears to have played a key role in compiling the material, especially genealogical items.

The collection documents the burgeoning of interest in local and family history in the nineteenth century, as reflected by the thorough efforts of the Rev. Thomas William Carr to collect information and physical items relating to the history of the Carr family; the travels and artistic works of two Victorian women, Anna Margaret Carr (who traveled to Europe and India) and her sister Sketch 53 amc Archives Grace Carr (who focused on local English themes), whose numerous landscape sketches can be used to reconstruct their travel itineraries and provide insights to their interests as both travelers and artists; the often overlooked but pivotal role of Geneva and other Calvinist areas as stops on the Grand Tour (especially for English travelers); Victorian decorative arts, as seen in the greeting and note cards from the period preserved in the collection; and the religious attitudes, daily social life, and business interests of a nineteenth century Anglican clergyman, as reflected in the journals and correspondence of the Rev. Thomas William Carr. Sketch 53 amc Archives Conditions Governing Access

The materials are open for research.

Conditions Governing Use

The collection is the physical property of the Yale Center for British Art. Literary rights, including copyright, belong to the authors or their legal heirs and assigns, Sketch 53 amc Archives. For further information, consult the Curator Sketch 53 amc Archives Rare Books and Manuscripts.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

AcquiredPaul Mellon Fund.

Arrangement

Arranged in four series: I. Sketchbooks, ; II. Scrapbooks, ; III. Family history and genealogy, ; IV. Photographs, etc, Sketch 53 amc Archives.

Dates
Majority of material found within -
Extent
10 Linear Feet
Related Names
Carr family
Carr, Anna Margaret,
Carr, Thomas William,
Lushington, Sarah Grace,
Hogg, James, ($t: Raid of the Kers)
Carr, Ralph Edward, ($t: History of the family of Carr of Dunston Hill, Co. Durham)
Language of Materials
English

 

 

Carr Family Collection of Travel Sketches, Scrapbooks, and Genealogical Material. Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Fund. mlbjerseyschina.us Accessed November 21,

Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]
F-Secure VPN Plus 5.1 crack serial keygen this story 19MB

In our continuing series looking at the latest medical research and news on COVID, Larry Mantle speaks with Dr. Shruti Gohil from UC Irvine’s School of Medicine. 

Topics today include:

  • The CDC chief predicted the COVID deaths would start dropping next week

  • LA County’s Chief Medical Officer said cases may drop enough that elementary schools could apply for waivers to reopen. How realistic is that prediction?

  • There was fear that COVID would devastate homeless encampments in L.A., but that hasn’t seemed to happen

  • What do we know about how coronavirus antibodies work?

  • In the face of a looming double threat, U.S. expands access for flu shots at pharmacies

  • Can secondhand smoke carry the coronavirus?

  • A small study indicates that kids might play a larger role in community spread than previously believed, by having high viral loads while asymptomatic

Guest:

Shruti Gohil, Sketch 53 amc Archives, M.D., professor of medicine and associate medical director for epidemiology and infection prevention at UC Irvine’s School of Medicine


More from this episode:AirTalk FOR August 21,

Latinos Make Up Largest Non-White Voting Population In How Can Biden Secure Their Vote?


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Table of Contents


CHAPTER 5: FINDING AIDS AND OTHER DESCRIPTIVE FORMATS (Non-Cataloging Structure and Content Standards)


The entries in this chapter are truly a miscellany. The fact that such a collective chapter is necessary is illustrative of the current state of development of archival description standards in the U.S. While considerable effort has been applied to the development of cataloging-related standards in the U.S. during the last decade (see especially Chapters 3 and 4), most other archival descriptive formats have gone virtually untouched by standards developers.1

The first three entries in this chapter represent earlier attempts by archivists to formalize practices for the preparation of other kinds of finding aids. The first two especially, Inventories and Registers and The Preparation of Inventories, have had significant impact on archival practice although they were never formally adopted as Sketch 53 amc Archives.

The next two entries summarize standards originally developed two decades ago to meet the needs of allied professionals, abstractors and librarians. They could be incorporated in or provide models for the development of standards Sketch 53 amc Archives traditional archival practices.

By contrast, the standards described in the last two entries provide a glimpse of the future. ANSI's Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and ISO's Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) are widely recognized and used internationally, but not yet used for specific archival applications. [Ed. Note: Between and the Society of American Archivists developed the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) DTD for encoding archival finding aids using SGML.] Archivists need to understand how EDI, SGML, and similar standards provide structural standards for automated documents and are actually redefining the very concept of a "document." Not only could these standards be employed directly to improve archival descriptive practices; they may well prompt us to make significant adjustments in every phase of archival activity as we attempt to manage records in electronic form.

Standards for archival finding aids

As is evident in the previous chapters, Sketch 53 amc Archives, most recent efforts in this country have focused on the development of standards needed in automated information systems, especially those operating in the "shared environments" of the national bibliographic networks. For the most part, the descriptive "product" associated with these systems is a catalog record.

APPM makes it very clear that cataloging is only one of a whole range of interrelated activities that comprise an archival descriptive program.

An archival catalog may be only one part of a more complex institutional descriptive system, which may include several other types of finding aids (e.g., registers, inventories, calendars, indexes, and shelf and container lists). In such a system, a catalog record created according to these rules is usually a summary or abstract of information contained in other finding aids, which in turn contain summaries, abstracts, or lists based on information found in the archival materials themselves.2

This view is certainly consistent with the "systems approach" that has characterized U.S. descriptive practices since the early s as reviewed in the introduction to Chapter 1 of this handbook. The value, indeed demand, for other descriptive sources is underscored in APPM's declaration that "the chief source of information for archival materials is the finding aid prepared for those materials."3

Despite their continued use and central role in the larger descriptive system within most repositories, formats other than the catalog record have received little recent attention in the U.S. from the perspective of standardization, Sketch 53 amc Archives. This was not always true. The introduction to Chapter 1 describes the work of the SAA Committee on Finding Aids whose report, Inventories and Registers: A Handbook of Sketch 53 amc Archives and Examples (), provided the first critical analysis and guidance for the construction of these most widely used descriptive formats. The committee expressed some hope that the report would be considered for adoption as an SAA standard, but no formal action was ever taken. The effort probably lost momentum in the early s when so many archivists turned their attention to coping with the burgeoning national bibliographic networks.

Another source for guidance that has received wide use but never achieved formal "standards" status is the National Archives publication, The Preparation of Inventories. Issued in as Staff Information Paper 14, it was intended for in-house use, but most of its instructions were easily transferrable to other archival repositories, especially those serving state and local governments. Sketch 53 amc Archives such ad hoc use, however, the profession as a whole has never critiqued its contents for wider applicability.

Actually, this NARA staff information paper represents a fairly typical approach to regulating descriptive practices. Most repositories with fully developed descriptive programs have prepared some kind of in-house processing or procedures manual to govern form and usage in the preparation of finding aids. While these have provided effective tools for standardizing practices within a single institution, few have tried to extend these guidelines beyond their own institutional contexts.4

As Steven Hensen and others have pointed out, the greatest impetus for standards development in the U.S. has been the desire to participate in the "shared environment" of the national networks.5 Until recently, variations in practices for producing paper-based finding aids could be tolerated because there was no effort underway to merge, process, Sketch 53 amc Archives, and access them collectively in an automated system.6 This may well change as these shared systems become capable of carrying not just catalog records but also the full texts of the finding aids from which they were prepared and even the texts or images of archival documents themselves. The need for local adaptations and flexibility will continue, but these must be balanced against the advantages of shared practice.

At what might seem a more practical level, the growth in local automation use, using stand-alone personal computers or a computer serving only the archives' parent institution, has opened a market for software that can produce traditional finding aids through a combination of word processing and database technologies. Sketch 53 amc Archives the USMARC AMC Format is promoted by some for the production of series- and item-level finding aids, others argue that it is not necessarily the best carrier for this data. Whatever the outcome of this debate, agreement on standard formats would produce obvious savings in development costs. Ultimately users also would be better served if they could come to expect a "standard" form of finding aid as their research progressed from repository to repository.

Externally developed standards

There are a range of standards developed outside the archival profession that could also be applied to the preparation of finding aids and other descriptive tools. Perhaps the largest group relates to editing and publishing, described in Chapter 9. Similarly, the labeling and filing rules developed by records managers and librarians are discussed together in Chapter

Two standards developed by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) might have potential applications in archival practice and are described in this chapter. ANSI Z, Writing Abstracts, provides guidance on identifying "the basic content of a document quickly and accurately" and describing the document in such a way that users can "determine its relevance to their interests, and. . decide whether they need to read the document in its entirety." Although this standard is designed to apply only to abstracts of printed materials (in such contexts as the abstract preceding a scholarly article in a journal or the annotation of an entry in a bibliographic database), it covers processes resembling those used by archivists in preparing the narrative portions of series and collection descriptions. The international equivalent is ISODocumentation--Abstracts for publications and documentation.

A second NISO standard worth considering is ANSI Z (R), American National Standard for Directories of Libraries and Information Centers. It could be easily used when compiling directories of archival repositories for any purpose, from a national guide project to a pamphlet listing institutions in a particular city or region. The international equivalent, which explicitly includes Sketch 53 amc Archives repositories in its scope, is ISODocumentation -- Directories of libraries, archives, information and documentation centres, and their data bases.

The final two entries reflect some of the fundamental changes that automation has brought to recordkeeping. As noted earlier, the very definition of what constitutes a document is changing. The concept of a document has evolved "from a physical reality to a processing metaphor for many different information bearing forms."7 No longer just "sequences of textual and graphic symbols represented by ink on paper," they now include "a variety of components including database information, video, animation, and voice."8

The international standards community has expended considerable effort in the development of standards that define the structure of documents so that they can be processed and communicated from system to system. The two most widely recognized efforts in this area are described here: the ANSI X12 suite of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards and ISOStandard Generalized Markup Language. EDI generally addresses the structures of transaction documents, functionally similar to those that required "forms" in a paper-based environment (purchase orders, invoices, price quotations). SGML is more commonly applied to documents that are largely textual (books, correspondence, manuals), although it can also handle graphics and images and multimedia using HyTime extensions.

Members of both the library and museum communities have begun to consider these two standards for direct applications in managing collections and transactions. The archival community needs to increase its understanding of these and similar standards. They not only have potential for improving our internal practices but they will govern the structure of records in electronic information systems that archivists will evaluate for long-term retention and use.9

Further Reading

Bearman, David. Archives and Museum Data Models and Dictionaries. Archives and Museum Informatics Technical Report no. Pittsburgh: Archives and Museum Informatics,

Bearman, David. "A User Community Discovers IT Standards." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 43 (September ):

Berner, Richard C. Archival Theory and Practice in the United States: A Historical Analysis, Sketch 53 amc Archives. Seattle: University of Washington Press,

Berner, Richard C., and Uli Haller. "Principles of Archival Inventory Construction." American Archivist 47 (Spring ):

Borko, Harold, and Charles L. Bernier. Abstracting Concepts and Methods. New York: Academic Press,

Brand, Katharine E. "The Place of the Register in the Manuscripts Division of the Library of Congress." American Archivist 18 (April ):

Gracy, David B., II. "Finding Aids Are Like Streakers." Georgia Archive 4 (Winter ):

Lucas, Lydia. "Efficient Finding Aids: Developing a System for Control of Archives and Manuscripts." American Archivist 44 (Winter ): Later published in A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice, edited by Maygene Daniels and Timothy Walch, Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration,

Papenfuse, Edward C. "The Retreat from Standardization: A Comment on the Recent History of Finding Sketch 53 amc Archives American Archivist 26 (October ):

Roe, Kathleen. "From Archival Gothic to MARC Sketch 53 amc Archives Building Common Data Structures." American Archivist 53 (Winter ):

Spring, Michael B. Electronic Printing and Publishing: The Document Processing Revolution. New York: Marcel Dekker,


Inventories and Registers: A Handbook of Techniques and Examples


Paper (36 p.).
Out of print.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

SAA's Committee on Techniques for the Control and Description of Archives and Manuscripts, later renamed the Committee on Finding Aids, prepared the first draft of the handbook in After wide review, SAA Council, in April"directed that the handbook be published as a report of the Committee on Finding Aids to draw comment from the profession. Subsequently, the Council will consider issuing the handbook as a Society standard." No further action was ever taken, however.

Scope and structure:

The handbook "represents an attempt. . to describe present [] practice in a broad range of archival institutions thought to have effective finding aid programs." The Finding Aids Committee collected samples of inventories and registers and analyzed them for content and purpose. The Committee found that, while wide terminology and intended use varied widely, archival inventories and manuscript registers generally conformed to similar structures. The handbook enumerates the following typical elements: (1) preface, (2) introduction, (3) biographical sketch (for manuscript registers) and agency history (for archival inventory), and (4) Sketch 53 amc Archives description. Also described are two elements common to manuscript registers but rarely employed in archival inventories: scope and content notes and container listings. Finally, two additional elements are described though rarely found in either: item listings and indexes.

The handbook provides a summary of each element's purpose and describes its typical content and format. Several examples from actual repository finding aids illustrate these descriptions, Sketch 53 amc Archives.

Archival applications:

This handbook has received wide use as an educational tool and has provided basic guidance to individual practitioners in the preparation of traditional finding aids.

References:

Bearman, "Documenting Documentation." Archivaria 34 (Summer ):

Brown, Thomas E. "The Society of American Archivists Confronts the Computer." American Archivist 47 (Fall ):


The Preparation of Inventories


Staff Information Paper
Paper (22 p.).
See "Publication format and availability"
below for additional information, Sketch 53 amc Archives.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Prepared by Edward E. Hill for the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Intended as a source of in-house rules, but distributed on request for consultation and use outside of NARA.

Scope and structure:

Contains instructions on the preparation of inventories in the National Archives and Records Administration. The instructions Role Playing Action Adventure Games Archives - ThepcGamesBox presented in three broad sections: Purpose and Scope, Content and Organization, and Format and Style. The Content and Organization Section provides detailed instructions for the construction and content of specific parts of the inventory: general introduction, subgroup introduction, series entries (including title entries, arrangement and narrative description, grouping series, and order of series), appendixes, and index. Often includes examples from actual inventories to illustrate specific rules.

Archival applications:

Although no hard data exists, anecdotal evidence suggests that The Preparation of Inventories has been used by many other archival repositories to provide general guidance for description, especially those serving state and local governments.

Publication format and availability:

Available free on request from the Archival Publications and Accessions Control Staff (NN-E), Sketch 53 amc Archives, Room 20W, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC Also published in slightly revised Quant v3.0 Beta crack serial keygen in Maygene Daniels and Timothy Walch, eds., A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice (Washington, DC: NARA, ),

References:

Berner, Richard C., and Uli Haller. "Principles of Archival Inventory Construction." American Archivist 47 (Spring ): passim.

Breton, Arthur J. "Preparation of Inventories [review]." American Archivist 45 (Fall ):


Guidelines for the Preparation of General Guides to National Archives: A RAMP Sketch 53 amc Archives
Paper (67 p.).
See "Publication format and availability"
below for additional information.


Development, approval, Sketch 53 amc Archives, and maintenance:

Prepared by Françoise Hildesheimer, under contract with the International Council on Archives; published and distributed by Unesco's Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) which operates within the Division of the General Information Programme.

Scope and structure:

The study "is intended to assist national archives institutions, more specifically in the developing countries, in the preparation of a basic model finding aid which will introduce information users to the nature, value and potential uses of archives."

The study first explains the definition, use, and historical development of archives guides and examines how they reflect governmental structures and archival practices in each country. The bulk of the study provides a model plan for a guide and guidance for constructing the specific elements within that model. The model is presented in three parts: introduction (which includes general information about the repository, regulations concerning use, loans, and copying, historical information about the creating agencies, and archival terminology), description of actual collections or holdings, and indexes and appendixes. An appendix to the study provides a large number of examples reproduced from actual national archives guides.

Archival applications:

While directed primarily at national archives in developing countries, this study nonetheless is one of the few existing analyses of the archival inventory and could supplement any further work to develop standards for other types of repositories.

Publication format and availability:

Sketch 53 amc Archives free on request from General Information Programme and UNISIST, Unesco, 7 place de Fontenoy, Paris France. Because such requests may take several months to fill, archivists in the U.S. may find it easier to purchase reproductions through NARA's Archives Library Information Clearinghouse (ALIC) or the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC).


ANSI Z (R)
Writing Abstracts

reaffirmed in
Paper (15 p.).
ISBN
Available from NISO. $


Development, approval, and maintenance:

The original version and the revision were both prepared by Subcommittee 6 of the American National Standards Committee on Standardization in the Field of Library Work, Documentation, and Related Publishing Practices, Z Committee Z39's successor is the National Information Standards Organization (NISO), which has maintenance responsibility for the standard. NISO reaffirmed the standard in After circulating it for comments in earlyit is being revised, Sketch 53 amc Archives.

Scope and structure:

Intended to assist authors and editors in the preparation of abstracts, which are defined Sketch 53 amc Archives "an abbreviated, accurate representation of the contents of a document." It contains sections on the purpose and use of abstracts (focusing on journals, reports and theses, monographs and proceedings, and access publications and services), treatment of document content, and presentation and style. A series of examples reproducing actual abstracts illustrate the guidelines.

Related standards:

ANSI Z is "in full accord" with the international equivalent, ISO Documentation--Abstracts for publications and documentation. Published in ISO Standards Handbook: Documentation and Information, 3rd ed. (Geneva, Sketch 53 amc Archives, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, ), ISO was reconfirmed in

Archival applications:

The guidance provided in this standard could supplement analyses undertaken toward the development of guidelines for writing the narrative portions of collection- or series-level descriptions in archival finding aids. Of course, the standard also has direct application for the preparation of abstracts which precede articles in archival journals such as the American Archivist, Sketch 53 amc Archives.

References:

Borko, Harold, and Charles L. Bernier. Abstracting Concepts and Methods. New York: Academic Press,

Tibbo, Helen. "Abstracting Across the Disciplines." Library and Information Science Research 14 ():


ANSI Z (R)
Directories of Libraries and Information Centers

reaffirmed
Paper (12 p.).
Out of print.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Developed by Subcommittee 13 of the Z39 Standards Committee on Standardization in the Field of Library Work, Documentation, and Related Publishing Practices. Adopted by the American National Standards Institute on 4 Windows 10 [June 2018] crack serial keygen and reaffirmed in Maintenance responsibility rests with the Z39 Committee's successor, the National Information Standards Organization (NISO).

The original version of this standard was developed concurrently with the original version of its international equivalent, ISO The international standard was revised in ; NISO does not intend to revise the standard.

Scope and structure:

The standard is intended to provide "practical guidelines in the compilation of various types of library directories." It defines directories as reference works "designed to give the name and address, the size of collection(s), subjects, staff, geographic area (national, regional, local) covered, and type Sketch 53 amc Archives, college, university, research or school library, information or documentation center)."

Following general guidance on arrangement of entries, tables of contents, indexes, and format, the standard lists data elements for several specific types of institutions: state libraries, public libraries, college and university libraries, Sketch 53 amc Archives, special libraries, documentation and information centers, school libraries, and regional libraries, cooperative systems, and processing centers.

Related standards:

The international equivalent is ISODocumentation minecraft mod Archives Directories of libraries, archives, information and documentation centres, and their data bases developed by ISO TC Available from ANSI. $ Also published in ISO Standards Handbook: Documentation and Information, 3rd ed. (Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, ),

Unlike the ANSI standard, the ISO standard provides a straight list of data elements instead of organizing them by type of institution. It then indicates in a table which data elements are essential for four main types of directories: international directories, national directories published in bilingual or multilingual countries, national directories intended for international use, and national directories, Sketch 53 amc Archives.

Publication format and availability:

Out of print. Z was administratively withdrawn by ANSI because it exceeded the year review cycle without revision or reaffirmation.

Archival applications:

Archivists attempting to compile directories at the national or local level would benefit from the organizational and informational models provided by these standards.


ISO
Information processing--Text and office systems--
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)

Online information on SGML
Online information on Encoded Archival Description (EAD)

Paper ( p.).
Price code XC
Amendment
Paper (15 p.). Price code XZ.
Available from ANSI.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

ISOStandard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), was developed by Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC). JTC1 has maintenance responsibility for the standard and issued an amendment in

Scope and structure:

SGML is a programming language that provides a set of rules for defining document structures (called Document Type Definitions or DTDs) and related tagging schemes with which to identify individual structural components within documents. Following SGML protocols, a user would define a document type (e.g., memo, procedure manual, book, journal article) and all the tags required to identify the structural components of that document type. SGML makes it possible to create electronic documents independent of any document processing system (e.g., Sketch 53 amc Archives, word processor, typesetter) and subsequently to manipulate those documents for various purposes, e.g., print publication, interactive database, CD-ROM. Note: although SGML is often described as a "markup" language, the tags defined using SGML are not intended primarily to specify typographical features (e.g., italic, point, bullet), but to identify structural elements, such as chapter, appendix, author, heading, embedded quotation.

Related standards:

In the Association of American Publishers developed an SGML tag set for books and journals that was approved as ANSI/NISO Z

The U.S. federal government adopted ISO as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS Pub ) in In the late s the U.S. Department of Defense instituted its Computer Assisted Logistics System (CALS) under which it now requires contractors to deliver all documentation for weapons systems in electronic form with textual portions in SGML.

Archival applications:

[Note: Between and the Society of American Archivists developed the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) DTD for encoding archival finding aids using SGML.]

Document and tag set definition has potential application in the process of managing the components and the products of archival description, Sketch 53 amc Archives, especially the components that might be outside the scope of MARC tagging (see Chapter 3). Just as important, Sketch 53 amc Archives, if records creators adopted standard definition and tagging of documents in electronic form, the result could be "self-describing" records that are system independent, thus easier to manage over time.

Several efforts in allied professions also deserve attention. The Computer Interchange of Museum Information Committee (CIMI) suggests that SGML may provide a structure for exchanging data about museum collections. The Text Encoding Initiative is a internationally supported undertaking to create machine-readable versions of literary and other texts in standardized forms.

References:

Bearman, David. "Authority Control Issues and Prospects." American Archivist 52 (Summer ):

Dollar, Charles M., and Thomas E. Weir, Jr. "Archival Administration, Records Management and Computer Data Exchange Standards." In A Source Book of Standards Information, edited by Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell, Boston: G.K. Hall,

Goldfarb, Charles F. The SGML Handbook. New York: Oxford University Press,

McDonald, John. "Data and Document Interchange Standards: A View from the National Archives of Canada." In A Sourcebook of Standards Information, edited by Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell, Boston: G.K. Hall,

Reynolds, Louis R., and Steven J. Derose. "Electronic Books." Byte 17 (June ):

Wright, Haviland. "SGML Frees Information." Byte 17 (June ):


ANSI X12 suite
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

Available from ANSI.
See additional information below.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

ANSI chartered ASC X Accredited Standards Committee for Electronic Data Interchange in to develop and maintain EDI standards. The first EDI Sketch 53 amc Archives were published in Originally focused on purchase orders and invoices, the work has expanded to encompass a broad array of business transactions from price quotes to shipping. The Data Interchange Standards Association (DISA) serves as the secretariat for ASC X Nearly 60 industry-specific groups exist to advise DISA and promote use of EDI among their members. The Book and Serials Industry Systems Advisory Committees (BISAC and SISAC, Sketch 53 amc Archives, respectively), serve closely allied groups. Many librarians are active in SISAC, selecting data elements and devising formats appropriate for ordering, invoicing, claiming, and canceling serials.

Scope and structure:

X12 is a suite of standards containing formats designed to meet the requirements of specific business transactions. By there were more than 30 specific standards with nearly more in development. Examples of approved standards include:

A common Sketch 53 amc Archives of data elements available for use in each X12 standard is defined in ANSI X, Data Element Dictionary. Only a few basic data elements in each transaction set are mandatory, so that each user community that adopts an X12 standard to govern its transactions can specify those that are most essential to its needs.

Archival applications:

Some members of allied professions have begun exploring the potential of EDI, including serials librarians TotalSpaces 2.9.9 Cracked for macOS Free Download 2021 described above through SISAC and the Computer Interchange of Museum Information Committee (CIMI) which suggests EDI may provide a structure for exchanging data about items loaned for exhibits.

No specific archival applications are known to exist, but two aspects of EDI bear watching. First, like SGML and OSI data exchange standards (see Chapter 2), EDI standards encourage the production of structured data that is system-independent, thus facilitating long-term access and use. Second, files created using EDI may, Sketch 53 amc Archives, at least in part, "describe" themselves. EDI-structured files should have imbedded in them information about the content and function of the records that will be essential components of future archival description products.

Publication format and availability:

Individual X12 standards are not available separately. The collection of Sketch 53 amc Archives X12 ANSI-approved standards for EDI is available from ANSI for $ Contact ANSI for additional information.

References:

Cargill, Carl F. Information Technology Standardization: Theory, Process, Sketch 53 amc Archives, and Organizations. Bedford, MA: Digital Press,

Fisher, Sharon. "Moving Data Using EDI." Byte 16 (April ):

Paul, Sketch 53 amc Archives K. "Do Sketch 53 amc Archives Have a Say in X12 Standards?" Information Standards Quarterly 4 (April ):

Santosuosso, Joe. "Accredited Standards Committee X12 October Meeting." Information Standards Quarterly 3 (January ):

"Serial Item Contribution Identifier: New SISAC Code." Computers in Libraries 13 (January ):


ALSO OF INTEREST

Arranged alphabetically.

ANSI/NISO Zx. Patron Record Data Elements (draft standard). Paper (50 p.). Available from NISO.

The Control of Records at the Record Group Level. National Archives Staff Information Paper Out of print.

Findings on Finding Aids. Mid Atlantic Regional Archives Conference. Brochure (6 p.), Sketch 53 amc Archives. Available from MARAC.

The Manuscript Society Criteria for Describing Manuscripts and Documents [in manuscript dealers' catalogs]. The Manuscript Society. Paper ( 11 p.). Single copies available free of charge from the Manuscript Society.


Footnotes

1 It is important to remember that archivists in other countries have focused more attention on standards for other descriptive formats. See the discussion on Sketch 53 amc Archives efforts in Canada, Great Britain, and by the International Council on Archives in Chapter

2APPM, Rule For additional discussion of the context of cataloging within archival descriptive systems, see Sketch 53 amc Archives M. Miller, Arranging and Describing Archives and Manuscripts (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, ).

3APPM, Rule B1.

4 An annotated bibliography of repository processing and procedures manuals, originally compiled by Karen Paul, is included in Archival Forms Manual produced by the SAA Forms Manual Task Force (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, ).

5 Steven L. Hensen, "RAD, MAD, and APPM: The Search for Anglo-American Standards for Archival Description," Archives and Museum Informatics 5 (Summer ): 4.

6 Chadwyck-Healey began compiling microfiche reproductions of archival finding aids in the U.S. in the early s. See National Inventory of Documentary Sources in the U.S. (Teaneck, NJ, and Cambridge, England: Chadwyck-Healey, ). It is issued in four parts: Part 1, Federal Records; Part 2, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress; Part 3, State Archives, Libraries, and Historical Societies; and Part 4, Academic Libraries and Other Repositories. Parts 1 and 2 were reviewed by Lydia Lucas in the American Archivist 48 (Fall ): ; parts 3 and 4 were reviewed by Leon Stout in the American Archivist 51 (Winter and Spring ): Notably, the index compiled to accompany the microfiche uses headings based on LCSH.

7 Haviland Wright, "SGML Frees Information," Byte 17 (June ):

8 Windows 10 pro key B. Spring, Electronic Printing and Publishing: The Document Processing Revolution (New York: Marcel Busy View 2.20 crack serial keygen, ), 6.

9 See discussions in David Bearman and John Perkins, "Standards Framework for the Computer Interchange of Museum Information" (Museum Computer Network, ) also published in Spectra and 3 (); and John McDonald, "Data and Document Interchange Standards: A View from the National Archives of Canada," in A Sourcebook of Standards Information, eds. Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell (Boston: G.K. Hall, ), Another document structure standard they consider is the ISO suite of standards known as Office Document Architecture/Office Document Interchange Format (ODA/ODIF).


 

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Carr family collection of travel sketches, scrapbooks, and genealogical material

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&#;Collection

Call Number:&#;MSS 8

Carr family collection of travel sketches, scrapbooks, and genealogical material

Scope and Contents

The collection comprises travel sketches, scrapbooks, and genealogical material concerning the Carr family of Northumberland, England. The Reverend Thomas William Carr () appears to have played a key role in compiling the material, especially genealogical items.

The collection documents the burgeoning of interest in local and family history in the nineteenth century, as reflected by the thorough efforts of the Rev. Thomas William Carr to collect information and physical items relating to the history of the Carr family; the travels and artistic works of two Victorian women, Anna Margaret Carr (who traveled to Europe and India) and her sister Sarah Grace Carr (who focused on local English themes), whose numerous landscape sketches can be used to reconstruct their travel itineraries and provide insights to their interests as both travelers and artists; the often overlooked but pivotal role of Geneva and other Calvinist areas as stops on the Grand Tour (especially for English travelers); Victorian decorative arts, as seen in the greeting and note cards from the period preserved in the collection; and the religious attitudes, daily social life, and business interests of a nineteenth century Anglican clergyman, as reflected in the journals and correspondence of the Rev. Thomas William Carr.

Conditions Governing Access

The materials are open for research.

Conditions Governing Use

The collection is the physical property of the Yale Center for British Art. Literary rights, including copyright, belong to the authors or their legal heirs and assigns. For further information, consult the Curator of Rare Books and Manuscripts.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Acquired , Paul Mellon Fund.

Arrangement

Arranged in four series: I. Sketchbooks, ; II. Scrapbooks, ; III. Family history and genealogy, ; IV. Photographs, etc.

Dates
Majority of material found within -
Extent
10 Linear Feet
Related Names
Carr family
Carr, Anna Margaret,
Carr, Thomas William,
Lushington, Sarah Grace,
Hogg, James, ($t: Raid of the Kers)
Carr, Ralph Edward, ($t: History of the family of Carr of Dunston Hill, Co. Durham)
Language of Materials
English

 

 

Carr Family Collection of Travel Sketches, Scrapbooks, and Genealogical Material. Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Fund. mlbjerseyschina.us Accessed November 21,

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Leonard Euler&#;s Solution to the Konigsberg Bridge Problem

Editor's Note 

The following student research report was prepared for Professor Judit Kardos' Math class, held at The College of New Jersey. This was a 3-credit introductory course in the History of Mathematics. This report was counted towards 30% of the final grade.  It is an example of the sort of historical research students can do using secondary sources.

Leonard Euler's Solution to the Königsberg Bridge Problem

Königsberg

Our story begins in the 18th century, in the quaint town of Königsberg, Prussia on the banks of the Pregel River.  In , Teutonic knights founded the city of Königsberg under the lead of Bohemian King Ottoker II after their second crusade against the Prussians.  In the Middle Ages, Königsberg became a very important city and trading center with its location strategically positioned on the river.  Artwork from the eighteenth century shows Königsberg as a thriving city, where fleets of ships fill the Pregel, and their trade offers a comfortable lifestyle to both the local merchants and their families.  The healthy economy allowed the people of the city to build seven bridges across the river, most of which connected to the island of Kneiphof; their locations can be seen in the accompanying picture [source: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive].

As the river flowed around Kneiphof, literally meaning pub yard, and another island, it divided the city into four distinct regions.  The seven bridges were called Blacksmith’s bridge, Connecting Bridge, Green Bridge, Merchant’s Bridge, Wooden Bridge, High Bridge, and Honey Bridge.  According to lore, the citizens of Königsberg used to spend Sunday afternoons walking around their beautiful city.  While walking, the people of the city decided to create a game for themselves, their goal being to devise a way in which they could walk around the city, crossing each of the seven bridges only once.  Even though none of the citizens of Königsberg could invent a route that would allow them to cross each of the bridges only once, still they could not prove that it was impossible.  Lucky for them, Königsberg was not too far from St. Petersburg, home of the famous mathematician Leonard Euler. 

Euler and the Bridge Problem

Why would Euler concern himself with a problem so unrelated to the field of mathematics?  Why would such a great mathematician spend a great deal of time with a trivial problem like the Königsberg Bridge Problem?  Euler was obviously a busy man, publishing more than books and papers during his lifetime.  In alone, he wrote an average of one mathematical paper per week, and during his lifetime he wrote on a variety of topics besides mathematics including mechanics, optics, astronomy, navigation, and hydrodynamics.  It is not surprising that Euler felt this problem was trivial, stating in a letter to Carl Leonhard Gottlieb Ehler, mayor of Danzig, who asked him for a solution to the problem [quoted in Hopkins, 2]:

. . .  Thus you see, most noble Sir, how this type of solution bears little relationship to mathematics, and I do not understand why you expect a mathematician to produce it, rather than anyone else, for the solution is based on reason alone, and its discovery does not depend on any mathematical principle.  Because of this, I do not know why even questions which bear so little relationship to mathematics are solved more quickly by mathematicians than by others.

Even though Euler found the problem trivial, he was still intrigued by it.  In a letter written the same year to Giovanni Marinoni, an Italian mathematician and engineer, Euler said [quoted in Hopkins, 2],

This question is so banal, but seemed to me worthy of attention in that [neither] geometry, nor algebra, nor even the art of counting was sufficient to solve it.

Euler believed this problem was related to a topic that Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz had once discussed and longed to work with, something Leibniz referred to as geometria situs, or geometry of position.  This so-called geometry of position is what is now called graph theory, which Euler introduces and utilizes while solving this famous problem.

Euler's Proof

On August 26, , Euler presents a paper containing the solution to the Konigsberg bridge problem.  He addresses both this specific problem, as well as a general solution with any number of landmasses and any number of bridges.  This paper, called ‘Solutio problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis,’ was later published in [Hopkins, 2].  Euler’s paper is divided into twenty-one numbered paragraphs, and in what follows, a simplified version of Euler’s paragraphs will be presented.

In the first two paragraphs of Euler’s proof, he introduces the Konigsberg Bridge problem.  In Paragraph 1, Euler states that he believes this problem concerns geometry, but not the geometry well known by his contemporaries, that involves measurements and calculations, but instead a new kind of Geometry, which Leibniz referred to as Geometry of Position.  Then in Paragraph 2, Euler explains to his audience how the Konigsberg problem works.  Euler provided a sketch of the problem (see Euler's Figure 1), and called the seven distinct bridges: a, b, c, d, e, f, and, g.  In this paragraph he states the general question of the problem, “Can one find out whether or not it is possible to cross each bridge exactly once?”

 

Euler's Figure 1 from ‘Solutio problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis,’ Eneström 53 [source: MAA Euler Archive]


After stating the general question he is trying to solve, Euler begins to explore different methods of finding a solution.  In Paragraph 3, Euler tells the reader that to solve this specific problem, he could write down all possible paths, but this technique would take a great deal of time, and would not work for larger configurations with more bridges and land masses.  Because of these issues, Euler decided to choose a different method for solving this problem. 

In Paragraph 4, he begins simplifying the problem by inventing a convenient system to represent the crossing of a bridge.  Euler decides that instead of using the lowercase letters to represent the crossing of a bridge he would write the capital letters representing the landmasses.  For instance, referencing his Figure 1, AB would signify a journey that started in landmass A, and ended in B.  Furthermore, if after traveling from landmass A to B, someone decides to move to landmass D, this would simply be denoted, ABD.  In Paragraph 5, Euler continues his discussion on this process explaining that in ABDC, although there are four capital letters, only three bridges were crossed.  Euler explains that no matter how many how many bridges there are, there will be one more letter to represent the necessary crossing.  Because of this, the whole of the Königsberg Bridge problem required seven bridges to be crossed, and therefore eight capital letters.

In Paragraph 6, Euler continues explaining the details of his method.  He tells the reader that if there is more than one bridge that can be crossed when going from one landmass to the other, it does not matter which bridge is used.  For example, even though there are two bridges, a and b, that can take a traveler from A to B, it does not matter with Euler’s notation which bridge is taken.  In this paragraph, Euler also discusses the specific problem he is dealing with.  He explains, using his original figure, that the Königsberg problem needs exactly eight letters, where the pairs of (A,B) and (A,C) must appear next to each other exactly twice, no matter which letter appears first.  In addition, the pairs (A,D), (B,D), and (C,D) must occur together exactly once for a path that crosses each bridge once and only once to exist. 

Euler's Figures 2 and 3 from ‘Solutio problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis,’ Eneström 53 [source: MAA Euler Archive]


In Paragraph 7, Euler informs the reader that either he needs to find an eight-letter sequence that satisfies the problem, or he needs to prove that no such sequence exists.  Before he does this for the Königsberg Bridge problem, he decides to find a rule to discover whether a path exists for a more general problem.  He does this in Paragraph 8 by looking at much simpler example of landmasses and bridges.  Euler draws Figure 2, and he begins to assess the situations where region A is traveled through.  Euler states that if bridge a is traveled once, A was either where the journey began or ended, and therefore was only used once.  If bridges a, b, and c are all traveled once, A is used exactly twice, no matter if it is the starting or ending place.  Similarly, if five bridges lead to A, the landmass A would occur exactly three times in the journey.  Euler states that, “In general, if the number of bridges is any odd number, and if it is increased by one, then the number of occurrences of A is half of the result.”  In other words, if there is an odd number of bridges connecting A to other landmasses, add one to the number of bridges, and divide it by two, to find out how many total times A must be used in the path, where each bridge is used once and only once (i.e. Total Occurrences of A where A has an odd # of bridges = (# of Bridges - 1) / 2 ). 

Using this fact Euler solves the Königsberg bridge problem in Paragraph 9.  In that case, since there are five bridges that lead to A, it must occur three times (see his Figure 1, above).  Similarly, B, C, and D must appear twice since they all have three bridges that lead to them.  Therefore 3(for A) + 2(for B) + 2(for C) + 2(for D) = 9, but Euler already stated that there must only be eight occurrences for the seven bridges.  This is a contradiction!  Therefore, it is impossible to travel the bridges in the city of Königsberg once and only once.  The end, or is it?  While the people of Königsberg may be happy with this solution, the great mathematician Leonhard Euler was not satisfied.  Euler further continues his proof to deal with more general situations.

Euler's Generalization

In Paragraph 10, Euler continues his discussion by noting that if the situation involves all landmasses with an odd number of bridges, it is possible to tell whether a journey can be made using each bridge only once.  Euler states that if the sum of the number of times each letter must appear is one more then the total number of bridges, a journey can be made.  However, if the number of occurrences is greater than one more than the number of bridges, a journey cannot be made, like the Königsberg Bridge problem.  This is because the rule, which Euler gives for an odd number of bridges, using his Figure 2, is true for the general situation whether there is only one other landmass or more than one.

In Paragraphs 11 and 12, Euler deals with the situation where a region has an even number of bridges attached to it.  This situation does not appear in the Königsberg problem and, therefore, has been ignored until now.  In the situation with a landmass X with an even number of bridges, two cases can occur.  The first case is when X is the starting point for the journey.  In this case, X will appear twice, once as the starting point, and again as the ending point.  In the other case, X is not the starting point.  If this were to happen, X would only appear once, as the journey would have to enter through one bridge and immediately leave through the only other one available.  Similarly, if there are four bridges attached to X the number of occurrences of X depends on whether or not it is a starting point.  If the journey starts in X, it must appear three times, but if it does not begin in X, it would only appear twice.  So in general, if X has an even number of bridges attached, then if the journey does not start in X, X appears half the number of times as bridges (i.e. Occurrences of X where X is even and not the starting point = (# of Bridges) / 2).  If the journey does start in X then X appears half the number of times as bridges, plus one (i.e. Occurrences of X where X is even and starting point = ((# of Bridges) / 2) + 1). 

In Paragraphs 13 through 15, Euler explains how to figure out if a path using each bridge once and only once exists and presents his own example to show how it works.  Euler first explains his simple six-step method to solve any general situation with landmasses divided by rivers and connected by bridges.  First Euler denotes each landmass with a capital letter.  Second he takes the total number of bridges, adds one, and writes this above the chart he is about to make.  Next, he takes the capital letters, puts them in a column, and next to them writes the number of bridges.  Fourth, he indicates with asterisks the landmasses which have an even number of bridges.  Then, next to each even number, he writes ½ of the number and next to each odd number he places ½ the number plus one.  Finally, Euler adds the numbers written in the right-most column and if the sum is one less than, or equal to, the number of bridges plus one, then the required journey is possible.  It is important to note however, that if the sum is one less than the number of bridges plus one, then the journey must start from one of the landmasses marked with an asterisk.  If the sum is equal to the number of bridges plus one, the journey must start in a region not marked with an asterisk.

Examples

Using the Konigsberg problem as his first example Euler shows the following:

                   Number of bridges = 7, Number of bridges plus one = 8

                     Region    Bridges            Times Region Must Appear

                        A             5                                     3

                        B             3                                     2

                        C             3                                     2

                        D             3                                     2

However, 3 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 9, which is more than 8, so the journey is impossible.

Since this example is rather basic, Euler decides to design his own situation with two islands, four rivers, and fifteen bridges.  The situation Euler created can be seen in his Figure 3, above.  Euler now attempts to figure out whether there is a path that allows someone to go over each bridge once and only once.  Euler follows the same steps as above, naming the five different regions with capital letters, and creates a table to check it if is possible, like the following:

                        Number of bridges = 15, Number of bridges plus one = 16

                                    Region  Bridges      Times Region Must Appear

                                    A*             8                           4

                                    B*             4                           2

                                    C*             4                           2

                                    D              3                           2

                                    E              5                           3

                                    F*             6                           3

In addition, 4 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 = 16, which equals the number of bridges, plus one, which means the journey is, in fact, possible.  Since the sum equals the number of bridges plus one, the journey must start in either D or E.  Now that Euler knows it is possible to make a journey, all he needs to do is state what the path will be.  Euler chooses the path EaFbBcFdAeFfCgAhCiDkAmEnApBoElD, where he includes which bridges are crossed between the letters representing the landmasses.  While this information is extraneous, as the exact bridge does not matter in knowing that a journey is possible, it is useful when selecting a path.  This is a good example that shows the method which Euler would use when solving any problem of this nature. 

Euler's Conclusions

In the next few paragraphs, Euler presents another way to figure out if a journey can be made given any set of landmasses, bridges, and rivers.  In Paragraph 16, Euler points out that the total of the numbers listed directly to the right of the landmasses adds up to twice the total number of bridges.  This fact later becomes known as the handshaking lemma.  Basically, the handshaking lemma states that each bridge is counted twice, once for each landmass to which it is attached.  In Paragraph 17, Euler goes on to state that the sum of all the bridges leading to each region is even, since half of this number is equal to the total number of bridges.  However, this is impossible if there are an odd number of landmasses with an odd number of bridges.  Therefore, Euler proves that if there are some odd numbers attached to land masses, there must be an even number of these landmasses. 

However, this is not enough to prove when there is a path where each bridge is used once and only once, as the Königsberg Bridge problem has an even number of landmasses with an odd number of bridges going to them.  Because of this, Euler adds more restrictions in Paragraphs 18 and   Euler explains that since the total of the numbers of bridges attached to each landmass is equal to twice the number of bridges (as seen in the handshaking lemma), so therefore if you add two to this sum and then divide by two, you will get the number of total bridges plus one.  This number is the same as the one used before, which is used to tell if a path is possible.  If all the numbers are even, then the third column in the table will sum to one less than the total number of bridges plus one. 

Euler then explains that it is obvious that if there are two landmasses with an odd number of bridges then the journey will always be possible if the journey starts in one of the regions with an odd number of bridges.  This is because if the even numbers are halved, and each of the odd ones are increased by one and halved, the sum of these halves will equal one more then the total number of bridges.  However, if there are four or more landmasses with an odd number of bridges, then it is impossible for there to be a path.  This is because the sum of the halves of the odd numbers plus one along with the sum of all of the halves of the even numbers will make the sum of the third column greater than the total number of bridges plus one.  Therefore, Euler just proved that there can be at most two landmasses with an odd number of bridges. 

With this being stated, Euler can now make his conclusions concerning more general forms of the Königsberg Bridge problem.  In Paragraph 20, Euler gives the three guidelines that someone can use to figure out if a path exists using each bridge once and only once.  First, he claimed if there are more than two landmasses with an odd number of bridges, then no such journey is possible.  Second, if the number of bridges is odd for exactly two landmasses, then the journey is possible if it starts in one of the two odd numbered landmasses.  Finally, Euler states that if there are no regions with an odd number of landmasses then the journey can be accomplished starting in any region.  After stating these three facts, Euler concludes his proof with Paragraph 21, which simply states that after one figures out that a path exists, they still must go through the effort to write out a path that works.  Euler believed the method to accomplish this was trivial, and he did not want to spend a great deal of time on it.  However, Euler did suggest concentrating on how to get from one landmass to the other, instead of concentrating on the specific bridges at first. 

Euler's Proof and Graph Theory

When reading Euler’s original proof, one discovers a relatively simple and easily understandable work of mathematics; however, it is not the actual proof but the intermediate steps that make this problem famous.  Euler’s great innovation was in viewing the Königsberg bridge problem abstractly, by using lines and letters to represent the larger situation of landmasses and bridges.  He used capital letters to represent landmasses, and lowercase letters to represent bridges.  This was a completely new type of thinking for the time, and in his paper, Euler accidentally sparked a new branch of mathematics called graph theory, where a graph is simply a collection of vertices and edges.  Today a path in a graph, which contains each edge of the graph once and only once, is called an Eulerian path, because of this problem. From the time Euler solved this problem to today, graph theory has become an important branch of mathematics, which guides the basis of our thinking about networks. 

The Königsberg Bridge problem is why Biggs states [Biggs, 1],

The origins of graph theory are humble, even frivolous …  The problems which led to the development of graph theory were often little more than puzzles, designed to test the ingenuity rather than the stimulate the imagination.  But despite the apparent triviality of such puzzles, they captured the interest of mathematicians, with the result that graph theory has become a subject rich in theoretical results of a surprising variety and depth.

As Biggs' statement would imply, this problem is so important that it is mentioned in the first chapter of every Graph Theory book that was perused in the library.

After Euler’s discovery (or invention, depending on how the reader looks at it), graph theory boomed with major contributions made by great mathematicians like Augustin Cauchy, William Hamilton, Arthur Cayley, Gustav Kirchhoff, and George Polya.  These men all contributed to uncovering “just about everything that is known about large but ordered graphs, such as the lattice formed by atoms in a crystal or the hexagonal lattice made by bees in a beehive [ScienceWeek, 2].”  Other famous graph theory problems include finding a way to escape from a maze or labyrinth, or finding the order of moves with a knight on a chess board such that each square is landed on only once and the knight returns to the space on which he begun [ScienceWeek, 2].  Some other graph theory problems have gone unsolved for centuries [ScienceWeek, 2].

The Fate of Königsberg

While graph theory boomed after Euler solved the Königsberg Bridge problem, the town of Königsberg had a much different fate.  In , the people of Königsberg decided to build a new bridge, between nodes B and C, increasing the number of links of these two landmasses to four.  This meant that only two landmasses had an odd number of links, which gave a rather straightforward solution to the problem.  The creation of the extra bridge may or may not have been subconsciously caused by the desire for a path to solve the town’s famous problem. 

However, a new bridge did not solve all of Königsberg's future problems, as the town did not expect back in the nineteenth century, “the sad and war-torn fate that awaited it as host for one of the fiercest battles of WWII.”  During four days in August , British bombers destroyed both the old town and the northern parts of Königsberg.  In January and February , the region surrounding Königsberg is surrounded by Russian forces.  German civilians begin to evacuate from the town, but move too late.  Thousands of people are killed trying to flee by boat and on foot across the icy waters of the Curonian Lagoon.  In April , the Red Army captures Königsberg with about ninety percent of the old town lying in ruins. 

A current street map of Königsberg is provided below [source: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive].  This map shows how much the town has changed.  Many of the bridges were destroyed during the bombings, and the town can no longer ask the same intriguing question they were able to in the eighteenth century.  Along with a greatly different layout, the town of Königsberg has a new name, Kaliningrad, with the river Pregel renamed Pregolya [Hopkins, 6].  While the fate of Königsberg is terrible, the citizens' old coffeehouse problem of traversing each of their old seven bridges exactly one time led to the formation of a completely new branch of mathematics, graph theory.

 

References

Biggs, Norman L., E. K. Lloyd, and Robin J. Wilson. Graph Theory: . Oxford: Clarendon Press,

Dunham, William. Euler: The Master of Us All. Washington: The Mathematical Association of America,

Euler, Leonhard, ‘Solutio problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis’ (), Eneström 53, MAA Euler Archive.

"History of Mathematics: On Leonhard Euler ()." ScienceWeek (). 6 Nov.

Hopkins, Brian, and Robin Wilson. "The Truth about Königsberg." College Mathematics Journal (), 35,  

"Konigsberg Bridges." The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive:
mlbjerseyschina.us- mlbjerseyschina.us

Editor's note:  This article was originally published in Convergence, Volume 3 ().

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Delta Omega was founded at The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health in May by two graduate students, Edgar Erskine Hume and Claude W. Mitchell. At the time, public health as a profession was still in its infancy and the graduate schools of public health had only recently come into being.6 In the years before the establishment of university-based education in public health, entrance into the field had been largely through the gate of practical experience and political favor. To promote graduate study in public health, it seemed appropriate to Hume and Mitchell to organize an honorary society to recognize outstanding achievement in the new field.7

Edgar Erskine Hume was born in Frankfort, Kentucky on December 26, He received a BA from Centre College in Danville, Kentucky, in and an master's degree in He attended the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, earning his medical degree in He later completed his Public Health doctorate at The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health in

Hume served for most of his life in public health efforts in the military. He was in the Army Medical Corps from to where he became a leading medical authority involved in combating disease all over the world. He fought typhus epidemics in Siberia, Russia and in Naples, Italy. During World War II, he headed military governments for the American troops occupying Naples, Milan, Rome and Florence. One of the most decorated soldiers in American history, Hume was also a librarian at the Army Medical Library for part of his career (, and ). The author of more than books and articles on scientific and historical topics, Hume died in

Claude William Mitchell was born in Kansas on May 27, He received his BA in , his MA in and his PhD in , all from the University of Nebraska. He earned his medical degree from Rush Medical College in and his doctorate in Public Health from The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health in An assistant surgeon in the United States Public Health Service from to , he later went into private practice in Silver Spring, Maryland. Mitchell died in

The School of Hygiene and Public Health at Johns Hopkins was established in The University, however, did not finish construction of the new public health building on Wolfe Street until The School, meanwhile, operated out of temporary quarters in downtown Baltimore in buildings formerly used by the University's Arts and Sciences division. Most of the school's activities took place in the old physics building

A number of students attending the new Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health worked, or were on military duty, in nearby Washington D.C. They commuted to school and work via the one-hour train ride between Washington and Baltimore

The idea for Delta Omega arose during the train rides that Hume and Mitchell shared as they commuted. They both felt that if public health was to occupy a position comparable to that of the other professions, it should have an honorary fraternity One of the primary objects of such a society, as they saw it, would be to link those institutions engaged in giving graduate instruction in public health in this country

Their goal was to strengthen the fledgling profession and put it on a more equal footing with the already established specialties.

Mitchell was originally in favor of a social fraternity. Hume, however, felt that there was no need for such an organization at Hopkins. What the profession needed was an honor society comparable to those in medicine, law, theology and other professions Mitchell eventually agreed. The pair then consulted William Henry Welch, the director of the School and probably the most influential person in the field of medicine and public health at the time. They also consulted William Henry Howell, the great Hopkins physiologist, and Wade Hampton Frost, professor of epidemiology. Welch and Howell were enthusiastic and offered support. Mitchell and Hume, therefore, proceeded to organize the new society.

Early in , Mitchell and Hume organized two preliminary meetings to discuss the Society. Nine students attended the first meeting; thirteen attended the second. The group agreed to proceed with the organization. They then appointed temporary officers to govern until they could decide on the full membership. They elected Mitchell temporary chairman, who, in turn, appointed Milford E. Barnes as temporary secretary-treasurer.

The group then appointed a committee to choose the charter members. They decided on seventeen regular members, one faculty member and one alumnus. Beside the founders, Doctors Mitchell and Hume, the other charter members included Charles A. Bailey, Milford E. Barnes, Yves M. Biraud, James B. Black, John W. Brown, W. Thurber Fales, Martin Frobisher Jr., Raymond D. Fear, John F. Kendrick, Shelton S. King, Edward A. Lane, Hilario Lara, Hynek J. Pelc, Persis Putnam and George H. Ramsey. The group chose William Henry Welch as the first faculty member. They then picked James Angus Doull as the first alumnus member. Many in this group eventually became leaders in the field of public health. (For brief biographical sketches of these individuals, see Appendix A at the close of this history).

After the group chose the charter members, they then proceeded to appoint committees. They established committees for membership and insignia design, a committee on certificates and one to draft a constitution. Finally, they appointed a committee to arrange the annual dinner.

After having consulted with Doctor Welch, the membership committee reported its findings. The committee felt that the only real justification for Delta Omega at Johns Hopkins should be to recognize and stimulate scholarship in the School or to recognize some other clearly stated achievement in the field of public health. If Delta Omega limited itself to these goals, the Society would then stand for something definite and worthwhile. The group suggested that the faculty select a certain number of outstanding students each year, these students to automatically become members of the Society. Candidates who were not students could be elected based upon past degrees taken, past positions held or other public health accomplishments. Doctor Welch suggested certain modifications in student selection. He agreed that the faculty would furnish recommendations but was adamant that the regular membership vote on all the new members. The issue of membership criteria never did quite meet everyone's expectations and caused problems for Delta Omega throughout its early history

The Society next proceeded to adopt a tentative constitution and to elect permanent officers. The first set of elected officers were Claude Mitchell as President, Charles Bailey as Vice President, Persis Putnam as Treasurer and Milford Barnes as Secretary.

On May 6, , the insignia committee reported on their deliberations. The insignia of the Society would be a golden key with a circular center approximately the size of a dime. It would have the Greek letter Delta Omega on its face. On the back would be the initials of the University, the member's name, year of election and the Greek letter for the local chapter. The local chapter at The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health chose the name Alpha because it was the first chapter. The keys would cost nine dollars for the first group of members and six dollars thereafter.

There is some dispute regarding the origin of the name Delta Omega. Justin Andrews, an early president of the Society, and a faculty member in Medical Zoology, recalled that the name Delta Omega was chosen by the charter members because the word Delta (a Greek triangle) "represented physicians, sanitarians & research workers, the three classes of students interested in public health." He also recalled that the word Omega was chosen because the Society "was from an honorary standpoint the last and final one which a public health worker in the field or laboratory might be elected."16

In later years (), however, Edgar Hume the co-founder stated that he coined the name arbitrarily and that the letters had no special significance In any event, after the insignia committee reported, the group spent the next few meetings drawing up the Society's constitution. They approved it on May 14, after review by Doctor Welch. The constitution outlined the mission of the Society and the requirements for group and individual eligibility. It also outlined governance on the national and local levels. Finally, it called for an annual convention.

After approving the constitution, the Society proceeded to elect the first group of members under the terms outlined. The faculty suggested a list of the eligible candidates consisting of sixty-one names. The group chose eleven new members from this pool. They were Richard A. Bolt, William A. McIntosh, Doris A. Murray and George H. Boyd, Mary J. Chapman, Anna Baetjer, Martha Eckford, Harry Kruse, Francis A. Coventry, Elizabeth I. Parsons and Thomas F. Sellers. The chapter also chose Huo-Ki Hu, Carl R. Doering, Thomas J. LeBlanc, Thomas S. Sweeney, Lemuel R. Cleveland, Joseph M. Scott, John A. Ferrell and Raymond C. Salter as alumni members.

Delta Omega also elected three honorary members in These were Sir Arthur Newsholme, Watson S. Rankin and Sara Josephine Baker. The criterion for electing honorary members was such that any chapter could nominate someone. Eighty percent of the parent chapter, however, had to approve them. Nominees were to have exceptional credentials in the field of public health. The first three chosen certainly met this qualification.

Sir Arthur Newsholme was one of the leading British public health experts of his day. He was the Principal Medical Officer of the Local Government Board of England. He was a noted lecturer, sanitary investigator and researcher. Newsholme was the first professor of public health administration at The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health (). He "stimulated the growth of knowledge and the application of public health principles and aided in the formulation of fundamental principles in preventive medicine."18

Watson S. Rankin was the former Director of the Duke Hospital and Director of the Duke Endowment. He was a state health officer who later () became President of the American Public Health Association. Rankin was noted for raising public health administration standards and contributing "to the solution of the problems of rural health and hospitalization."19

Sara Josephine Baker was a pioneer in child health issues. She was a writer, educator and pioneer on the subject of child care and made an enormous contribution to the reduction of infant and maternal mortality. Her accomplishments conferred the benefits of good health on thousands of mothers and children

After the elections, the group recessed for the summer. Edward Hume used the break to promote new Delta Omega chapters in other East coast schools while Richard Bolt similarly worked in the West

By the next meeting, held on October 15, , Hume reported that the organization of chapters at Harvard (Beta) and M.I.T. (Gamma) had begun. These new chapters were immediately approved. Later that year, chapters at the University of Michigan (Delta) and at Yale (Epsilon) were also approved

By the end of the year the Society was already making plans for a national convention. Alpha Chapter elected Edgar Hume and Richard Bolt to be their representatives on the new National Council which was to form. The members of this council, once assembled, would eventually administer the governance of Delta Omega on a national basis.

In February of , Alpha Chapter elected more faculty members. After this election, a sizable portion of the faculty of the School became members of Delta Omega. These included William H. Howell, Janet Clark, Allen Freeman, E.V. McCollum, Raymond Pearl, Roscoe Hyde, Lowell Reed, Charles Simon and Nina Simmonds. Alpha Chapter held two more meetings in and elected new students to membership.

The first national organization meeting was scheduled to be held May 31, It was to take place during the meeting of the American Medical Association

Unfortunately, no minutes for this meeting are in the Society's archive. It is curious to note that at the next meeting of Alpha Chapter, held in December of , the group made no mention of the first national meeting. Perhaps the meeting was canceled or perhaps it was too uneventful to report upon. The minutes of the December meeting of Alpha Chapter do, however, indicate that a problem had arisen. This problem may have been related to the delay in organizing the National Council. The minutes show that at some point in , Claude Mitchell, the Alpha Chapter President and co-founder, left the United States Public Health Service to enter the private practice of medicine in Silver Spring, Maryland. Mitchell then relinquished his position in Alpha Chapter. After this, Alpha Chapter went without meeting for several months in When they did meet, they almost decided to disband. The membership agreed to continue, however, by a margin of one vote, four to three with three abstentions.

With their first crisis averted, the members infused new life into Alpha Chapter. They appointed Persis Putnam as the President, replacing Mitchell. The group committed themselves to more and better meetings and they voted to hold the annual dinner. In March of the University of California applied for a chapter and Alpha Chapter approved the application. In May of the following year (), a national meeting was scheduled for the fall in Cincinnati. Alpha Chapter agreed to turn over its supervisory function to the National Council at this meeting as part of the process of making Delta Omega into a national organization.

On October 19, the chapters of Delta Omega assembled at the Gibson Hotel in Cincinnati. Delegate John A. Ferrell represented Alpha Chapter with Milford E. Barnes as Alternate. Beta Chapter (Harvard) sent Edward G. Huber with Walter J. Connell as Alternate. The Gamma Chapter (M.I.T.) chose James A. Tobey and Alternate Clair E. Turner to represent their membership. The Delta Chapter (Michigan) sent Nathan Sinai with George T. Palmer as Alternate. The Epsilon Chapter (Yale) sent C-E.A. Winslow and Alternate Leonard Greenburg. Richard A. Bolt, a transfer from the Alpha Chapter, represented the University of California (Zeta).

The new parent group immediately went into action. They adopted a new constitution and formulated by-laws. They elected national officers for the ensuing year (). C-E.A. Winslow was elected President with Edgar Hume as Vice President and James A. Tobey as Secretary-Treasurer The group then prepared forms for issuing chapter charters and certificates and they assembled membership lists. They voted to call on Alpha Chapter for the funds now under their jurisdiction. They also voted that the President appoint a committee to investigate reprinting certain classic publications in public health under Delta Omega's name. They recommended that all the local chapters hold public health lectures. Finally, the group urged all chapters to present annual reports at each national meeting.

The new officers were well known figures in the field of public health. The president, Charles-Edward Amory Winslow, was the Anna M. R. Lauder Professor of Public Health at the Yale University School of Medicine from to Born in Boston in , Winslow received his B.S. and M.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For eight years he was at M.I.T. on the faculty in sanitary bacteriology. From to he was Associate Professor of Biology at New York City University and from to he was the Curator of Public Health at the American Museum of Natural History. From to he was Director of the John B. Pierce Laboratory of Hygiene. He died in

The Secretary-Treasurer, James A. Tobey, was born in Quincy, Massachusetts in He received his B.S. in and his Doctorate in Public Health in , both from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received his M.A. from American University in Tobey held a variety of public health positions early in his career. He was a health officer in New Jersey from to He also worked with the American Red Cross, the National Health Council and the Institute for Government Research. He spent the bulk of his career ( to ) as the Director of Health Services for the Borden Company. In he took a position with the American Institute of Baking. Tobey was also Associate Editor of The American Journal of Public Health from to He was an expert in the legal aspects of public health

The constitution and by-laws of the new National Council required a two thirds vote in order to admit new chapters into the Society. It recommended that all chapter members be chosen with "due regard to their scholarly attainments and with the object of maintaining the honorary character of the Society."27

It limited active membership to public health faculty or to students who were degree candidates in public health. These students must also have finished at least three fourths of a full year working toward an advanced degree and they must have been intent upon a career in public health after graduation The Society asked an initiation fee of $ from each new member. This was later reduced to $ The money was used to pay for the insignia key and certificates, with the rest to go to the national chapter. Delta Omega would pay other expenses by special assessment.

By the end of the first national Delta Omega conference, the new council, equipped with a constitution and by-laws, had taken over the governance from Alpha chapter. This is exactly what the co-founders had planned at the Society's inception.

Источник: [mlbjerseyschina.us]

Standards for Archival Description: A Handbook
Home Table of Contents


CHAPTER 5: FINDING AIDS AND OTHER DESCRIPTIVE FORMATS (Non-Cataloging Structure and Content Standards)


The entries in this chapter are truly a miscellany. The fact that such a collective chapter is necessary is illustrative of the current state of development of archival description standards in the U.S. While considerable effort has been applied to the development of cataloging-related standards in the U.S. during the last decade (see especially Chapters 3 and 4), most other archival descriptive formats have gone virtually untouched by standards developers.1

The first three entries in this chapter represent earlier attempts by archivists to formalize practices for the preparation of other kinds of finding aids. The first two especially, Inventories and Registers and The Preparation of Inventories, have had significant impact on archival practice although they were never formally adopted as standards.

The next two entries summarize standards originally developed two decades ago to meet the needs of allied professionals, abstractors and librarians. They could be incorporated in or provide models for the development of standards for traditional archival practices.

By contrast, the standards described in the last two entries provide a glimpse of the future. ANSI's Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and ISO's Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) are widely recognized and used internationally, but not yet used for specific archival applications. [Ed. Note: Between and the Society of American Archivists developed the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) DTD for encoding archival finding aids using SGML.] Archivists need to understand how EDI, SGML, and similar standards provide structural standards for automated documents and are actually redefining the very concept of a "document." Not only could these standards be employed directly to improve archival descriptive practices; they may well prompt us to make significant adjustments in every phase of archival activity as we attempt to manage records in electronic form.

Standards for archival finding aids

As is evident in the previous chapters, most recent efforts in this country have focused on the development of standards needed in automated information systems, especially those operating in the "shared environments" of the national bibliographic networks. For the most part, the descriptive "product" associated with these systems is a catalog record.

APPM makes it very clear that cataloging is only one of a whole range of interrelated activities that comprise an archival descriptive program.

An archival catalog may be only one part of a more complex institutional descriptive system, which may include several other types of finding aids (e.g., registers, inventories, calendars, indexes, and shelf and container lists). In such a system, a catalog record created according to these rules is usually a summary or abstract of information contained in other finding aids, which in turn contain summaries, abstracts, or lists based on information found in the archival materials themselves.2

This view is certainly consistent with the "systems approach" that has characterized U.S. descriptive practices since the early s as reviewed in the introduction to Chapter 1 of this handbook. The value, indeed demand, for other descriptive sources is underscored in APPM's declaration that "the chief source of information for archival materials is the finding aid prepared for those materials."3

Despite their continued use and central role in the larger descriptive system within most repositories, formats other than the catalog record have received little recent attention in the U.S. from the perspective of standardization. This was not always true. The introduction to Chapter 1 describes the work of the SAA Committee on Finding Aids whose report, Inventories and Registers: A Handbook of Techniques and Examples (), provided the first critical analysis and guidance for the construction of these most widely used descriptive formats. The committee expressed some hope that the report would be considered for adoption as an SAA standard, but no formal action was ever taken. The effort probably lost momentum in the early s when so many archivists turned their attention to coping with the burgeoning national bibliographic networks.

Another source for guidance that has received wide use but never achieved formal "standards" status is the National Archives publication, The Preparation of Inventories. Issued in as Staff Information Paper 14, it was intended for in-house use, but most of its instructions were easily transferrable to other archival repositories, especially those serving state and local governments. Despite such ad hoc use, however, the profession as a whole has never critiqued its contents for wider applicability.

Actually, this NARA staff information paper represents a fairly typical approach to regulating descriptive practices. Most repositories with fully developed descriptive programs have prepared some kind of in-house processing or procedures manual to govern form and usage in the preparation of finding aids. While these have provided effective tools for standardizing practices within a single institution, few have tried to extend these guidelines beyond their own institutional contexts.4

As Steven Hensen and others have pointed out, the greatest impetus for standards development in the U.S. has been the desire to participate in the "shared environment" of the national networks.5 Until recently, variations in practices for producing paper-based finding aids could be tolerated because there was no effort underway to merge, process, and access them collectively in an automated system.6 This may well change as these shared systems become capable of carrying not just catalog records but also the full texts of the finding aids from which they were prepared and even the texts or images of archival documents themselves. The need for local adaptations and flexibility will continue, but these must be balanced against the advantages of shared practice.

At what might seem a more practical level, the growth in local automation use, using stand-alone personal computers or a computer serving only the archives' parent institution, has opened a market for software that can produce traditional finding aids through a combination of word processing and database technologies. While the USMARC AMC Format is promoted by some for the production of series- and item-level finding aids, others argue that it is not necessarily the best carrier for this data. Whatever the outcome of this debate, agreement on standard formats would produce obvious savings in development costs. Ultimately users also would be better served if they could come to expect a "standard" form of finding aid as their research progressed from repository to repository.

Externally developed standards

There are a range of standards developed outside the archival profession that could also be applied to the preparation of finding aids and other descriptive tools. Perhaps the largest group relates to editing and publishing, described in Chapter 9. Similarly, the labeling and filing rules developed by records managers and librarians are discussed together in Chapter

Two standards developed by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) might have potential applications in archival practice and are described in this chapter. ANSI Z, Writing Abstracts, provides guidance on identifying "the basic content of a document quickly and accurately" and describing the document in such a way that users can "determine its relevance to their interests, and . . . decide whether they need to read the document in its entirety." Although this standard is designed to apply only to abstracts of printed materials (in such contexts as the abstract preceding a scholarly article in a journal or the annotation of an entry in a bibliographic database), it covers processes resembling those used by archivists in preparing the narrative portions of series and collection descriptions. The international equivalent is ISO , Documentation--Abstracts for publications and documentation.

A second NISO standard worth considering is ANSI Z (R), American National Standard for Directories of Libraries and Information Centers. It could be easily used when compiling directories of archival repositories for any purpose, from a national guide project to a pamphlet listing institutions in a particular city or region. The international equivalent, which explicitly includes archival repositories in its scope, is ISO , Documentation -- Directories of libraries, archives, information and documentation centres, and their data bases.

The final two entries reflect some of the fundamental changes that automation has brought to recordkeeping. As noted earlier, the very definition of what constitutes a document is changing. The concept of a document has evolved "from a physical reality to a processing metaphor for many different information bearing forms."7 No longer just "sequences of textual and graphic symbols represented by ink on paper," they now include "a variety of components including database information, video, animation, and voice."8

The international standards community has expended considerable effort in the development of standards that define the structure of documents so that they can be processed and communicated from system to system. The two most widely recognized efforts in this area are described here: the ANSI X12 suite of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards and ISO , Standard Generalized Markup Language. EDI generally addresses the structures of transaction documents, functionally similar to those that required "forms" in a paper-based environment (purchase orders, invoices, price quotations). SGML is more commonly applied to documents that are largely textual (books, correspondence, manuals), although it can also handle graphics and images and multimedia using HyTime extensions.

Members of both the library and museum communities have begun to consider these two standards for direct applications in managing collections and transactions. The archival community needs to increase its understanding of these and similar standards. They not only have potential for improving our internal practices but they will govern the structure of records in electronic information systems that archivists will evaluate for long-term retention and use.9

Further Reading

Bearman, David. Archives and Museum Data Models and Dictionaries. Archives and Museum Informatics Technical Report no. Pittsburgh: Archives and Museum Informatics,

Bearman, David. "A User Community Discovers IT Standards." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 43 (September ):

Berner, Richard C. Archival Theory and Practice in the United States: A Historical Analysis. Seattle: University of Washington Press,

Berner, Richard C., and Uli Haller. "Principles of Archival Inventory Construction." American Archivist 47 (Spring ):

Borko, Harold, and Charles L. Bernier. Abstracting Concepts and Methods. New York: Academic Press,

Brand, Katharine E. "The Place of the Register in the Manuscripts Division of the Library of Congress." American Archivist 18 (April ):

Gracy, David B., II. "Finding Aids Are Like Streakers." Georgia Archive 4 (Winter ):

Lucas, Lydia. "Efficient Finding Aids: Developing a System for Control of Archives and Manuscripts." American Archivist 44 (Winter ): Later published in A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice, edited by Maygene Daniels and Timothy Walch, Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration,

Papenfuse, Edward C. "The Retreat from Standardization: A Comment on the Recent History of Finding Aids." American Archivist 26 (October ):

Roe, Kathleen. "From Archival Gothic to MARC Modern: Building Common Data Structures." American Archivist 53 (Winter ):

Spring, Michael B. Electronic Printing and Publishing: The Document Processing Revolution. New York: Marcel Dekker,


Inventories and Registers: A Handbook of Techniques and Examples


Paper (36 p.).
Out of print.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

SAA's Committee on Techniques for the Control and Description of Archives and Manuscripts, later renamed the Committee on Finding Aids, prepared the first draft of the handbook in After wide review, SAA Council, in April , "directed that the handbook be published as a report of the Committee on Finding Aids to draw comment from the profession. Subsequently, the Council will consider issuing the handbook as a Society standard." No further action was ever taken, however.

Scope and structure:

The handbook "represents an attempt . . . to describe present [] practice in a broad range of archival institutions thought to have effective finding aid programs." The Finding Aids Committee collected samples of inventories and registers and analyzed them for content and purpose. The Committee found that, while wide terminology and intended use varied widely, archival inventories and manuscript registers generally conformed to similar structures. The handbook enumerates the following typical elements: (1) preface, (2) introduction, (3) biographical sketch (for manuscript registers) and agency history (for archival inventory), and (4) series description. Also described are two elements common to manuscript registers but rarely employed in archival inventories: scope and content notes and container listings. Finally, two additional elements are described though rarely found in either: item listings and indexes.

The handbook provides a summary of each element's purpose and describes its typical content and format. Several examples from actual repository finding aids illustrate these descriptions.

Archival applications:

This handbook has received wide use as an educational tool and has provided basic guidance to individual practitioners in the preparation of traditional finding aids.

References:

Bearman, "Documenting Documentation." Archivaria 34 (Summer ):

Brown, Thomas E. "The Society of American Archivists Confronts the Computer." American Archivist 47 (Fall ):


The Preparation of Inventories


Staff Information Paper
Paper (22 p.).
See "Publication format and availability"
below for additional information.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Prepared by Edward E. Hill for the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Intended as a source of in-house rules, but distributed on request for consultation and use outside of NARA.

Scope and structure:

Contains instructions on the preparation of inventories in the National Archives and Records Administration. The instructions are presented in three broad sections: Purpose and Scope, Content and Organization, and Format and Style. The Content and Organization Section provides detailed instructions for the construction and content of specific parts of the inventory: general introduction, subgroup introduction, series entries (including title entries, arrangement and narrative description, grouping series, and order of series), appendixes, and index. Often includes examples from actual inventories to illustrate specific rules.

Archival applications:

Although no hard data exists, anecdotal evidence suggests that The Preparation of Inventories has been used by many other archival repositories to provide general guidance for description, especially those serving state and local governments.

Publication format and availability:

Available free on request from the Archival Publications and Accessions Control Staff (NN-E), Room 20W, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC Also published in slightly revised form in Maygene Daniels and Timothy Walch, eds., A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice (Washington, DC: NARA, ),

References:

Berner, Richard C., and Uli Haller. "Principles of Archival Inventory Construction." American Archivist 47 (Spring ): passim.

Breton, Arthur J. "Preparation of Inventories [review]." American Archivist 45 (Fall ):


Guidelines for the Preparation of General Guides to National Archives: A RAMP Study


Paper (67 p.).
See "Publication format and availability"
below for additional information.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Prepared by Françoise Hildesheimer, under contract with the International Council on Archives; published and distributed by Unesco's Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) which operates within the Division of the General Information Programme.

Scope and structure:

The study "is intended to assist national archives institutions, more specifically in the developing countries, in the preparation of a basic model finding aid which will introduce information users to the nature, value and potential uses of archives."

The study first explains the definition, use, and historical development of archives guides and examines how they reflect governmental structures and archival practices in each country. The bulk of the study provides a model plan for a guide and guidance for constructing the specific elements within that model. The model is presented in three parts: introduction (which includes general information about the repository, regulations concerning use, loans, and copying, historical information about the creating agencies, and archival terminology), description of actual collections or holdings, and indexes and appendixes. An appendix to the study provides a large number of examples reproduced from actual national archives guides.

Archival applications:

While directed primarily at national archives in developing countries, this study nonetheless is one of the few existing analyses of the archival inventory and could supplement any further work to develop standards for other types of repositories.

Publication format and availability:

Available free on request from General Information Programme and UNISIST, Unesco, 7 place de Fontenoy, Paris France. Because such requests may take several months to fill, archivists in the U.S. may find it easier to purchase reproductions through NARA's Archives Library Information Clearinghouse (ALIC) or the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC).


ANSI Z (R)
Writing Abstracts

, reaffirmed in
Paper (15 p.).
ISBN
Available from NISO. $


Development, approval, and maintenance:

The original version and the revision were both prepared by Subcommittee 6 of the American National Standards Committee on Standardization in the Field of Library Work, Documentation, and Related Publishing Practices, Z Committee Z39's successor is the National Information Standards Organization (NISO), which has maintenance responsibility for the standard. NISO reaffirmed the standard in After circulating it for comments in early , it is being revised.

Scope and structure:

Intended to assist authors and editors in the preparation of abstracts, which are defined as "an abbreviated, accurate representation of the contents of a document." It contains sections on the purpose and use of abstracts (focusing on journals, reports and theses, monographs and proceedings, and access publications and services), treatment of document content, and presentation and style. A series of examples reproducing actual abstracts illustrate the guidelines.

Related standards:

ANSI Z is "in full accord" with the international equivalent, ISO Documentation--Abstracts for publications and documentation. Published in ISO Standards Handbook: Documentation and Information, 3rd ed. (Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, ), ISO was reconfirmed in

Archival applications:

The guidance provided in this standard could supplement analyses undertaken toward the development of guidelines for writing the narrative portions of collection- or series-level descriptions in archival finding aids. Of course, the standard also has direct application for the preparation of abstracts which precede articles in archival journals such as the American Archivist.

References:

Borko, Harold, and Charles L. Bernier. Abstracting Concepts and Methods. New York: Academic Press, ,

Tibbo, Helen. "Abstracting Across the Disciplines." Library and Information Science Research 14 ():


ANSI Z (R)
Directories of Libraries and Information Centers

, reaffirmed
Paper (12 p.).
Out of print.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Developed by Subcommittee 13 of the Z39 Standards Committee on Standardization in the Field of Library Work, Documentation, and Related Publishing Practices. Adopted by the American National Standards Institute on 4 November and reaffirmed in Maintenance responsibility rests with the Z39 Committee's successor, the National Information Standards Organization (NISO).

The original version of this standard was developed concurrently with the original version of its international equivalent, ISO The international standard was revised in ; NISO does not intend to revise the standard.

Scope and structure:

The standard is intended to provide "practical guidelines in the compilation of various types of library directories." It defines directories as reference works "designed to give the name and address, the size of collection(s), subjects, staff, geographic area (national, regional, local) covered, and type (public, college, university, research or school library, information or documentation center)."

Following general guidance on arrangement of entries, tables of contents, indexes, and format, the standard lists data elements for several specific types of institutions: state libraries, public libraries, college and university libraries, special libraries, documentation and information centers, school libraries, and regional libraries, cooperative systems, and processing centers.

Related standards:

The international equivalent is ISO , Documentation -- Directories of libraries, archives, information and documentation centres, and their data bases developed by ISO TC Available from ANSI. $ Also published in ISO Standards Handbook: Documentation and Information, 3rd ed. (Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, ),

Unlike the ANSI standard, the ISO standard provides a straight list of data elements instead of organizing them by type of institution. It then indicates in a table which data elements are essential for four main types of directories: international directories, national directories published in bilingual or multilingual countries, national directories intended for international use, and national directories.

Publication format and availability:

Out of print. Z was administratively withdrawn by ANSI because it exceeded the year review cycle without revision or reaffirmation.

Archival applications:

Archivists attempting to compile directories at the national or local level would benefit from the organizational and informational models provided by these standards.


ISO
Information processing--Text and office systems--
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)

Online information on SGML
Online information on Encoded Archival Description (EAD)

Paper ( p.).
Price code XC
Amendment
Paper (15 p.). Price code XZ.
Available from ANSI.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

ISO , Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), was developed by Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC). JTC1 has maintenance responsibility for the standard and issued an amendment in

Scope and structure:

SGML is a programming language that provides a set of rules for defining document structures (called Document Type Definitions or DTDs) and related tagging schemes with which to identify individual structural components within documents. Following SGML protocols, a user would define a document type (e.g., memo, procedure manual, book, journal article) and all the tags required to identify the structural components of that document type. SGML makes it possible to create electronic documents independent of any document processing system (e.g., word processor, typesetter) and subsequently to manipulate those documents for various purposes, e.g., print publication, interactive database, CD-ROM. Note: although SGML is often described as a "markup" language, the tags defined using SGML are not intended primarily to specify typographical features (e.g., italic, point, bullet), but to identify structural elements, such as chapter, appendix, author, heading, embedded quotation.

Related standards:

In the Association of American Publishers developed an SGML tag set for books and journals that was approved as ANSI/NISO Z

The U.S. federal government adopted ISO as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS Pub ) in In the late s the U.S. Department of Defense instituted its Computer Assisted Logistics System (CALS) under which it now requires contractors to deliver all documentation for weapons systems in electronic form with textual portions in SGML.

Archival applications:

[Note: Between and the Society of American Archivists developed the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) DTD for encoding archival finding aids using SGML.]

Document and tag set definition has potential application in the process of managing the components and the products of archival description, especially the components that might be outside the scope of MARC tagging (see Chapter 3). Just as important, if records creators adopted standard definition and tagging of documents in electronic form, the result could be "self-describing" records that are system independent, thus easier to manage over time.

Several efforts in allied professions also deserve attention. The Computer Interchange of Museum Information Committee (CIMI) suggests that SGML may provide a structure for exchanging data about museum collections. The Text Encoding Initiative is a internationally supported undertaking to create machine-readable versions of literary and other texts in standardized forms.

References:

Bearman, David. "Authority Control Issues and Prospects." American Archivist 52 (Summer ):

Dollar, Charles M., and Thomas E. Weir, Jr. "Archival Administration, Records Management and Computer Data Exchange Standards." In A Source Book of Standards Information, edited by Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell, Boston: G.K. Hall,

Goldfarb, Charles F. The SGML Handbook. New York: Oxford University Press,

McDonald, John. "Data and Document Interchange Standards: A View from the National Archives of Canada." In A Sourcebook of Standards Information, edited by Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell, Boston: G.K. Hall,

Reynolds, Louis R., and Steven J. Derose. "Electronic Books." Byte 17 (June ):

Wright, Haviland. "SGML Frees Information." Byte 17 (June ):


ANSI X12 suite
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

Available from ANSI.
See additional information below.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

ANSI chartered ASC X Accredited Standards Committee for Electronic Data Interchange in to develop and maintain EDI standards. The first EDI standards were published in Originally focused on purchase orders and invoices, the work has expanded to encompass a broad array of business transactions from price quotes to shipping. The Data Interchange Standards Association (DISA) serves as the secretariat for ASC X Nearly 60 industry-specific groups exist to advise DISA and promote use of EDI among their members. The Book and Serials Industry Systems Advisory Committees (BISAC and SISAC, respectively), serve closely allied groups. Many librarians are active in SISAC, selecting data elements and devising formats appropriate for ordering, invoicing, claiming, and canceling serials.

Scope and structure:

X12 is a suite of standards containing formats designed to meet the requirements of specific business transactions. By there were more than 30 specific standards with nearly more in development. Examples of approved standards include:

A common set of data elements available for use in each X12 standard is defined in ANSI X, Data Element Dictionary. Only a few basic data elements in each transaction set are mandatory, so that each user community that adopts an X12 standard to govern its transactions can specify those that are most essential to its needs.

Archival applications:

Some members of allied professions have begun exploring the potential of EDI, including serials librarians as described above through SISAC and the Computer Interchange of Museum Information Committee (CIMI) which suggests EDI may provide a structure for exchanging data about items loaned for exhibits.

No specific archival applications are known to exist, but two aspects of EDI bear watching. First, like SGML and OSI data exchange standards (see Chapter 2), EDI standards encourage the production of structured data that is system-independent, thus facilitating long-term access and use. Second, files created using EDI may, at least in part, "describe" themselves. EDI-structured files should have imbedded in them information about the content and function of the records that will be essential components of future archival description products.

Publication format and availability:

Individual X12 standards are not available separately. The collection of all X12 ANSI-approved standards for EDI is available from ANSI for $ Contact ANSI for additional information.

References:

Cargill, Carl F. Information Technology Standardization: Theory, Process, and Organizations. Bedford, MA: Digital Press,

Fisher, Sharon. "Moving Data Using EDI." Byte 16 (April ):

Paul, Sandra K. "Do We Have a Say in X12 Standards?" Information Standards Quarterly 4 (April ):

Santosuosso, Joe. "Accredited Standards Committee X12 October Meeting." Information Standards Quarterly 3 (January ):

"Serial Item Contribution Identifier: New SISAC Code." Computers in Libraries 13 (January ):


ALSO OF INTEREST

Arranged alphabetically.

ANSI/NISO Zx. Patron Record Data Elements (draft standard). Paper (50 p.). Available from NISO.

The Control of Records at the Record Group Level. National Archives Staff Information Paper Out of print.

Findings on Finding Aids. Mid Atlantic Regional Archives Conference. Brochure (6 p.). Available from MARAC.

The Manuscript Society Criteria for Describing Manuscripts and Documents [in manuscript dealers' catalogs]. The Manuscript Society. Paper ( 11 p.). Single copies available free of charge from the Manuscript Society.


Footnotes

1 It is important to remember that archivists in other countries have focused more attention on standards for other descriptive formats. See the discussion on standards efforts in Canada, Great Britain, and by the International Council on Archives in Chapter

2APPM, Rule For additional discussion of the context of cataloging within archival descriptive systems, see Fredric M. Miller, Arranging and Describing Archives and Manuscripts (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, ).

3APPM, Rule B1.

4 An annotated bibliography of repository processing and procedures manuals, originally compiled by Karen Paul, is included in Archival Forms Manual produced by the SAA Forms Manual Task Force (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, ).

5 Steven L. Hensen, "RAD, MAD, and APPM: The Search for Anglo-American Standards for Archival Description," Archives and Museum Informatics 5 (Summer ): 4.

6 Chadwyck-Healey began compiling microfiche reproductions of archival finding aids in the U.S. in the early s. See National Inventory of Documentary Sources in the U.S. (Teaneck, NJ, and Cambridge, England: Chadwyck-Healey, ). It is issued in four parts: Part 1, Federal Records; Part 2, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress; Part 3, State Archives, Libraries, and Historical Societies; and Part 4, Academic Libraries and Other Repositories. Parts 1 and 2 were reviewed by Lydia Lucas in the American Archivist 48 (Fall ): ; parts 3 and 4 were reviewed by Leon Stout in the American Archivist 51 (Winter and Spring ): Notably, the index compiled to accompany the microfiche uses headings based on LCSH.

7 Haviland Wright, "SGML Frees Information," Byte 17 (June ):

8 Michael B. Spring, Electronic Printing and Publishing: The Document Processing Revolution (New York: Marcel Dekker, ), 6.

9 See discussions in David Bearman and John Perkins, "Standards Framework for the Computer Interchange of Museum Information" (Museum Computer Network, ) also published in Spectra and 3 (); and John McDonald, "Data and Document Interchange Standards: A View from the National Archives of Canada," in A Sourcebook of Standards Information, eds. Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell (Boston: G.K. Hall, ), Another document structure standard they consider is the ISO suite of standards known as Office Document Architecture/Office Document Interchange Format (ODA/ODIF).


 

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