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Book now; Cost: £ per person per session, or £ if booked by 10th September; Tickets required: Yes; Venue: Hampshire Archives and Local Studies. Crack preparation. Hot air lance burner with compressor unit HLL comp · Hot air lance burner. GRÜN GmbH. Spezialmaschinenfabrik Siegener Str. 81 - The rout also extended into refined product markets. Benchmark US gasoline and heating oil crack spreads, a reflection of refining margins. cracking Archives

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Software cracking

Modification of software, often to use it for free

Software cracking (known as "breaking" mostly in the s[1]) is the modification of software to remove or disable features which are considered undesirable by the person cracking the software, especially copy protection features cracking Archives protection against the manipulation of software, cracking Archives number, hardware key, date checks and disc check) cracking Archives software annoyances like nag screens and adware.

A crack refers to the means of achieving, for example a stolen serial number or a tool that performs that act of cracking.[2] Some of these tools are called keygen, patch, or loader. A keygen is a handmade product serial number generator that often offers the ability to generate working serial numbers in your own name. A patch is a small computer program that modifies the machine code of another program. This has the advantage for a cracker to not include a large executable in a release when only a few bytes are changed.[3] A loader modifies the startup flow of a program and does not remove the protection but circumvents it.[4][5] A well-known example of a loader is a trainer used to cheat in games.[6]Fairlight pointed out in one of their .nfo files that these type of cracks are not allowed for warez scene game releases.[7][4][8] A nukewar has shown that the protection may not kick in at any point for it to be a valid crack.[9]

The distribution of cracked copies is illegal in most countries. There have been lawsuits over cracking software.[10] It might be legal to use cracked software in certain circumstances.[11] Educational resources for reverse engineering and software cracking are, however, legal and available in the form of Crackme programs.


The first software copy protection was applied to software for the Apple II,[12]Atari 8-bit family, cracking Archives, and Commodore 64 computers.[citation needed]. Software publishers have implemented increasingly complex methods in an effort to stop unauthorized copying of software.

On the Apple II, the operating system directly controls the step motor that moves the floppy drive head, and also directly interprets the raw data, called nibbles, read from each track to identify the data sectors. This allowed complex disk-based software copy protection, by storing data on half tracks (0, 1, cracking Archives,5, ), quarter tracks (0, 1,cracking Archives,5, ), and any combination thereof. In addition, tracks did not need to be perfect rings, but could be sectioned so that sectors could be staggered across overlapping offset tracks, the most extreme version being known as spiral tracking. It was also discovered that many floppy drives did not have a fixed upper limit to cracking Archives movement, and it was sometimes possible to write an additional 36th track above the normal 35 tracks. The standard Apple II copy programs could not read such protected floppy disks, since the standard DOS assumed that all disks had a uniform track, or sector layout. Special nibble-copy programs such as Locksmith and Copy II Plus could sometimes duplicate these disks by using a reference library of known protection methods; when protected programs were cracked they would be completely stripped of the copy protection system, and transferred onto a standard format disk that any normal Apple II copy program Download Sandboxie 5.44.1 Crack Archives read.

One of the primary routes to hacking these early copy protections was to run a program that simulates the normal CPU operation. The Cracking Archives simulator provides a number of extra features to the hacker, such as the ability to single-step through each processor instruction and to examine the Cracking Archives registers and modified memory spaces as the simulation runs (any modern disassembler/debugger can do this). The Apple II provided a built-in opcode disassembler, cracking Archives, allowing raw memory to be decoded into CPU opcodes, cracking Archives, and this would be utilized to examine what the copy-protection was about to do next, cracking Archives. Generally there was little to no defense available to the copy protection system, since all its secrets are made visible through the simulation. However, because the simulation itself must run on the original CPU, in addition to the software being hacked, the simulation would often run extremely slowly even at maximum speed.

On Atari 8-bit computers, cracking Archives, the most common protection method was via "bad sectors". These were sectors on the disk that were intentionally unreadable by the disk drive. The software would look for these sectors when the BurnAware Professional / Premium 14.7 Crack is Here [2021] was loading and would stop cracking Archives if an error code was not returned when accessing these sectors. Special copy programs were available that would copy the disk and remember any bad sectors. The user could then use an application to spin the drive by constantly cracking Archives a single sector and display the drive RPM. With the disk drive top removed a small screwdriver could be used to slow the drive RPM below a certain point. Once the drive was slowed down the application could then go and write "bad sectors" where needed, cracking Archives. When done the drive RPM was sped up back to normal and an uncracked copy was made. Of course cracking the software to cracking Archives good sectors made for readily copied disks without the need to meddle with the disk drive, cracking Archives. As time went on more sophisticated methods were developed, but almost all cracking Archives some form of malformed disk data, such as a sector that might return different data on separate accesses due to bad data cracking Archives. Products became available (from companies such as Happy Computers) which replaced the controller BIOS in Atari's "smart" drives. These upgraded cracking Archives allowed the user to make exact copies of the original program with copy protections in place on the new disk, cracking Archives.

On the Commodore 64, cracking Archives, several methods were used to protect software. For software distributed on ROM cartridges, subroutines were included which attempted to write over the cracking Archives code. If the software was on ROM, nothing would happen, but if the software had been moved to RAM, the software would be disabled, cracking Archives. Because of the operation of Commodore floppy drives, one write protection scheme would cause the floppy drive head to bang against the end of its rail, which could cause the drive head to become misaligned. In some cases, cracked versions of software were desirable to avoid this result. A misaligned drive head was rare cracking Archives fixing itself by smashing against the rail stops. Another brutal protection scheme was grinding from track 1 to 40 and back a few times.

Most of the early software crackers were computer hobbyists who often formed groups that competed against each other in the cracking and spreading of software. Breaking a new copy protection scheme as quickly as possible was often regarded as an opportunity to demonstrate one's technical superiority rather than a possibility of money-making. Some low skilled hobbyists would take already cracked software and edit various unencrypted strings of text in it to change messages a game would tell a game player, often something considered vulgar. Uploading the altered copies on file sharing networks provided a source of laughs for adult users. The cracker groups cracking Archives the s started to advertise themselves and their skills by attaching animated screens known as crack intros in the software programs they cracked and released. Once the technical competition had expanded from the challenges of cracking to the challenges of creating visually stunning intros, the foundations for a new subculture known as demoscene were established, cracking Archives. Demoscene cracking Archives to separate itself from the illegal "warez scene" during the s and is now regarded as a completely different subculture. Many software crackers have later grown into extremely capable software reverse engineers; the deep knowledge of assembly required in order to crack protections enables them to reverse engineerdrivers in order to port them from binary-only drivers for Windows to drivers with source code for Linux and other free operating systems. Also because music and game intro was such an integral part of gaming the music XenArmor Social Password Recovery Pro 2020 - June 2020 crack keygen and graphics became very popular when hardware became affordable for the home user.

With the rise of the Internet, software crackers developed secretive online organizations. In the latter half of the nineties, one of the most respected sources of information about "software protection reversing" was Fravia's website, cracking Archives.


The High Cracking University (+HCU) was founded by Cracking Archives Red Cracker (+ORC), considered a genius of reverse engineering and a legendary figure in RCE, to advance research into Reverse Code Engineering (RCE). He had also taught and authored many papers on the subject, and his texts are considered classics in the field and are mandatory reading for students of RCE.[13]

The addition of the "+" sign in front of the nickname of a reverser signified membership in the +HCU. Amongst the students of +HCU were the top of the elite Windows reversers worldwide.[13] +HCU published a new reverse engineering problem annually and a small number of respondents with the best replies qualified for an undergraduate position at the university.[13]

+Fravia was a professor at +HCU. Fravia's website was known as "+Fravia's Pages of Reverse Engineering" and he used it to challenge programmers as well as the wider cracking Archives to "reverse engineer" the "brainwashing of a corrupt and rampant materialism". In its heyday, his website received millions of visitors per year and its influence was "widespread".[13]

Nowadays most of the graduates of +HCU have migrated to Linux cracking Archives few have remained as Windows reversers. The information at the university has been rediscovered cracking Archives a new generation of researchers and practitioners of RCE who have started new research projects in the field.[13]


The most common software crack is the cracking Archives of an application's binary to cause or prevent a specific key branch in the program's execution. This is accomplished by reverse engineering the compiled program code using a debugger such as SoftICE,[14]x64dbg, OllyDbg,[15]GDB, or MacsBug until the software cracking Archives reaches the subroutine that contains the primary method of protecting the software (or by disassembling an executable file with a program such as IDA). The binary is then modified using the debugger or a hex editor or monitor in a manner that replaces a prior branching opcode with its complement or a NOPopcode so the key branch will either always execute a cracking Archives subroutine or skip over it. Almost all common software cracks are a variation of this type. Proprietary software developers are constantly developing techniques such as code obfuscation, encryption, and self-modifying code to make this modification increasingly difficult. Even with these measures being taken, developers struggle to combat software cracking. This is because it is very common for a professional to publicly release a simple cracked EXE cracking Archives Retrium Installer for public download, cracking Archives, eliminating the need for inexperienced users to crack the software themselves.

A specific example of this technique is a crack that removes the expiration period from a time-limited trial of an application. These cracks are usually programs that alter the program executable and sometimes the .dll or .so linked to the application. Similar cracks are available cracking Archives software that requires a hardware dongle. A company can also break the copy protection of programs that they have legally purchased but that are licensed to particular hardware, so that there is no risk of downtime due to hardware failure (and, of course, cracking Archives, no need to restrict oneself to running the software on bought hardware only).

Another method is the use of special software such as CloneCD to scan for the cracking Archives of a commercial copy protection application. After discovering the software used to protect the application, another tool may be used to remove the copy protection from the software on the CD or DVD. This may enable another program such as Cracking Archives %, cracking Archives, CloneDVD, Game Jackal, cracking Archives, or Daemon Tools to copy the protected software to a user's hard disk. Popular commercial copy protection applications which may be scanned for include SafeDisc and StarForce.[16]

In other cases, it might be possible to decompile a program in order to get access to the original source code or code on cracking Archives level higher than machine code. This is often possible with scripting languages and languages utilizing JIT compilation. An example is cracking (or debugging) on the .NET platform where one might consider manipulating CIL to achieve one's needs. Java'sbytecode also works in a similar fashion in which there is an intermediate language before the program is compiled to run on the platform dependent machine code.

Advanced reverse engineering for protections such as SecuROM, Cracking Archives, StarForce, or Denuvo requires a cracker, or many crackers to spend much more time cracking Archives the protection, cracking Archives, eventually finding every flaw within the protection code, and then coding their own tools to "unwrap" the protection automatically from executable (.EXE) and library (.DLL) files.

There are a number of sites on the Internet that let users download cracks produced by warez groups for popular games and applications (although at the danger of acquiring cracking Archives software that is sometimes distributed via such sites).[17] Although these cracks are used by legal buyers of software, they can also be used by people who have downloaded or otherwise obtained unauthorized copies (often through P2P networks).

See also[edit]


  1. ^Kevelson, Morton (October ), cracking Archives. "Isepic". Ahoy!. pp.&#;71– Retrieved June 27,
  2. ^Tulloch, Mitch (). Microsoft Encyclopedia of Security(PDF). Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Cracking Archives. p.&#; ISBN&#.
  3. ^Craig, Paul; Ron, cracking Archives, Mark (April ). "Chapter 4: Crackers". In Burnett, Mark (ed.). Software Piracy Exposed - Secrets from the Dark Side Revealed. Publisher: Andrew Williams, Page Layout and Art: Patricia Lupien, cracking Archives, Acquisitions Editor: Jaime Quigley, Copy Editor: Judy Eby, Technical Editor: Mark Burnett, Indexer: Nara Wood, Cover Designer: Michael Kavish, cracking Archives. United States of America: Syngress Publishing. pp.&#;75– doi/B/ ISBN&#.
  4. ^ abFLT (January 22, ). "The_Sims_3_70s_80s_and_90s_Stuff-FLT".
  5. ^Shub-Nigurrath [ARTeam]; ThunderPwr [ARTeam] (January ). "Cracking with Loaders: Theory, General Approach, and a Framework". CodeBreakers Magazine. Universitas-Virtualis Research Project. 1 (1).
  6. ^Nigurrath, Shub (May ). "Guide on how to play with processes memory, writing loaders, and Oraculumns". CodeBreakers Magazine. Universitas-Virtualis Research Project. 1 (2).
  7. ^FLT (September 29, ). "Test_Drive_Ferrari_Legends_PROPER-FLT".
  8. ^SKIDROW (January 21, ). "".
  9. ^" nukewar". December 2, Archived from the original on September 13,
  10. ^Cheng, Jacqui (September 27, ). "Microsoft files lawsuit over DRM crack". Ars Technica.
  11. ^Fravia (November ). "Is reverse engineering legal?".
  12. ^Pearson, Jordan (July 24, ). "Programmers Are Racing to Save Apple II Software Before It Goes Extinct". Motherboard. Archived from the original on September 27, cracking Archives, Retrieved January 27,
  13. ^ abcdeCyrus Peikari; Anton Chuvakin (January 12, ). Security Warrior, cracking Archives. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.", cracking Archives. p.&#; ISBN&#.
  14. ^Ankit, cracking Archives, Jain; Jason, Kuo; Jordan, Soet; Brian, Tse (April ). "Software Cracking (April )"(PDF), cracking Archives. The University of British Columbia - Electrical and Computer Engineering. Retrieved January 27,
  15. ^Wójcik, Bartosz. "Reverse engineering tools review". PELock. Archived from the original on September 13, Retrieved February 16,
  16. ^Gamecopyworld Howto
  17. ^McCandless, David (April 1, ). "Warez Wars". Wired. ISSN&#; Retrieved February 4, cracking Archives,
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Explicit modelling of cracking induced by drying shrinkage

Abstract : The prediction of the durability of a concrete structure is closely linked to the prediction of cracking at its early age. Indeed, differential drying between the surface and the core of the structure leads to a heterogeneous stress state and can induce significant micro-cracking at the surface [1, cracking Archives, 2]. These micro-cracks will impact not only the mechanical properties but also the permeability of the structure [3]. In this study, a sequential analysis is proposed to represent the drying evolution and the corresponding cracking pattern. First, Finite Elements calculations are used to perform drying simulations and obtain drying shrinkage strains. Then, a beam-particle model is applied to obtain the deformation shape and the cracking pattern. Indeed, this Discrete Elements model is designed to describe discontinuous mediums and thus can naturally predict crack initiation as well as their propagation and closing [4]. This analysis allows us cracking Archives accurately model the cracking induced by drying shrinkage. The dried specimens can then be subjected cracking Archives various numerical tests in order to analyse the impact of drying effects on concrete cracking Archives properties – such as the Young modulus, the tensile and compressive strength and the fracture energy, cracking Archives. The cracking Archives of shrinkage on the cracks formation and re-closure appearing during the mechanical loading can also be investigated. These numerical studies will benefit from an experimental campaign performed cracking Archives parallel.
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    I bridge crack likely went undetected since the span was fabricated in s, report finds

    LITTLE ROCK Cracking Archives. — A crack in a steel beam that forced the closure of the Interstate 40 bridge connecting Arkansas and Tennessee for three months likely began when the span was fabricated in the s and went undetected for years, a report by Arkansas’ Transportation Department released Thursday said.

    A forensic investigation by an outside firm hired by the department said the crack occurred in a weld between two plates during the bridge’s fabrication, cracking Archives. Those welds were more susceptible to cracking because of the type cracking Archives steel and welding method used then, cracking Archives, the department said.

    “In all likelihood, cracking Archives, the cracking in the weld occurred within hours of its completion but was not detected by any post-weld repair fabrication testing and remained unchanged for a number of years,” the department’s report said.

    The crack had been visible inand an inspector who had missed it was fired by the department in May. Cracking Archives report said the weld fracture initially was not visible by conventional inspection and was not caught by an ultrasonic inspection in

    The I bridge spanning the Mississippi River was shut down May 11 after inspectors found the crack in one of two foot (meter) horizontal steel beams critical to the bridge’s structural integrity, cracking Archives. Road traffic had been diverted to the nearby Interstate 55 bridge — about 3 miles ( kilometers) south of cracking Archives I bridge — during the I bridge’s repairs. The bridge fully reopened in August.

    The department released the forensic investigation, its review of the crack and a review conducted by the Federal Highway Administration as it announced changes to its bridge inspection program. The U.S. Department of Transportation’s inspector general is also conducting an investigation and has interviewed Arkansas bridge inspection employees.

    “We will now move forward with confidence and make the changes necessary to improve our program so that the past will not be repeated,” Arkansas DOT Director Lorie Tudor said in a statement.

    The problems with the weld were not detected when ultrasonic testing was performed on the bridge’s girder welds in because of defects found with similar bridges. The initial fracture occurred on the interior face of the box where it was not visible by conventional cracking Archives. The report said the fracture spread in phases, starting with the weld, until it was discovered in May.

    A department spokesman said two officials with the inspection program — state heavy bridge maintenance engineer Michael Hill and staff engineer Stewart Linz — retired Wednesday. The department said it was placing its heavy bridge maintenance section under new management and is reorganizing the inspection program.

    The reports and the retirements were first reported Thursday by the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette.

    The fired inspector had missed the crack in, and Another inspector who had missed the crack in had never inspected that portion of the bridge before, and the cracking Archives said he has been “verbally counselled” and will receive additional training.

    The department’s report said the agency’s failure to adequately respond to employees concerned with the fired inspector’s job performance “perpetuated a culture where team members did not feel they had the authority or support to question a lead inspector’s procedures or thoroughness.”

    The department also said under its changes that “fracture critical” bridges like the I span will not be inspected cracking Archives the same person consecutively.

    I runs from North Carolina cracking Archives California. Manufacturers and shippers rely on the interstate cracking Archives move products and materials across the Mississippi River. About 50, vehicles typically cracking Archives across the bridge in a day. Arkansas is responsible for the bridge’s inspections and Tennessee is responsible for maintenance and repairs.

    The closure was expensive for the trucking industry, with the Arkansas Trucking Association at one point cracking Archives the closure cost the industry about $2 million a day.

    Arkansas said the repairs to the bridge and inspections following the closure cost $10 cracking Archives Arkansas report said it was “highly unlikely” that a similar crack would occur on the bridge, but said the bridge’s welds will continue to be inspected at arm’s length and that ultrasonic testing should be done periodically.

    Источник: []

    Oil reports major price drop as more lockdowns loom

    Oil logged its biggest weekly drop since August as Europe’s worsening COVID crisis renewed the prospect of lockdowns just as key consuming nations look to add emergency supply to the market.

    West Texas Intermediate (WTI) for December delivery lost percent to US$ a barrel, diving 6 percent from a week earlier.

    Brent crude for January delivery skidded percent to US$ a barrel, cracking Archives, posting a 4 percent weekly decline.

    Photo: Reuters

    The wave of infections in Europe is growing, once again raising the prospect of mobility restrictions that would hit oil cracking Archives. Austria imposed a lockdown, while Germany introduced some restrictions.

    The concerns come as the oil market fixates on the prospect of releases from strategic crude reserves by the US and China.

    China said on Thursday it was working on one, while YuSuF2s_CeNTeR HaCk ProGRaMs crack serial keygen US has repeatedly said the option to tap its Strategic Petroleum Reserves remains on the table.

    “It’s a potent one-two cracking Archives for the petroleum complex, when there is a looming supply burst combined with a hit to demand from the virus,” Again Capital LLC founding partner John Kilduff said.

    After rising to its highest in seven years, oil has faltered over the past month, even as OPEC and its allies stuck with a cautious approach to restoring output.

    Alarmed by surging gasoline costs, US President Joe Biden tried and failed to get the OPEC+ group to deliver more crude and then pivoted to a cracking Archives release from the US’ Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    Potential weakness in China’s economy has also cracking Archives to the bearish factors.

    Despite the renewed demand fears, Friday’s sell-off might have been overdone, said Goldman analysts, including Damien Courvalin and Callum Bruce.

    High-frequency inventory data points to a supply-demand imbalance of about 2 million barrels per day over the past four weeks, with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development crude and Atlantic basin at seven-year lows.

    “This magnitude of deficit is in fact on its own sufficient to absorb the MediaMonkey Gold 5 Serial Key perceived headwinds to the oil bull thesis, with lower prices in fact reducing the odds of a strategic release,” they said in a note.

    Meanwhile, the so-called prompt WTI spread continued to narrow as supplies grow at the Cushing, Oklahoma, cracking Archives, hub. The January contract settled at a US$ premium to February futures, the smallest premium since the middle of last month.

    The rout also extended into refined product markets. Benchmark US gasoline and heating oil crack spreads, a reflection of refining margins, slumped more than 5 percent each, while Europe’s diesel crack also fell sharply.

    Some traders were still placing bullish bets cracking Archives the options markets. Contracts that would profit a buyer from a rally toward US$ traded on Thursday for the second week. While relatively cheap, such bets protect against a potential spike in prices.

    Additional reporting by staff writer

    Comments will be moderated. Keep comments relevant to the article. Remarks containing abusive and obscene language, personal attacks of any kind or promotion will be removed and the user banned. Final decision will be at the discretion of the Taipei Cracking Archives.
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    Artificial Intelligence Is Cracking Open the Vatican's Secret Archives

    The Vatican Secret Archives is one of the grandest historical collections in the world. It’s also one of cracking Archives most useless.

    The grandeur is obvious. Located within the Vatican’s walls, next door to the Apostolic Library and just north of the Sistine Chapel, the VSA houses 53 linear miles of shelving dating back more than 12 centuries. It includes gems like the papal bull that excommunicated Martin Luther and the pleas for help that Mary Queen of Scots sent cracking Archives Pope Sixtus V before her execution. In size and scope, cracking Archives, the collection is almost peerless.

    That said, the VSA isn’t much use to modern scholars, because it’s so inaccessible. Of those 53 miles, cracking Archives, just a cracking Archives millimeters’ worth of pages have been scanned and made available online. Even fewer pages have been transcribed into computer text and made searchable. If you want to peruse anything else, you have to apply for special access, schlep all the way to Rome, cracking Archives go through every page by hand.

    But a new project could change all that. Known as In Codice Ratio, it uses a combination of artificial intelligence and optical-character-recognition (OCR) software to scour these neglected texts and make their transcripts available for the very first time, cracking Archives. If successful, the technology could also open up untold numbers of other documents at historical archives around the world.

    OCR has been used to scan books and other printed documents for years, but it’s not well suited for the material in the Secret Archives. Cracking Archives OCR breaks words down into a series of cracking Archives by looking for the spaces between letters. It then compares each letter-image to the bank of letters in its memory, cracking Archives. After deciding cracking Archives letter best matches the image, the software translates the letter into computer code (ASCII) and thereby makes the text searchable.

    This process, however, really only works on typeset text. It’s lousy for anything written by hand—like the vast majority of old Vatican documents. Here’s an example from the early s, written in what’s called Caroline minuscule script, which looks like a mix of calligraphy and cursive:

    The main problem in this example is the lack of space between letters (so-called dirty segmentation). OCR can’t tell where one letter stops and another starts, cracking Archives, and therefore doesn’t know how many letters there are. The result is a computational deadlock, sometimes referred to as Sayre’s paradox: OCR software needs to segment a word into individual letters before it can recognize them, cracking Archives, but in handwritten texts with connected letters, the software needs to recognize the letters in order to segment them. It’s a catch

    Some computer scientists have tried to get around this problem by developing OCR to recognize whole words instead of letters. This works fine technologically—computers don’t “care” whether they’re parsing words or letters. But getting these systems up and running is a bear, because they require gargantuan memory banks. Rather than a few dozen alphabet letters, these systems have to recognize images of thousands upon thousands of common words. Which means you need a whole platoon of scholars with expertise in medieval Latin to go through old documents and capture images of each word, cracking Archives. In fact, you need several images cracking Archives each, to account for quirks in handwriting or bad lighting and other variables. It’s a daunting task.

    In Cracking Archives Ratio sidesteps these problems through a new approach to handwritten OCR, cracking Archives. The four main scientists behind the project—Paolo Merialdo, Donatella Firmani, and Elena Nieddu at Roma Tre University, cracking Archives Marco Maiorino at the VSA—skirt Sayre’s paradox with an innovation called jigsaw cracking Archives. This process, as the team recently outlined in a paper, breaks words down not into letters but something closer to individual pen strokes. The OCR does this by dividing each word into a series of vertical and horizontal bands and looking for local minimums—the thinner portions, cracking Archives, where there’s less ink (or really, fewer pixels). The software then carves the letters at these joints. The end result is a series of jigsaw pieces:

    By themselves, the jigsaw pieces aren’t tremendously useful. But the software can chunk them together in various ways to make possible letters. It just needs to know which groups of chunks represent real letters and which are bogus.

    To teach the software this, cracking Archives, the researchers turned to an unusual source of help: high schoolers. The team recruited students at 24 schools in Italy to build the projects’ memory banks. The students logged onto a website, where they found a screen with three sections:

    The green bar along the top contains nice, clean examples of letters from a medieval Latin text—in this case, the letter g. The red bar in the middle contains spurious examples of g, what the Codice scientists call “false friends.” The grid at the bottom is the meat of the program. Each of the images there is composed of a few jigsaw pieces that the OCR software chunked together—its guess at a plausible letter. The students then judged the OCR’s efforts, telling it which guesses were good and which were bad. They did so by comparing each image to the platonically perfect green letters and clicking a checkbox when they saw a match.

    Image by image, click by click, cracking Archives, the students taught the software what each of the 22 characters in the medieval Latin alphabet (ai, lu, plus some alternative forms of s and d) looks like.

    The setup did require some expert input: Scholars had to pick out the perfect examples in green, as well as the false friends in red. But once they did this, cracking Archives, there was no more need for them. The students didn’t even need to be able to read Latin. All they had to do is match visual patterns. At first, “the idea of involving high-school students was considered foolish,” says Merialdo, who dreamed up In Codice Ratio. “But now the machine is learning thanks to their efforts. I like that a small and simple contribution by many people can indeed contribute to the solution of a complex problem.”

    Eventually, of course, the students stepped aside as well, cracking Archives. Once they’d voted yes on enough examples, cracking Archives, the software started chunking jigsaw pieces together independently and judging for itself what letters were there, cracking Archives. The software itself became an expert—it became artificially intelligent.

    At cracking Archives, sort of. It turned out that chunking jigsaw pieces into plausible letters wasn’t enough. The computer still needed additional tools to untangle the knots of handwritten text. Imagine you’re reading a letter, and you come across this line:

    Is it “clear” to them or “dear” to them? Hard to say, since the strokes that make up “d” and “cl” are virtually the same. OCR software faces the same problem, especially with a cracking Archives stylized script like Caroline minuscule. Try deciphering this word:

    After running through different jigsaw combinations, the OCR threw up its hands. Guesses included aimo, amio, aniio, aiino, cracking Archives even cracking Archives Old MacDonald’s Farm–ish aiiiio. The word is anno, Latin for “year,” and the software nailed the a and o. But those four parallel columns in the middle flummoxed it.

    To get around this problem, the In Codice Ratio team had to teach their software some common sense—practical intelligence. They found a corpus of million already-digitized Latin words, and examined them in two- and three-letter combinations. From this, they determined which combinations of letters are common, and which never occur. The OCR software could then use those statistics to assign probabilities to different strings of letters. As a result, the software learned that nn is far more likely than iiii.

    With this refinement in place, the OCR was finally ready to read some texts on its own, cracking Archives. The team decided to feed it some documents from the Vatican Registers, a more than 18,page subset of the Secret Archives consisting of letters to European kings, rulings on legal matters, and other correspondence.

    The initial results were mixed. In texts transcribed so far, a full one-third of the words contained one or more typos, places where the OCR guessed the wrong letter. If yov were tryinj to read those lnies in a bock, that would gct very aiiiioying. (The most common typos involved m/n/i confusion and another commonly confused pair: the letter f and an Adobe XD CC 2020 Crack v24.2.22 Multilingual (x64) [Newest], elongated form of s.) Still, the software got 96 percent of all handwritten letters correct. And even “imperfect transcriptions can provide enough information and context about the manuscript at hand” to be useful, says Merialdo.

    Like all artificial intelligence, the software will improve over time, as it digests more text. Even more exciting, the general strategy of In Codice Ratio—jigsaw segmentation, plus crowdsourced training of the software—could easily be adapted to read texts in other languages. This could potentially do for handwritten documents what Google Books did for printed matter: open up letters, journals, diaries, and other papers to researchers around the world, making it far easier to both read these documents and search for relevant material.

    That said, relying on artificial intelligence does have limitations, says Rega Wood, cracking Archives, a historian of philosophy and paleographer (expert on ancient handwriting) at Indiana University. It “will be problematic for manuscripts that are not professionally written but copied by nonprofessionals,” she says, since the handwriting and letter shapes will vary far more in those documents, making it harder to teach the OCR. In addition, in cases where there’s only a small sample size of material to work with, “it is cracking Archives only more accurate, but just as quick to make transcriptions without such cracking Archives Dan Brown, the “secret” in the Vatican Secret Archives’ name doesn’t refer to anything clandestine or conspiratorial. It cracking Archives means that the archives are the personal property of the pope; “private archives” would probably be a better translation of the original name, Archivum Secretum, cracking Archives. Still, until recently, the VSA might as well have been secret to most of the world—locked away and largely inaccessible. “It is amazing for us to bring these manuscripts back to life,” Merialdo says, “and make their comprehension available to everybody.”

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