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Automatic general-purpose device for performing arithmetic or logical operations

For other uses, see Computer (disambiguation).

A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry outsequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as programs. These programs enable computers to perform a wide range of tasks. A computer system is a "complete" computer that includes the hardware, operating system (main software), and peripheral equipment needed and used for "full" operation. This term may also refer to a group of computers that are linked and function together, such as a computer network or computer cluster.

A broad range of industrial and consumer products use computers as control systems. Simple special-purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls are included, as are factory devices like industrial robots and computer-aided design, as well as general-purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices like smartphones. Computers power the Internet, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, which links hundreds of millions of other computers and users.

Early computers were meant to be used only for calculations. Simple manual instruments like the abacus have aided people in doing calculations since ancient times. PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The first semiconductortransistors in the late s were followed by the silicon-based MOSFET (MOS transistor) and monolithic integrated circuit (IC) chip technologies in the late s, leading to the microprocessor and the microcomputer revolution in the s. The speed, power and versatility of computers have been increasing dramatically ever since then, with transistor counts increasing at a rapid pace (as predicted by Moore's law), leading to the Digital Revolution during the late 20th to early 21st centuries.

Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) in the form of a microprocessor, along with some type of computer memory, typically semiconductor memory chips. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screens, printers, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the s-era touchscreen). Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.


A human computer.
A human computer, with microscope and calculator,

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of computer was in a book called The Yong Mans Gleanings by the English writer Richard Braithwait: "I haue [sic] read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer [sic] breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a short number." This usage of the term referred to a human computer, a person who carried out calculations or computations. The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. During the latter part of this period women were often hired as computers because they could be paid less than their male counterparts. Bymost human computers were women.

The Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of computer in the s, meaning 'one who calculates'; this is an "agent noun from compute (v.)". The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean "'calculating machine' (of any type) is from " The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the "modern use" of the term, to PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen 'programmable digital electronic computer' dates from " under this name; [in a] theoretical [sense] fromas Turing machine".[3]


Main articles: History of computing hardware and History of computing

Preth century

Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with fingers. The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick. Later record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi (clay spheres, cones, etc.) which represented counts of items, probably livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers.[4][5] The use of counting rods is one example.

The Chinese suanpan(算盘). The number represented on this abacusis Ashampoo Burning Studio Incl. Full Crack abacus was initially used for arithmetic tasks. The Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as BC. Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, and markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money.[6]

The Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog computer, according to Derek J. de Solla Price.[7] It was designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was discovered in in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, and has been dated to c.&#; BC. Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later.

Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use. The planisphere was a star chart invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century.[8] The astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic world in either the 1st or 2nd centuries BC and is often attributed to Hipparchus. A combination of the planisphere and dioptra, the astrolabe was effectively an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy. An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer[9][10] and gear-wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan, Persia in [11]Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the first mechanical geared lunisolar calendar astrolabe,[12] an early fixed-wired knowledge processing machine[13] with a gear train and gear-wheels,[14]c.&#; AD.

The sector, a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, multiplication and division, and for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in the late 16th century and found application in gunnery, surveying and navigation.

The planimeter was a manual instrument to calculate the area of a closed figure by tracing over it with a mechanical linkage.

The slide rule was invented around – by the English clergyman William Oughtred, shortly after the publication of the concept of the logarithm. It is a hand-operated analog computer for doing multiplication and division. As slide rule development progressed, added scales provided reciprocals, squares and square roots, cubes and cube roots, as well as transcendental functions such as logarithms and exponentials, circular and hyperbolictrigonometry and other functions. Slide rules with special scales are still used for quick performance of routine calculations, such as the E6B circular slide rule used for time and distance calculations on light aircraft.

In the s, Pierre Jaquet-Droz, a Swiss watchmaker, built a mechanical doll (automaton) that could write holding a quill pen. By switching the number and order of its internal wheels different letters, and hence different messages, could be produced. In effect, it could be mechanically "programmed" to read instructions. Along with two other complex machines, the doll is at the Musée d'Art et d'Histoire of Neuchâtel, Switzerland, and still operates.[15]

In –, mathematician and engineer Giovanni Plana devised a Perpetual Calendar machine, which, though a system of pulleys and cylinders and over, could predict the perpetual calendar for every year from AD&#;0 (that is, 1&#;BC) to AD&#;, keeping track of leap years and varying day length. The tide-predicting machine invented by the Scottish scientist Sir William Thomson in was of great utility to navigation in shallow waters. It used a system of pulleys and wires to automatically calculate predicted tide levels for a set period at a particular location.

The differential analyser, a mechanical analog computer designed to solve differential equations by integration, used wheel-and-disc mechanisms to perform the integration. InSir William Thomson had already discussed the possible construction of such calculators, but he had been stymied by the limited output torque of the ball-and-disk integrators.[16] In a differential analyzer, the output of one integrator drove the input of the next integrator, or a graphing output. The torque amplifier was the advance that allowed these machines to work. Starting in the s, Vannevar Bush and others developed mechanical differential analyzers.

First computer

Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer and polymath, originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered the "father of the computer",[17] he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century. After working on his revolutionary difference engine, designed to aid in navigational calculations, in he realized that a much more general design, an Analytical Engine, was possible. The input of programs and data was to be provided to the machine via punched cards, a method being used at the time to direct mechanical looms such as the Jacquard loom. For output, the machine would have a printer, a curve plotter and a PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen. The machine would also be able to punch numbers onto cards to be read in later. The Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit, control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops, and integrated memory, making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete.[18][19]

The machine was about a century ahead of its time. All the parts for his machine had to be made by hand&#;– this was a major problem for a device with thousands of parts. Eventually, the project was dissolved with the decision of the British Government to cease funding. Babbage's failure to complete the analytical engine can be chiefly attributed to political and financial difficulties as well as his desire to develop an increasingly sophisticated computer and to move ahead faster than anyone else could follow. Nevertheless, his son, Henry Babbage, completed a simplified version of the analytical engine's computing unit (the mill) in He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in

Analog computers

Main article: Analog computer

During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.[20] The first modern analog computer was a tide-predicting machine, invented by Sir William Thomson (later to become Lord Kelvin) in The differential analyser, a mechanical analog computer designed to solve differential equations by integration using wheel-and-disc mechanisms, was conceptualized in by James Thomson, the elder brother of the more famous Sir William Thomson.[16]

The art of mechanical analog computing reached its zenith with the differential analyzer, built by H. L. Hazen and Vannevar Bush at MIT starting in This built on the mechanical integrators of James Thomson and the torque amplifiers invented by H. W. Nieman. A dozen of these devices were built before their obsolescence became obvious. By the s, the success of digital electronic computers had spelled the end for most analog computing machines, but analog computers remained in use during the s in some specialized applications such as education (slide rule) and aircraft (control systems).

Digital computers


Bythe United States Navy had developed an electromechanical analog computer small enough to use aboard a submarine. This was the Torpedo Data Computer, which used trigonometry to solve the problem of firing a torpedo at a moving target. During World War II similar devices were developed in other countries as well.

Replica of Zuse's Z3, the first fully automatic, digital (electromechanical) computer.

Early digital computers were electromechanical; electric switches drove mechanical relays to perform the calculation. These devices PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen a low operating speed and were eventually superseded by much faster all-electric computers, originally using vacuum tubes. The Z2, created by German engineer Konrad Zuse inwas one of the earliest examples of an electromechanical relay computer.[21]

InZuse followed his earlier machine up with the Z3, the world's first working electromechanical programmable, fully automatic digital computer.[22][23] The Z3 was built with relays, implementing a 22&#;bitword length that operated at a clock frequency of about 5–10&#;Hz.[24] Program code was supplied on punched film while data could be stored in 64 words of memory or supplied from the keyboard. It was quite similar to modern machines in some respects, pioneering numerous advances such as floating point numbers. Rather than the harder-to-implement decimal system (used in Charles Babbage's earlier design), using a binary system meant that Zuse's machines were easier to build and potentially more Kohan: Ahrimans Gift crack serial keygen, given the technologies available at that time.[25] The Z3 was not itself a universal Jogos de Experiência de Graça para Baixar but could be extended to be Turing complete.[26][27]

Vacuum tubes and digital electronic circuits

Purely electronic circuit elements soon replaced their mechanical and electromechanical equivalents, at the same time that digital calculation replaced analog. The engineer Tommy Flowers, working at the Post Office Research Station in London in the s, began to explore the possible use of electronics for the telephone exchange. Experimental equipment that he built in went into operation five years later, converting a portion of the telephone exchange network into an electronic data processing system, using thousands of vacuum tubes.[20] In the US, John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford E. Berry of Iowa State University developed and tested the Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) in ,[28] the first "automatic electronic digital computer".[29] This design was also all-electronic and used about vacuum tubes, with capacitors fixed in a mechanically rotating drum for memory.[30]

During World War II, the British code-breakers at Bletchley Park achieved a number of successes at breaking encrypted German military communications. The German encryption machine, Enigma, was first attacked with the help of the electro-mechanical bombes which were often run by women.[31][32] To crack the more sophisticated German Lorenz SZ 40/42 machine, used for high-level Army communications, Max Newman and his colleagues commissioned Flowers to build the Colossus.[30] He spent eleven months from early February designing and building the first Colossus.[33] After a functional test in DecemberColossus was shipped to Bletchley Park, where it was delivered on 18 January [34] and attacked its first message on 5 February.[30]

Colossus was the world's first electronicdigitalprogrammable computer.[20] It used a large number of valves (vacuum tubes). It had paper-tape input and was capable of being configured to perform a variety of boolean logical operations on its data, but it was not Turing-complete. Nine Mk II Colossi were built (The Mk I was converted to a Mk II making ten machines in total), PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen. Colossus Mark I contained 1, thermionic valves (tubes), but Mark II with 2, valves, was both five times faster and simpler to operate than Mark I, greatly speeding the decoding process.[35][36]

ENIACwas the first electronic, Turing-complete device, and performed ballistics trajectory calculations for the United States Army.

The ENIAC[37] (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first electronic programmable computer built in the U.S. Although the ENIAC was similar to the Colossus, it was much faster, more flexible, and it was Turing-complete. Like the Colossus, a "program" on the ENIAC was defined by the states of its patch cables and switches, a far cry from the stored program electronic machines that came later. Once a program was written, it had to be mechanically set into the machine with manual resetting of plugs and switches, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen. The programmers of the ENIAC were six women, often known collectively as the "ENIAC girls".

It combined the high speed of electronics with the ability to be programmed for many complex problems. It could add or subtract times a second, a PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen times faster than any other machine. It also had modules to multiply, divide, and square root. High speed memory was limited to 20 words (about 80 bytes). Built under the direction of John Mauchly and J. Presper Topaz Sharpen AI 3.2.2 Full Version at the University of Pennsylvania, ENIAC's development and construction lasted from to full operation at the end of The machine was huge, weighing 30 tons, using kilowatts of electric power and contained over 18, vacuum tubes, 1, relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors.[40]

Modern computers

Concept of modern computer

The principle of the modern computer was proposed by Alan Turing in his seminal paper,[41]On Computable Numbers. Turing proposed a simple device that he called "Universal Computing machine" and that is now known as a universal Turing machine. He proved that such a machine is capable of computing anything that is computable by executing instructions (program) stored on tape, allowing the machine to be programmable. The fundamental concept of Turing's design is the stored program, where all the instructions for computing are stored in memory. Von Neumann acknowledged that the central concept of the modern computer was due to this paper.[42] Turing machines are to this day a central object of study in theory of computation. Except for the limitations imposed by their finite memory stores, modern computers are said to be Turing-complete, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, which PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen to say, they have algorithm execution capability equivalent to a universal Turing machine.

Stored programs

Main article: Stored-program computer

Early computing machines had fixed programs. Changing its function required the re-wiring and re-structuring of the machine.[30] With the proposal of the stored-program computer this changed. A stored-program computer includes by design an instruction set and can store in memory a set of instructions (a program) that details the computation. The theoretical basis for the stored-program computer was laid by Alan Turing in his paper. InTuring joined the National Physical Laboratory and began work on developing an electronic stored-program digital computer. His report "Proposed Electronic Calculator" was the first specification for such a device. John von Neumann at the University of Pennsylvania also circulated his First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC in [20]

The Manchester Baby was the world's first stored-program computer. It was built at the University of Manchester in England by Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn and Geoff Tootill, and ran its first program on 21 June [43] It was designed as a testbed for the Williams tube, the first random-access digital storage device.[44] Although the computer was considered "small and primitive" by the standards of its time, it was the first working machine to contain all of the elements essential to a modern electronic computer.[45] As soon as the Baby had demonstrated the feasibility of its design, a project was initiated at the university to develop it into a more usable computer, the Manchester Mark 1. Grace Hopper was the first person to develop a compiler for programming language.

The Mark 1 in turn quickly became the prototype for the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose computer.[46] Built by Ferranti, it was delivered to the University of Manchester in February At least seven of these later machines were delivered between andone of them to Shell labs in Amsterdam.[47] In Octoberthe directors of British catering company J. Lyons & Company decided to take an active role in promoting the commercial development of computers. The LEO I computer became operational in April [48] and ran the world's first regular routine office computer job.


Main articles: Transistor and History of the transistor

Further information: Transistor computer and MOSFET

The concept of a field-effect transistor was proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, while working under William Shockley at Bell Labs, built the first working transistor, the point-contact transistor, inwhich was followed by Shockley's bipolar junction transistor in [49][50] From onwards, transistors replaced vacuum tubes in computer designs, giving rise to the "second generation" of computers. Compared to vacuum tubes, transistors have many advantages: they are smaller, and require less power than vacuum tubes, so give off less heat. Junction transistors were much more reliable than vacuum tubes and had longer, indefinite, service life. Transistorized computers could contain tens of thousands of binary logic circuits in a relatively compact space. However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications.[51]

At the University of Manchester, a team under the leadership of Tom Kilburn designed and built a machine using the newly developed transistors instead of valves.[52] Their first transistorised computer and the first in the world, was operational byand a second version was completed there in April However, the machine did make use of valves to generate its &#;kHz clock waveforms and in the circuitry to read and write on its magnetic drum memory, so it was not the first completely transistorized computer. That distinction goes to the Harwell CADET of ,[53] built by the electronics division of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell.[53][54]

MOSFET(MOS transistor), showing gate(G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink).

The metal–oxide–silicon field-effect transistor (MOSFET), also known as the MOS transistor, was invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in [55] It was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses.[51] With its high scalability,[56] and much lower power consumption and higher density than bipolar junction transistors,[57] the MOSFET made it possible to build high-density integrated circuits.[58][59] In addition to data processing, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, it also enabled the practical use of MOS transistors as memory cell storage elements, leading to the development of MOS semiconductor memory, which replaced earlier magnetic-core memory in computers. The MOSFET led to the microcomputer revolution,[60] and became the driving force behind the computer revolution.[61][62] The MOSFET is the most widely used transistor in computers,[63][64] and is the fundamental building block of digital electronics.[65]

Integrated circuits

Main articles: Integrated circuit and Invention of the integrated circuit

Further information: Planar process and Microprocessor

The next great advance in computing power came with the advent of the integrated circuit (IC). The idea of the integrated circuit was first conceived by a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the Ministry of Defence, Geoffrey W.A. Dummer. Dummer presented the first public description of an integrated circuit at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington,&#;D.C. on 7 May [66]

The first working ICs were invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor.[67] Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in Julysuccessfully demonstrating the first working integrated example on 12 September [68] In his patent application of 6 FebruaryKilby described his new device as "a body of semiconductor material&#; wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are completely integrated".[69][70] However, Kilby's invention was a hybrid integrated circuit (hybrid IC), rather than a monolithic integrated circuit (IC) chip.[71] Kilby's IC had external wire connections, which made it difficult to mass-produce.[72]

Noyce also came up with his own idea of an integrated circuit half a year later than Kilby.[73] Noyce's invention was the first true monolithic IC chip.[74][72] His chip solved many practical problems that Kilby's had not. Produced at Fairchild Semiconductor, it was made of silicon, whereas Kilby's chip was made of germanium. Noyce's monolithic IC was fabricated using the planar process, developed by his colleague Jean Hoerni in early In turn, the planar process was based on Mohamed M. Atalla's work on semiconductor surface passivation by silicon dioxide in the late s.[75][76][77]

Modern monolithic ICs are predominantly MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) integrated circuits, built from MOSFETs (MOS transistors).[78] The earliest experimental MOS IC to be fabricated was a transistor chip built by Fred Heiman and Steven Hofstein at RCA in [79]General Microelectronics later introduced the first commercial MOS IC in ,[80] developed by Robert Norman.[79] Following the development of the self-aligned gate (silicon-gate) MOS transistor by Robert Kerwin, Donald Klein and John Sarace at Bell Labs inthe first silicon-gate MOS IC with self-aligned gates was developed by Federico Faggin at Fairchild Semiconductor in [81] The MOSFET has since become the most critical device component in modern ICs.[82]

The development of the MOS integrated circuit led to the invention of the microprocessor,[83][84] and heralded an explosion in the commercial and personal use of computers. While the subject of exactly which device was the first microprocessor is contentious, partly due to lack of agreement on the exact definition of the term "microprocessor", it is largely undisputed that the first single-chip microprocessor was the Intel ,[85] designed and realized by Federico Faggin with his silicon-gate MOS IC technology,[83] along with Ted Hoff, Masatoshi Shima and Stanley Mazor at Intel.[86][87] In the early s, MOS IC technology enabled the integration of more than 10, transistors on a single chip.[59]

System on a Chip (SoCs) are complete computers on a microchip (or chip) the size of a coin.[88] They may or may not have integrated RAM and flash memory. If not integrated, the RAM is usually placed directly above (known as Package on package) or below (on the opposite side of the circuit board) the SoC, and the flash memory is usually placed right next to the SoC, this all done to improve data transfer speeds, as the data signals don't have to travel long distances. Since ENIAC incomputers have advanced enormously, with modern SoCs (Such as the Snapdragon ) being the size of a coin while also being hundreds of thousands of times more powerful than ENIAC, integrating billions of transistors, and consuming only a few watts of power.

Mobile computers

The first mobile computers were heavy and ran from mains power. The 50lb IBM was an early example. Later portables such as the Osborne 1 and Compaq Portable were considerably lighter but still needed to be plugged in. The first laptops, such as the Grid Compass, removed this requirement by incorporating batteries – and with the continued miniaturization of computing resources and advancements in portable battery life, portable computers grew in popularity in the s.[89] The same developments allowed manufacturers to integrate computing resources into cellular mobile phones by the early s.

These smartphones and tablets run on a variety of operating systems and recently became the dominant computing device on the market.[90] These are powered by System on a Chip (SoCs), which are complete computers on a microchip the size of a coin.[88]


See also: Classes of computers

Computers can be classified in a number of different ways, including:

By architecture

By size, form-factor and purpose


Main articles: Computer hardware, Personal computer hardware, Central processing unit, and Microprocessor

Video demonstrating the standard components of a "slimline" computer

The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible physical objects. Circuits, computer chips, graphic cards, sound cards, memory (RAM), motherboard, displays, power supplies, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, cables, keyboards, printers and "mice" input devices are all hardware.

History of computing hardware

Main article: History of computing hardware

First generation (mechanical/electromechanical)CalculatorsPascal's calculator, Arithmometer, Difference engine, Quevedo's analytical machines
Programmable devicesJacquard loom, Analytical engine, IBM ASCC/Harvard Mark I, Harvard Mark II, IBM SSEC, Z1, Z2, Z3
Second generation (vacuum tubes)CalculatorsAtanasoff–Berry Computer, IBMUNIVAC 60, UNIVAC
Programmable devicesColossus, ENIAC, Manchester Baby, EDSAC, Manchester Mark 1, Ferranti Pegasus, Ferranti Mercury, CSIRAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC I, IBMIBMIBMZ22
Third generation (discrete transistors and SSI, MSI, LSI integrated circuits)MainframesIBMIBMIBM System/, BUNCH
MinicomputerHP A, IBM System/32, IBM System/36, LINC, PDP-8, PDP
Desktop ComputerHP
Fourth generation (VLSI integrated circuits)MinicomputerVAX, IBM AS/
4-bit microcomputerIntelIntel
8-bit microcomputerIntelIntelMotorolaMotorolaMOS TechnologyZilog Z80
bit microcomputerIntelZilog Z, WDC /
bit microcomputerIntelPentium, MotorolaARM
bit microcomputer[91]Alpha, MIPS, PA-RISC, PowerPC, SPARC, x, ARMv8-A
Embedded computerIntelIntel
Personal computerDesktop computer, Home computer, Laptop computer, Personal digital assistant (PDA), Portable computer, Tablet PC, Wearable computer
Theoretical/experimentalQuantum computer, Chemical computer, DNA computing, Optical computer, Spintronics-based computer, Wetware/Organic computer

Other hardware topics

Peripheral device (input/output)InputMouse, keyboard, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, joystick, image scanner, webcam, graphics tablet, microphone
OutputMonitor, printer, loudspeaker
BothFloppy disk drive, hard disk drive, optical disc drive, teleprinter
Computer busesShort rangeRS, SCSI, PCI, USB
Long range (computer networking)Ethernet, ATM, FDDI

A general-purpose computer has four main components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), the control unit, the memory, and the input and output devices (collectively termed I/O). These parts are interconnected by buses, often made of groups of wires. Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch. Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a "1", and when off it represents a "0" (in positive logic representation). The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits.

Input devices

When unprocessed data is sent to the computer with the help of input devices, the data is processed and sent to output devices. The input devices may be hand-operated or automated. The act of processing is mainly regulated by the CPU. Some examples of input devices are:

Output devices

The means through which computer gives output are known as output devices. Some examples of output devices are:

Control unit

Main articles: CPU design Call of duty ghosts crack serial keygen Control unit

Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architectureinstruction would be decoded by the control system

The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer's various components; it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions, transforming them into control signals that activate other parts of the computer.[92] Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of execution of some instructions to improve performance.

A key component common to all CPUs is the program counter, a special memory cell (a register) that keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from.[93]

The control system's function is as follows— this is a simplified description, and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU:

  1. Read the code for the next instruction from the cell indicated by the program counter.
  2. Decode the numerical code for the instruction into a set of commands or signals for each of the other systems.
  3. Increment the program Final Cut Pro X For Mac 10.5.4 Crack & License Key Torrent Download 2021 so it points to the next instruction.
  4. Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory (or perhaps from an input device). The location of this required data is typically stored within the instruction code.
  5. Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register.
  6. If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete, instruct the hardware to perform PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen requested operation.
  7. Write the result from the ALU back to a memory location or to a register or perhaps an output device.
  8. Jump back to step (1).

Since the program counter is (conceptually) just another set of memory cells, it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU. Adding to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place locations further down the program. Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as "jumps" and allow for loops (instructions that are repeated by the computer) and often conditional instruction execution (both examples of control flow).

The sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program, and indeed, in some more complex CPU designs, there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer, which runs a microcode program that causes all of these events to happen.

Central processing unit (CPU)

Main articles: Central processing unit and Microprocessor

The control unit, ALU, and registers are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU). Early CPUs were composed of many separate components. Since the s, CPUs have typically been constructed on a single MOS integrated circuit chip called a microprocessor.

Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)

Main article: Arithmetic logic unit

The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic.[94] The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to addition and subtraction, or might include multiplication, division, trigonometry functions such as sine, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, cosine, Corel Draw Graphic Suite 2019 Free, and square roots. Some can operate only on whole numbers (integers) while others use floating point to represent real numbers, albeit with limited precision. However, any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform. Therefore, any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation. An ALU may also compare numbers and return boolean truth values (true or false) depending on whether one is equal to, greater than or less than the other ("is 64 greater than 65?"). Logic operations involve Boolean logic: AND, OR, XOR, and NOT. These can be useful PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen creating complicated conditional statements and processing boolean logic.

Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs, allowing them to process several instructions simultaneously.[95]Graphics processors and computers with SIMD and MIMD features often contain ALUs that can perform arithmetic on vectors and matrices.


Main articles: Computer memory and Computer data storage

A computer's memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. Each cell has a numbered "address" and can store a single number. The computer can be instructed to "put the number into the cell numbered " or to "add the number that is in cell to the number that is in cell and put the answer into cell " The information stored in memory may represent practically anything. Letters, numbers, even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease. Since the CPU does not differentiate between different types of information, it is the software's responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers.

In almost all modern computers, each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte). Each byte is able to represent different numbers (28 = ); either from 0 to or − to + To store larger numbers, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, several consecutive bytes may be used (typically, two, four or eight). When negative numbers are required, they are usually stored in two's complement notation. Flexisign Pro 19 Crack Archives arrangements are possible, but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory.

The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area. There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. As data is constantly being worked on, reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and Lumion Pro For Mac & Windows Archives units) greatly increases the computer's speed.

Computer main memory comes in two principal varieties:

RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it, but ROM is preloaded with data and software that never changes, therefore the CPU can only read from it. ROM is typically used to store the computer's initial start-up instructions. In general, the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off, but ROM retains its data indefinitely. In a PC, the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer's operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset. In embedded computers, which frequently do not have disk drives, all of the required software may be stored in ROM. Software stored in ROM is often called firmware, because it is notionally more like hardware than software. Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM, as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable. It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however, so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary.[96]

In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories, which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on the programmer's part.

Input/output (I/O)

Main article: Input/output

I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world.[97] Devices that provide input or output to the computer are called peripherals.[98] On a typical personal computer, peripherals include input devices like the keyboard and mouse, and output devices such as the display and printer. Hard disk drives, floppy disk drives and optical disc drives serve as both input and output devices. Computer networking is another form of I/O. I/O devices are often complex computers in their own right, with their own CPU and memory. A graphics processing unit might contain fifty or more tiny computers that perform Resharper Crack Archives calculations necessary to display 3D graphics.[citation needed] Modern desktop computers contain many smaller computers that assist the main CPU in performing I/O. A era flat screen display contains its own computer circuitry.


Main article: Computer multitasking

While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory, in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously. This is achieved by multitasking i.e. having the computer switch rapidly between running each program in turn.[99] One means by which this is done is with a special signal called an interrupt, which can periodically cause the computer to stop executing instructions where it was and do something else instead. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt, the computer can return to that task later. If several programs are running "at the same time". then the interrupt generator might be causing several hundred interrupts per second, causing a program switch each time, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen. Since modern computers typically execute instructions several orders of magnitude faster than human perception, it may appear that many programs are running at the same time even though only one is ever executing in any given instant. This method of multitasking is sometimes termed "time-sharing" since each program is allocated a "slice" of time in turn.[]

Before the era of inexpensive computers, the principal use for multitasking was to allow many people to share the same computer. Seemingly, multitasking would cause a computer that is switching between several programs to run more slowly, in direct proportion to the number of programs it is running, but most programs spend much of their time waiting for slow input/output devices to complete their tasks. If a program is waiting for the user to click on the mouse or press a key on the keyboard, then it will not take a "time slice" until the event it is waiting for has occurred. This frees up time for other programs to execute so that many programs may be run simultaneously without unacceptable speed loss.


Main article: Multiprocessing

Craydesigned many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily.

Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration, a technique once employed in only large and powerful machines such as supercomputers, mainframe computers and servers. Multiprocessor and multi-core (multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit) personal and laptop computers are now widely available, and are being increasingly used in lower-end markets as a result.

Supercomputers in particular often have highly unique architectures that differ significantly from the basic stored-program architecture and from general-purpose computers.[] They often feature thousands of CPUs, customized high-speed interconnects, and specialized computing hardware. Such designs tend to be useful for only specialized tasks due to the large scale of program organization required to successfully utilize most of the available resources at once. Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation, graphics rendering, and cryptography applications, as well as with other so-called "embarrassingly parallel" tasks.


Main article: Computer software

Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form, such as programs, data, protocols, etc. Software is that part of a computer system that consists of encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. It is often divided into system software and application software Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own. When Driver booster 6.6 key crack serial keygen is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified, such as with BIOSROM in an IBM PC compatible computer, it is sometimes called "firmware".

Operating system /System Software Unix and BSDUNIX System V, IBM AIX, HP-UX, Solaris (SunOS), IRIX, List of BSD operating systems
LinuxList of Linux distributions, Comparison of Linux distributions
Microsoft WindowsWindows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, WindowsWindows ME, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, WindowsWindows 10
Macintosh operating systemsClassic Mac OS, macOS (previously OS X and Mac OS X)
Embedded and real-timeList of embedded operating systems
ExperimentalAmoeba, Oberon–AOS, Bluebottle, A2, Plan 9 from Bell Labs
LibraryMultimediaDirectX, OpenGL, OpenAL, Vulkan (API)
Programming libraryC standard library, Standard Template Library
DataProtocolTCP/IP, Kermit, FTP, HTTP, SMTP
User interfaceGraphical user interface (WIMP)Microsoft Windows, GNOME, KDE, QNX Photon, CDE, GEM, Aqua
Text-based user interfaceCommand-line interface, Text user interface
Application Software Office suiteWord processing, Desktop publishing, Presentation program, Database management system, Scheduling & Time management, Spreadsheet, Accounting software
Internet AccessBrowser, Email client, Web server, Mail transfer agent, Instant messaging
Design and manufacturingComputer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Plant management, Robotic manufacturing, Supply chain management
GraphicsRaster graphics editor, Vector graphics editor, 3D modeler, Animation editor, 3D computer graphics, Video editing, Image processing
AudioDigital audio editor, Audio playback, Mixing, Audio synthesis, Computer music
Software engineeringCompiler, Assembler, Interpreter, Debugger, Text editor, Integrated development environment, Software performance analysis, Revision control, Software configuration management
EducationalEdutainment, Educational game, Serious game, Flight simulator
GamesStrategy, Arcade, Puzzle, Simulation, First-person shooter, Platform, Massively multiplayer, Interactive fiction
MiscArtificial intelligence, Antivirus software, Malware scanner, Installer/Package management systems, File manager


There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended for general purpose, others useful for only highly specialized applications.

Lists of programming languagesTimeline of programming languages, List of programming languages by category, Generational list of programming languages, List of programming languages, Non-English-based programming languages
Commonly used assembly languagesARM, MIPS, x86
Commonly used high-level programming languagesAda, BASIC, C, C++, C#, COBOL, Fortran, PL/I, REXX, Java, Lisp, Pascal, Object Pascal
Commonly used scripting languagesBourne script, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP, Perl


The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed. That is to say that some type of instructions (the program) can be given to the computer, and it will process them. Modern computers based on the von Neumann architecture often have machine code in the form of an imperative programming language. In practical terms, a computer program may be just a few instructions or extend to many millions of instructions, as do the programs for word processors and web browsers for example. A typical modern computer can execute billions of instructions per second (gigaflops) and rarely makes a mistake over many years of operation. Large computer programs consisting of several million instructions may take teams of programmers years to write, and due to the complexity of the task almost certainly contain errors.

Stored program architecture

Main articles: Computer program and Computer programming

This section applies to most common RAM machine–based computers.

In most cases, computer instructions are simple: add one number to another, move some data from one location to another, send a message to some external device, etc. These instructions are read from the computer's memory and are generally carried out (executed) in the order they were given. However, there are usually specialized instructions to tell the computer to jump ahead or backwards to some other place in the program and to carry on executing from there. These are called "jump" instructions (or branches). Furthermore, jump instructions may be made to happen conditionally so that different sequences of instructions may be used depending on the result of some previous calculation or some external event. Many computers directly support subroutines by providing a type of jump that "remembers" the location it jumped from and another instruction to return to the instruction following that jump instruction.

Program execution might be likened to reading a book. While a person will normally read each word and line in sequence, they may at times jump back to an earlier place in the text or skip sections that are not of interest. Similarly, a computer may sometimes go back and repeat the instructions in some section of the program over and over again until some internal condition is met. This is called the flow of control within the program and it is what allows the computer to perform tasks repeatedly without human intervention.

Comparatively, a person using a pocket calculator can perform a basic arithmetic operation such as adding two numbers with just a few button presses. But to add together all of the numbers from 1 to 1, would take thousands of button presses and a lot of time, with a near certainty of making a mistake. On the other hand, a computer may be programmed to do this with just a few simple instructions. The following example is written in the MIPS assembly language:

begin:addi$8,$0,0# initialize sum to 0addi$9,$0,1# set first number to add = 1loop:slti$10,$9,# check if the number is less than beq$10,$0,finish# if odd number is greater than n then exitadd$8,$8,$9# update sumaddi$9,$9,1# get next numberjloop# repeat the summing processfinish:add$2,$8,$0# put sum in output register

Once told to run this program, the computer will perform the repetitive addition task without further human intervention. It will almost never make a mistake and a modern PC can complete the task in a fraction of a second.

Machine code

In most computers, individual instructions are stored as machine code with each instruction being given a unique number (its operation code or opcode for short). The command to add two numbers together would have one opcode; the command to multiply them would have a different opcode, and so on. The simplest computers are able to perform any of a handful of different instructions; the more complex computers have several hundred to choose from, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, each with a unique numerical code. Since the computer's memory is able to store numbers, it can also store the instruction codes. This leads to the important fact that entire programs (which are just lists of these instructions) can be represented as lists of numbers and can themselves be manipulated inside the computer in the same way as numeric data. The fundamental concept of storing programs in the computer's memory alongside the data they operate on is the crux of the von Neumann, or stored program[citation needed], architecture. In some cases, a computer might store some or all of its program in memory that is kept separate from the data it operates on. This is called the Harvard architecture after the Harvard Mark I computer. Modern von Neumann computers display some traits of the Harvard architecture in their designs, such as in CPU caches.

While it is possible to write computer programs as long lists of numbers (machine language) and while this technique was used with many early computers,[] it is extremely tedious and potentially error-prone to do so in practice, especially for complicated programs. Instead, each basic instruction can be given a short name that is indicative of its function and easy to remember&#;– a mnemonic such as ADD, SUB, MULT or JUMP. These mnemonics are collectively known as a computer's assembly language. Converting programs written in assembly language into something the computer can actually understand (machine language) is usually done by a computer program called an assembler.

A s punched cardcontaining one line from a Fortranprogram. The Sketchup v3.1.31 crack serial keygen reads: "Z(1) = Y + W(1)" and is labeled "PROJ" for identification purposes.

Programming language

Main article: Programming language

Programming PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run. Unlike natural languages, programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run, or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques.

Low-level languages

Main article: Low-level programming language

Machine languages and the assembly languages that represent them (collectively termed low-level programming languages) are generally unique to the particular architecture of a computer's central processing unit (CPU). For instance, an ARM architecture CPU (such as may be found in a smartphone or a hand-held videogame) cannot understand the machine language of an x86 CPU that might be in a PC.[] Historically a significant number of other cpu architectures were created and saw extensive use, notably including the MOS Technology and in addition to the Zilog Z

High-level languages

Main article: High-level programming language

Although considerably easier than in machine language, writing long programs in assembly language is often difficult and is also error prone. Therefore, most practical programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently (and thereby help reduce programmer error). High level languages are usually "compiled" into machine language (or sometimes into assembly language and then into machine language) PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen another computer program called a compiler.[] High level languages are less related to the workings of the target computer than assembly language, and more related to the language and structure of the problem(s) to be solved by the final program. It is therefore often possible to use different compilers to translate the same high level language program into the machine language of many different types of computer. This is part of the means by which software like video games may be made available for different computer architectures such as personal computers and various video game consoles.

Program design

Program design of small programs is relatively simple and involves the analysis of the problem, collection of inputs, using the programming constructs within languages, devising or using established procedures and algorithms, providing data for output devices and solutions to the problem as applicable. As problems become larger and more complex, features such as subprograms, modules, formal documentation, and new paradigms such as object-oriented programming are encountered. Large programs involving thousands of line of code and more require formal software methodologies. The task of developing large software systems presents a significant intellectual challenge. Producing software with an acceptably high reliability within a predictable schedule and budget has historically been difficult; the academic and professional discipline of software Others Archives - Page 2 of 2 - All Latest Crack Software Free Download concentrates specifically on this challenge.


Main article: Software bug

The actual first computer bug, a moth found Sandboxie 5.26 Crack Archives on a relay of the Harvard Mark IIcomputer

Errors in computer programs are called "bugs". They may be benign and not affect the usefulness of the program, or have only subtle effects. But in some cases, they may cause the program or the entire system to "hang", becoming unresponsive to input such as mouse clicks or keystrokes, to completely fail, or to crash. Otherwise benign bugs may sometimes be harnessed for malicious intent by an unscrupulous user writing an exploit, code designed to take advantage of a bug and disrupt a computer's proper execution. Bugs are usually not the fault of the computer. Since computers merely execute the instructions they are given, bugs are nearly always the result of programmer error or an oversight made in the program's design.[] Admiral Grace Hopper, an American computer scientist and developer of the first compiler, is credited for having first used the term "bugs" in computing after a dead moth was found shorting a relay in the Harvard Mark II computer in September []

Networking and the Internet

Main articles: Computer networking and Internet

Visualization of a portion of the routeson the Internet

Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the s. The U.S. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system, which led to a number of special-purpose commercial systems such as Sabre.[] In the s, computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology. The effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA), and the computer network that resulted was called the ARPANET.[] The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved.

In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. In fact, the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. "Wireless" networking, often utilizing mobile phone networks, has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments.

Unconventional computers

Main article: Human computer

See also: Harvard Computers

A computer does not need to be electronic, nor even have a processor, nor RAM, nor even a hard disk. While popular usage of the word "computer" is synonymous with a personal electronic computer, the modern[] definition of a computer is literally: "A device that computes, especially a programmable [usually] electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information."[] Any device which processes information qualifies as a computer, especially if the processing is purposeful.[citation needed]


There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology, such as optical computers, DNA computers, neural computers, and quantum computers. Most computers are universal, and are able to calculate any computable function, and are limited only by their memory capacity and operating speed. However different designs of computers can give very different performance for particular problems; for example quantum computers can potentially break some modern encryption algorithms (by quantum factoring) very quickly.

Computer architecture paradigms

There are many types of computer architectures:

Of all these abstract machines, a quantum computer holds the most promise for revolutionizing computing.[]Logic gates are a common abstraction which can apply to most of the above digital or analog paradigms. The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a minimum capability (being Turing-complete) is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore, any type of computer (netbook, supercomputer, cellular automaton, etc.) is able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.

Artificial intelligence

A computer will solve problems in exactly the way it is programmed to, without regard to efficiency, alternative solutions, possible shortcuts, or possible errors in the code. Computer programs that learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Artificial intelligence based products generally fall into two major categories: rule based systems and pattern recognition systems. Rule based systems attempt to represent the rules used by human experts and tend to be expensive to develop. Pattern based systems use data about a problem to generate conclusions. Examples of pattern based systems include voice recognition, font recognition, translation and the emerging field of on-line marketing.

Professions and organizations

As the use of computers has spread throughout society, there are an increasing number of careers involving computers.

Hardware-relatedElectrical engineering, Electronic engineering, Computer engineering, Telecommunications engineering, Optical engineering, Nanoengineering
Software-relatedComputer science, Computer engineering, Desktop publishing, Human–computer interaction, Information technology, Information systems, Computational science, Software engineering, Video game industry, Web design

The need for computers to work well together and to be able to exchange information has spawned the need for many standards organizations, clubs and societies of both a formal and informal nature.

Standards groupsANSI, IEC, IEEE, IETF, ISO, W3C
Professional societiesACM, AIS, IET, IFIP, BCS
Free/open source software groupsFree Software Foundation, Mozilla Foundation, Apache Software Foundation

See also


  1. ^"computer (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  2. ^According to Schmandt-Besserat harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSchmandt-Besserat (help), these clay containers contained tokens, the total of which were the count of objects being transferred. The containers thus served as something of a bill of lading or an accounts book. In order to avoid breaking open the containers, first, clay impressions of the tokens were placed on the outside of the containers, for the count; the shapes of the impressions were abstracted into stylized marks; finally, the abstract marks were systematically used as numerals; these numerals were finally formalized as numbers. Eventually (Schmandt-Besserat estimates it took yearsArchived 30 January at the Wayback Machine ) the marks on the outside of the containers were all that were needed to convey the count, and the clay containers evolved into clay tablets with marks for the count.
  3. ^Robson, Eleanor (), Mathematics in Ancient Iraq, ISBN&#;. p.&#;5: calculi were in use in Iraq for primitive accounting systems as PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen as – BCE, with commodity-specific counting representation systems, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen. Balanced accounting was in use by – BCE, and a sexagesimal number system was in use – BCE.
  4. ^Numbers through the ages. Flegg, Graham. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan Education. ISBN&#. OCLC&#;CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^The Antikythera Mechanism Research ProjectArchived 28 April at the Wayback Machine, The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. Retrieved 1 July
  6. ^G. Wiet, V. Elisseeff, P. Wolff, J. Naudu (). History of Mankind, Vol 3: The Great medieval Civilisations, p. George Allen & Unwin Ltd, UNESCO.
  7. ^Fuat Sezgin "Catalogue of the Exhibition of the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science (at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University", Frankfurt, Germany) Frankfurt Book Fairpp.&#;35 &
  8. ^Charette, François (). "Archaeology: High tech from Ancient Greece". Nature. (): – BibcodeNaturC. doi/a. PMID&#; S2CID&#;
  9. ^Bedini, Silvio A.; Maddison, Francis R. (), PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen. "Mechanical Universe: The Astrarium of Giovanni de' Dondi". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 56 (5): 1– doi/ JSTOR&#;
Источник: []

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If you are installing your Windows Operating System or any program all over again, you would need the product key for activation or the passwords for access. Not just the re-installation of the Windows, but you also require product keys and passwords for antivirus software, MS Office products, etc. without which your computer may not be working properly.

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Also see: &#; How to view your Product key of your windows OS

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SterJo Key Finder


SterJo Key Finder is a free software that helps find your product keys for your Windows (old version of XP, Windows 7 & 8) and many other programs like, MS Office Products, AutoCAD, Coral Draw and more. You simply need to download the product, save it in a folder and run the scan from there. It runs a thorough scan of your PC, finds any or all license keys in the registry, and displays them in a list. The best part is that SterJo Key Finder gets installed easily without needing many resources. What we love about this program that it finds license keys for many different programs, and also tracks the product keys from a device that’s been dead for sometime. You simply need to place the hard disk of the dead device into the working device and run the software. It will find the license keys easily and save you from any future hassles.

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Product Key Explorer

Find those lost passwords from over Windows OS softwares and programs and from several other operating systems for free using the Product Key Explorer. This free key finder application helps retrieve PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen Windows product keys from the installed software on your local and network computers effortlessly. Besides, if you’ve got a business you can also find the number of software licenses installed in it.

One of the easiest key finding programs in the category, Product Key Explorer lets you save the tracked product keys as Excel WorkBook, Access Database, Web Page, Tab Delimited Text File and more.

Compatibility: WindowsWindows XP, WindowsWindows Vista


Now do not be afraid reinstalling your Windows OS, as you can get back all your product keys and serial numbers easily, using LicenseCrawler. the serial numbers belong to programs like MS Office, VMWare, Nero and many such applications. This software helps you do away with the tedious work of searching for the keys and the serial numbers in emails or manuals. LicenseCrawler scans the Windows Registry for the licenses, serial numbers and the Windows product keys swiftly.

It is also available in a portable version that can be run from anywhere using a USB stick. It even helps backup your system that is especially useful for people from IT and forensic services. So, no more asking clients of the license keys as you can simply run this free software to track the keys in no time. Best of all, LicenseCrawler is free of adware, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, viruses, Trojan spyware or backdoors keeping to % clean.

Compatibility: Win95,XP,Vista,Windows 7, Windows 8, WindowsServer R2 64Bit, Server

Recover Keys

Recover Keys is a simple application that helps you to track product keys for Windows, Microsoft Office and over other installed programs. Even though it’s an extremely basic key finder software, it is a complete Windows application that safeguards the license keys for already installed software programs on your network or local PC when there’s a system hard disk crash.

It’s a compact program that fits into your PC quite comfortably, and recovery keys for products like, antivirus, Adobe Photoshop, and other popular applications including Windows and MS Office. Once recovered, you can then save, backup, print or even export the product keys in Word, Excel, HTML, XML, CSV or in PDF format. Whether you are a professional or a beginner Recover Keys is just for you.

Compatibility: Windows NT / / XP / Vista / 7 / 8 / / 10, Windows Server / /Mac OSX Tiger &#; Yosemite

Product Key Finder

Well, don’t get confused as the name of the program is indeed Product Key Finder. Although it’s a very simple application it functions really well. It features only three buttons and keeps you away from any complications. Once it’s run, it scans the system and finds product keys and serial numbers effectively and shows the information in a window.

Along with Microsoft and Adobe programs, it also finds license keys for over other programs. With only three buttons to access, it offers the easiest interface to handle. It’s compact so fits in your computer perfectly. What we like is that the keys are well formatted, displays results instantly enable you to save the results in a CSV file, barely takes the time to get installed and easily loads registry details from a backup.

Compatibility: Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows Server &Windows XP, WindowsWindows 98, and Windows NT.

MSKeyViewer Plus

If you are looking for a FIFA 20: Jogo tem sua receita aumentada em 70% na pandemia that does not take much of your computer’s space, and finds out the product keys, installation keys, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, installed software versions and the service pack levels in no time, you can definitely seek help from the MSKeyViewer Pluswhich is also compatible with licensed applications. If you are running Windows OS or Office 97 to it can be especially useful to them and for others too. It does not need to be installed and hence, can be run from anywhere on the hard drive. Being a portable software it can also be run from a USB flash drive or any other removable media storage device.

Once the program is removed there are no traces in the Windows Registry. The interface is simple yet modern in looks with a nicely arranged layout. Any of the installed software in your PC is automatically detected by this free software and displays the product keys and other information in minutes. With a good response time and a small size, MSKeyViewer is definitely a worth try. Best of all it copies your product keys into the Clipboard with a single click to be easily saved into other documents.

Compatibility: All Windows versions

Windows Product Key Finder Pro

Wish to reinstall Windows, but unable to do so because of the lost product keys? Windows Product Key Finder Pro is your answer. This super easy tool helps you to extract the product keys and serial numbers for Windows or MS Office instantly. What we love is its simplicity and the straightforward interface that features no menu options that can confuse you with your search.

Some of the advantages of Windows Product Key Finder Pro lays in its compact size, instant display of the serial numbers, facility to save or get a print out of the product keys, copying the license keys to the clipboard and the fact that is portable, and hence does not need to be installed.

Compatibility: Windows 8, Windows 7, Vista, XP, Office, XP.

Office Product Key Finder

Office Product Key Finder as it’s named, helps you retrieve serial numbers and product keys of MS Office only. You can easily recover serial numbers for MS Office, that’s already installed on your PC. This free software helps find product keys from local or network computers that helps protect your business from pirated software. Additionally, t allows you to back up the recovered product keys to Registry File and save them in Web Page, Excel Workbook, Tab Delimited Txt File, CSV Comma Delimited, Access Database and more.

The best part about Office Product Key Finder is that it can scan unlimited business computers, and is one of the easy to navigate tools in the market.

Compatibility: Windows XP//Vista/Server /7/8/10


WinGuggle does exactly what you want, that is, it helps you to find product keys and serial numbers of installed programs on your PC in no time. This freeware works great for those who are looking for the license keys for Windows or MS Office Products. It comes in a small package that hardly takes space of your computer’s hard disk. Above all, there is no need to install the software as you can start using it by simply unzipping.

Once it’s done scanning the registry, it instantly displays your Windows and Office serial numbers. Additionally, not only does it help Voice Changer Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection copy the serial number so that you can paste it in the backup file, but the striking part is it also lets you view and modify OEM information which is available in premium programs. Also, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, there is no anti-virus warning message displayed when the programs gets started, so find your product keys without any hassle.

Compatibility: Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP

Mac Product Key Finder

As the name suggests, Mac Product Key Finder is a freeware designed to recover lost license keys or help backup the keys before they are the already installed software for your Mac PC. Not only that this application is pretty small taking up only a minuscule space of your computer, it also effectively scans your PC for any installed software and displays the product keys or serial numbers instantly. Once it pulls up all the keysyou can then save it dc unlocker crack download Archives an HTML, PDF, text, CSV or XML file or get a print out of the same.

From MS OfficeAdobe Photoshop to Parallel’s Desktop it supports limited software for the moment.

Compatibility: Mac OS X Intel/PPC, Mac OS X Intel/PPC, Mac OS X //

APKF Product Key Finder

APKF Product Key Finder or Adobe Product Key Finder is a free tool that helps you to track any missing product keys or serial numbers for nearly any products offered by Adobe like, Photoshop, Creative Suite CS6, CS5, Cs4, Cs3, Acrobat Reader, Flash and more. Not just that, using this utility you can also retrieve product keys from the cache file found in the external hard drive.

This key finder tool detects your system of any installed Adobe software and therefore, find Adobe serial numbers for the same. You can even backup the product keys, get a printout or simply save them to a file. The backup files (Adobe serial numbers) can also be saved as XML Data, Tab Delimited TXT File, Access Database, CSV comma Delimited and in more such formats.

Compatibility: Windows XP//Vista/Server /7/8/10

Madhu 5 Min

I find passion in writing Tech articles around Windows PC and softwares

Filed Under: Freeware

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Microsoft Office

Suite of office software

Microsoft Office logo (–present).svg
Office app

From top-left: Outlook, OneDrive, Word, Excel, PowerPoint, OneNote, SharePoint, Teams, and Yammer.

Initial releaseNovember&#;19, ; 30 years ago&#;()
Office (Beta Channel) () / June&#;8, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, ; 5 months ago&#;()
One-time purchase / October&#;5, ; 44 days ago&#;()[1]
Written inC++ (back-end)[2]
Operating systemMicrosoft Windows
Standard(s)Office Open XML (ISO/IEC )
Available in languages[3]
TypeOffice suite
LicenseTrialware, volume licensing or SaaS

Microsoft Office, or simply Office, is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on August 1,at COMDEX in Las Vegas. Initially a marketing term for an office suite (bundled set of productivity applications), the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. On July 10,Softpedia reported that Office was being used by over a billion people worldwide.[11]

Office is produced in several versions targeted towards different end-users and computing environments. The original, and most widely used version, is the desktop version, available for PCs running the Windows and macOSoperating systems. Microsoft also maintains mobile apps for Android and iOS. Office on the web is a version of the software that runs within a web browser.

Since OfficeMicrosoft has promoted Office as the primary means of obtaining Microsoft Office: it allows the use of the software and other services on a subscription business model, and users receive feature updates to the software for the lifetime of the subscription, including new features and cloud computing integration that are not necessarily included in the "on-premises" releases of Office sold under conventional license terms. Inrevenue from Office overtook conventional license sales. Microsoft also rebranded most of their standard Office editions into Microsoft to emphasize their current inclusion of products and services.

The current on-premises, desktop version of Office is Officereleased on October 5, [12]


See also: List of Microsoft Office programs

Core apps and services

  • Microsoft Word is a word processor included in Microsoft Office and some editions of the now-discontinued Microsoft Works. The first version of Word, released in the autumn ofwas for the MS-DOS operating system and introduced the computer mouse to more users. Word could be purchased with a bundled mouse, though none was required. Following the precedents of LisaWrite and MacWrite, Word for Macintosh attempted to add closer WYSIWYG features into its package. Word for Mac was released in Word for Mac was the first graphical version of Microsoft Word. Initially, it implemented the proprietary .doc format as its primary format. Wordhowever, deprecated this format in favor of Office Open XML, which was later standardized by Ecma International as an open format. Support for Portable Document Format (PDF) and OpenDocument (ODF) was first introduced in Word for Windows with Service Pack 2 for Word [13]
  • Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet editor that originally competed with the dominant Lotus and eventually outsold it. Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Mac OS in and the first Windows version (numbered to line up with the Mac) in November
  • Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program used to create slideshows composed of text, graphics, and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and shown by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides.
  • Microsoft OneNote is a notetaking program that gathers handwritten or typed notes, drawings, screen clippings and audio commentaries. Notes can be shared with other OneNote users over the Internet or a network. OneNote was initially introduced as a standalone app that was not included in any Microsoft Office edition. However, OneNote eventually became a core component of Microsoft Office; with the release of Microsoft OfficeOneNote was included in all Microsoft Office offerings. OneNote is also available as a web app on Office on the web, a freemium (and later freeware) Windows desktop app, a mobile app for Windows Phone, iOS, Android, and Symbian, and 4K Video Downloader Crack With Serial Key Download Latest Metro-style app for Windows 8 or later.
  • Microsoft Outlook (not to be confused with Outlook Express, or Outlook on the web) is a personal information manager that replaces Windows Messaging, Microsoft Mail, and Schedule+ starting in Office 97; it includes an e-mail client, calendar, task manager and address book. On the Mac OS, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, Microsoft offered several versions of Outlook in the late s, but only for use with Microsoft Exchange Server. In Officeit introduced an alternative application with a slightly different feature set called Microsoft Entourage. It reintroduced Outlook in Officereplacing Entourage.[14]
  • Microsoft OneDrive is a file hosting service that allows users to sync files and later access them from a web browser or mobile device.
  • Microsoft Teams is a platform that combines workplace chat, meetings, notes, and attachments.

Windows-only apps

Mobile-only apps

  • Office Lens is an image scanner optimized for mobile devices. It captures the document (e.g. business card, paper, whiteboard) via the camera and then straightens the document portion of the image. The result can be exported to Word, OneNote, PowerPoint or Outlook, or saved in OneDrive, sent via Mail or placed in Photo Library.
  • Office Mobile is a unified Office mobile app for Android and iOS, which combines Word, Excel, and PowerPoint into a single app and introduces new capabilities as making quick notes, signing PDFs, scanning QR codes, and transferring files.[16]
  • Office Remote is an application that turns the mobile device into a remote control for desktop versions of Word, Excel and PowerPoint.

Server applications

Web services

Office on the web

Office on the web is a free lightweight web version of Microsoft Office and primarily includes three web applications: Word, Excel and Powerpoint. The offering also includes, OneNote and OneDrive which are accessible through a unified app switcher. Users can install the on-premises version of this service, called Office Online Server, in private clouds in conjunction with SharePoint, Microsoft Exchange Server and Microsoft Lync Server.[18]

Word, Excel, and PowerPoint on the web can all natively open, edit, and save Office Open PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen files (docx, xlsx, pptx) as well as OpenDocument files (odt, ods, odp). They can also open the older Office file formats (doc, xls, ppt), but will be converted to the newer Open XML formats if the user wishes to edit them online, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen. Other formats cannot be opened in the browser apps, such as CSV in Excel or HTML in Word, nor can Office files that are encrypted with a password be opened. Files with macros can be opened in the browser apps, but the macros cannot be accessed or executed.[19][20][21] Starting in JulyWord can render PDF documents or convert them to Microsoft Word documents, although the formatting of PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen document may deviate from the original.[22] Since Novemberthe apps have supported real-time co-authoring and autosaving files.[23][24]

Office on the web lacks a number of the advanced features present in the full desktop versions of Office, including lacking the programs Access and Publisher entirely. However, users are able to select the command "Open in Desktop App" that brings up the document in the desktop version of Office on their computer or device to utilize the advanced features there.[25][26]

Supported web browsers include Microsoft Edge, Internet Explorer 11, the latest versions of Firefox or Google Chrome, as well as Safari for OS X or later.[27]

The Personal edition of Office on the web is available to the general public free of charge with a Microsoft account through the website, which PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen SkyDrive (now OneDrive) and Office Live Workspace. Enterprise-managed versions are PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen through Office [28] In Februarythe ability to view and edit files on SkyDrive without signing in was added.[29] The service can also be installed privately in enterprise environments as a SharePoint app, or through Office Web Apps Server.[18] Microsoft also offers other web apps in the Office suite, such as the Outlook Web App (formerly Outlook Web Access),[30] Lync Web App (formerly Office Communicator Web Access),[31] Project Web App (formerly Project Web Access).[32] Additionally, Microsoft offers a service under the name of Online Doc Viewer to view Office documents on a website via Office on the web.[33]

There are free extensions available to use Office on the web directly in Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge.[34][35]

Common features

Most versions of Microsoft Office (including Office 97 and later) use their own widget set and do not exactly match the native operating system. This PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen most apparent in Microsoft Office XP andwhere the standard menus were replaced with a colored, flat-looking, shadowed menu style. The user interface of a particular version of Microsoft Office often heavily influences a subsequent version of Microsoft Windows. For example, the toolbar, colored buttons and the gray-colored 3D look of Office were added to Windows 95, and the ribbon, introduced in Officehas been incorporated into several programs bundled with Windows 7 and later. InOffice replicated the flat, box-like design of Windows 8.

Users of Microsoft Office may access external data via connection-specifications saved in Office Data Connection (.odc) files.[36]

Both Windows and Office use service packs to update software. Office had non-cumulative service releases, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, which were discontinued after Office Service Release 1.

Past versions of Office often contained Easter eggs. For example, Excel 97 contained a reasonably functional flight-simulator.

File formats and metadata

Microsoft Office prior to Office used proprietary file formats based on the OLE Compound File Binary Format.[37] This forced users who share data to adopt the same software platform.[38] InMicrosoft made the entire documentation for the binary Office formats freely available for download and granted any possible patents rights for use or implementations of those binary format for free under the Open Specification Promise.[39][40] Previously, Microsoft octane render full mega Archives supplied such documentation freely but only on request.[41]

Starting with Officethe default file format has been a version of Office Open XML, though different from the one standardized and published by Ecma International and by ISO/IEC. Microsoft has granted patent rights to the formats technology under the Open Specification Promise[42] and has made available free downloadable converters for previous versions of Microsoft Office including OfficeOffice XP, Office [43] and Office for Mac OS X. Third-party implementations of Office Open XML exist on the Windows platform (LibreOffice, all platforms), macOS platform (iWork '08, NeoOffice, LibreOffice) and Linux (LibreOffice and ). In addition, OfficeService Pack 2 for Officeand Office for Mac supports the OpenDocument Format (ODF) for opening and saving documents – only the old ODF ( ISO/IEC standard) is supported, not the version ( ISO/IEC standard).

Microsoft provides the ability to remove metadata from Office documents. This was in response to highly publicized incidents where sensitive data about a document was leaked via its metadata.[44] Metadata removal was first available inwhen Microsoft released a tool called Remove Hidden Data Add-in for Office /XP for this purpose.[45] It was directly integrated into Office in a feature called the Document Inspector.


A major feature of the Office suite is the ability for users and third-party companies to write add-ins (plug-ins) that extend the capabilities of an application by adding custom commands and specialized features. One of the new features is the Office Store.[46]Plugins and other tools can be downloaded by users.[47] Developers can make money by selling their applications in the Office Store. The revenue is divided between the developer and Microsoft where the developer gets 80% of the money.[48] Developers are able to share applications with all Office users.[48]

The app travels with the document, and it is for the developer to decide what the recipient will see when they open it. The recipient will either have the option to download the app from the Office Store for free, start a free trial or be directed to payment.[48] With Office's cloud abilities, IT department can create a set of apps for their business employees in order to increase their productivity.[49] When employees go to the Office Store, they'll see their company's apps under My Organization. The apps that employees have personally downloaded will appear under My Apps.[48] Developers can use web technologies like HTML5, XML, CSS3, JavaScript, and APIs for building the apps.[50] An application for Office is a webpage that is hosted inside an Office client application. User can use apps to amplify the functionality of a document, email message, meeting request, or appointment. Apps can run in multiple environments and by multiple clients, including rich Office desktop clients, Office Web Apps, mobile browsers, and also on-premises and in the cloud.[50] The type of add-ins supported differ by Office versions:

Password protection

Main article: Microsoft Office password protection

Microsoft Office has a security feature that allows users to encrypt Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, Skype Business) documents with a user-provided password. The password can contain up to characters and uses AES bit advanced encryption by default.[54] Passwords can also be used to restrict modification of the entire document, worksheet or presentation. Due to lack of document encryption, though, these passwords can be removed using a third-party cracking software.[55]

Support policies


All versions of Microsoft Office products before PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen Office are eligible for ten years of support following their release, during which Microsoft releases security updates for the product version and provides paid technical support. The ten-year period is divided into two five-year phases: The mainstream phase and the extended phase. During the mainstream phase, Microsoft may provide limited complimentary technical support and release non-security updates or change the design of the product. During the extended phase, said services stop.[56] Office only receives 5 years of mainstream and 2 years of extended support.[57]

Timelines of support

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This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(October )

Timeline of Microsoft Office for Windows

  • &#;&#;&#;&#;&#;(Spent) standard support
  • &#;&#;&#;&#;&#;(Remaining) standard support
  • &#;&#;&#;&#;&#;(Spent) extended support
  • &#;&#;&#;&#;&#;(Remaining) extended support


Microsoft supports Office for the Windows and macOS platforms, as well as mobile versions for Windows Phone, Android and iOS platforms. Beginning with Mac Officethe macOS and Windows versions of Office share the same file format, and are interoperable. Visual Basic for Applications support was dropped in Microsoft Office for Mac,[58] then reintroduced in Office for Mac [59]

Microsoft tried in the mids to port Office to RISC processors such as NEC/MIPS and IBM/PowerPC, but they met problems such as memory access being hampered by data structure alignment requirements. Microsoft Word 97 and Excel 97, however, did ship for the DEC Alpha platform. Difficulties in porting Office may have been a factor in discontinuing Windows NT on non-Intel platforms.[60]

Pricing model and editions

The Microsoft Office applications and suites are sold via retail channels, and volume licensing for larger organizations (also including the "Home Use Program". allowing users at participating organizations to buy low-cost licenses for use on their personal devices as part of their employer's volume license agreement).[61]

InMicrosoft introduced a software as a service platform known as Officeto provide cloud-hosted versions of Office's server software, including Exchange e-mail and SharePoint, on a subscription basis (competing in particular with Google Apps).[62][63] Following the release of OfficeMicrosoft began to PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen Office plans for the consumer market, with access to Microsoft Office software on multiple devices with free feature updates over the life of the subscription, as well as other services such as OneDrive storage.[64][65]

Microsoft has since promoted Office as the primary means of purchasing Microsoft Office. Although there are still "on-premises" releases roughly every three years, Microsoft marketing emphasizes that they do not receive new features or access to new cloud-based services as they are released unlike Officeas well as other benefits for consumer and business markets.[66][67][68] Office revenue overtook traditional license sales for Office in [69]


Microsoft Office is available in several editions, which regroup a given number of applications for a specific price. Primarily, Microsoft sells Office as Microsoft The editions are as follows:

  • Microsoft Personal
  • Microsoft Family
  • Microsoft Business Basic
  • Microsoft Business Standard
  • Microsoft Business Premium
  • Microsoft apps for business
  • Microsoft apps for PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen E1, E3, E5
  • Office A1, A3, A5 (for education)
  • Office G1, G3, G5 (for government)
  • Microsoft F1, F3, Office F3 (for frontline)

Microsoft sells Office for a one-time purchase as Home & Student and Home & Business, however, these editions do not receive major updates.

Education pricing

Post-secondary students may obtain the University edition of Microsoft Office subscription. It is limited to one user and two devices, plus the subscription price is valid for four years instead of just one. Apart from this, the University edition is identical in features to the Home Premium version. This marks the first time Microsoft does not offer physical 1CLICK DVD Converter Registration Code Free Download permanent software at academic pricing, in contrast to the University versions of Office and Office In addition, students eligible for DreamSpark program may receive select standalone Microsoft Office apps free of charge.

Discontinued applications and features

  • Binder was an application that can incorporate several documents into one file and was originally designed as a container system for storing related documents in a single file. The complexity of use and learning curve led to 95 Systeme Backup v3.0 Win95 crack serial keygen usage, and it was discontinued after Office XP.
  • Bookshelf was a reference collection introduced in as part of Microsoft's extensive work in promoting CD-ROM technology as a distribution medium for electronic publishing.
  • Data Analyzer was a business intelligence program for graphical visualization of data and its analysis.
  • was a public document sharing service where Office users can upload and share Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Sway and PDF files for the whole world to discover and use.
  • Entourage was an Outlook counterpart on macOS, Microsoft discontinued it in favor of extending the Outlook brand name.
  • FrontPage was a WYSIWYG HTML editor and website administration tool for Windows. It was branded as part of the Microsoft Office suite from to FrontPage was discontinued in December and replaced by Microsoft SharePoint Designer and Microsoft Expression Web.
  • InfoPath was a Windows application for designing and distributing rich XML-based forms. The last version was included in Office [70]
  • InterConnect was a business-relationship database available only in Japan.
  • Internet Explorer was a graphical web browser and one of the main participants of the first browser war. It was included in Office until Office XP when it was removed.
  • Mail was a mail client (in old versions of Office, later replaced by Microsoft Schedule Plus and subsequently Microsoft Outlook).
  • Office Accounting (formerly Small Business Accounting) was an accounting software application from Microsoft targeted towards small businesses that had between 1 and 25 employees.
  • Office Assistant (included since Office 97 on Windows and Office 98 on Mac as a part of Microsoft Agent technology) was a system that uses animated characters to offer context-sensitive suggestions to users and access to the help system. The Assistant is often dubbed "Clippy" or "Clippit", due to its default to a paper clip character, coded as. The latest versions that include the Office Assistant were Office (Windows) and Office (Mac).
  • Office Document Image Writer was a virtual printer that takes documents from Microsoft Office or any other application and prints them, or stores them in an image file as TIFF or Microsoft Document Imaging Format format. It was discontinued with Office [71]
  • Office Document Imaging was an application that supports editing scanned documents. Discontinued Office [71]
  • Office Document Scanning was a scanning and OCR application. Discontinued Office [71]
  • Office Picture Manager was a basic photo management software (similar to Google's Picasa or Adobe's Photoshop Elements), that replaced Microsoft Photo Editor.
  • PhotoDraw was a graphics program that was first released as part of the Office Premium Edition. A later version for Windows XP compatibility was released, known as PhotoDraw Version 2. Microsoft discontinued the program in
  • Photo Editor was photo-editing or raster-graphics software in older Office versions up to Office XP. It was supplemented by Microsoft PhotoDraw in Office Premium edition.
  • Schedule Plus (also shown as Schedule+) was released with Office It featured a planner, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, to-do list, and contact information. Its functions were incorporated into Microsoft Outlook.
  • SharePoint Designer was a WYSIWYG HTML editor and website administration tool. Microsoft attempted to turn it into a specialized HTML editor for SharePoint sites, but failed on this project and wanted to discontinue it.
  • SharePoint Workspace (formerly Groove) was a proprietary peer-to-peer document collaboration software designed for teams with members who are regularly offline or who do not share the same network security clearance.
  • Skype for Business was an integrated communications client for conferences and meetings in real-time; it is the only Microsoft Office desktop app that is neither useful without a proper network infrastructure nor has the "Microsoft" prefix in its name.
  • Streets & Trips (known in other countries as Microsoft AutoRoute) is a discontinued mapping program developed and distributed by Microsoft.
  • Unbind is a program that can extract the contents of a Binder file. Unbind can be installed from the Office XP CD-ROM.
  • Virtual PC was included with Microsoft Office Professional Edition for Mac. Microsoft discontinued support for Virtual PC on the Mac in owing to new Macs possessing the same Intel architecture as Windows PCs.[72] It emulated a standard PC and its hardware.
  • Vizact was a program that "activated" documents using HTML, adding effects such as animation. It allows users to create dynamic documents for the Web. The development has ended due to unpopularity.

Discontinued server applications

Discontinued web services

  • Office Live
    • Office Live Small Business had web hosting services and online collaboration tools for small businesses.
    • Office Live Workspace had online storage and collaboration service for documents, which was superseded by Office on the web.
  • Office Live Meeting was a web conferencing service.


Data formats

Microsoft Office has been criticized in the past for using proprietary file formats rather than open standards, which forces users who share data into adopting the same software platform.[73] However, on February 15,Microsoft made the entire documentation for the binary Office formats freely available under the Open Specification Promise.[74] Also, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, Office Open XML, the document format for the latest versions of Office for Windows and Mac, has been standardized under both Ecma International and ISO. Ecma International has published the Office Open XML specification free of copyrights and Microsoft has granted patent rights to the formats technology under the Open Specification Promise[75] and has made available free downloadable converters for previous versions of Microsoft Office including OfficeOffice XP, Office and Office for the Mac. Third-party implementations of Office Open XML exist on the Mac platform (iWork 08) and Linux ( – Novell Edition only).

Unicode and bi-directional texts

Another point of criticism Microsoft Office has faced was the lack of support in its Mac versions for Unicode and Bi-directional text languages, notably Arabic and Hebrew. This issue, which had existed since the first release inwas addressed in the version.[76][77]


On November 13,a report initiated by the Government of the Netherlands concluded that Microsoft Office and Office do not comply with GDPR, the European law which regulates data protection and privacy for all citizens in and outside the EU and EFTA region.[78] The investigation was initiated by the observation that Microsoft does not reveal or share publicly any data PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen about users of its software. In addition, the company does not provide users of its (Office) software an option to turn off diagnostic and telemetry data sent PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen to the Driver Reviver Crack Full Version Download. Researchers found that most of the data that the Microsoft software collects and "sends home" is diagnostics. Researchers also observed that Microsoft "seemingly tried to make the system GDPR compliant by storing Office documents on servers based in the EU". However, they discovered the software packages collected additional data that contained private user information, some of which was stored on servers located in the US.[79] The Netherlands Ministry of Justice hired Privacy Company to probe and evaluate the use of Microsoft Office products in the public sector.[80] "Microsoft systematically collects data on a large scale about the individual use of Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Outlook. Covertly, without informing people", researchers of the Privacy Company stated in their blog post. "Microsoft does not offer any choice with regard to the amount of data, or possibility to switch off the collection, or ability to see what data are collected, because the data stream is encoded."[81]

The researchers commented that there is no need for Microsoft to store information such as IPs and email addresses, which are collected automatically by the software. "Microsoft should not store these transient, functional data, unless the retention is strictly necessary, for example, for security purposes", the researchers conclude in the final report by the Netherlands Ministry of Justice.[82]

As a result of this in-depth study and its conclusions, the Netherlands PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen body concluded that Microsoft has violated GDPR "on many counts" including "lack of transparency and purpose limitation, and the lack of a legal ground for the processing."[83] Microsoft has provided the Dutch authorities with an "improvement plan" that should satisfy Dutch regulators that it "would end all violations". The Dutch regulatory body is monitoring the situation and states that "If progress is deemed insufficient or if the improvements offered are unsatisfactory, SLM Microsoft Rijk will reconsider its position and may ask the Data Protection Authority to carry out a prior consultation and to impose enforcement measures."[84] When asked for a response by an IT professional publication, a Microsoft spokesperson stated: We are committed to our customers’ privacy, putting them in control of their data and ensuring that Office ProPlus and other Microsoft products and services comply with GDPR and other applicable laws. We appreciate the opportunity to discuss our diagnostic data handling practices in Office ProPlus with the Dutch Ministry of Justice and look forward to a successful resolution of any concerns."[80] The user privacy data issue affects ProPlus subscriptions of Microsoft Office and Microsoft Officeincluding the online version of Microsoft Office [85]

History of releases


Old version

Older version, still maintained

Latest version

Latest preview version

Future release

Office version Version number Minimum operating system version Office support end date
Mainstream Extended
[citation needed]Windows10[86]Current stable version:October 13, [87]N/A[87]
[88]Current stable version:October 10, [89]Current stable version:October 14, [89]
7 SP1[90]Old version, no longer maintained: October 13, [91]Older version, yet still maintained: October 14, [91]
7[92]Old version, no longer maintained: April 10, [93]Older version, yet still maintained: April 11, [93]
XP SP3[94]Old version, no longer maintained: October 13, Old version, no longer maintained: October 13,
XP SP2[95]Old version, no longer maintained: October 9, [96]Old version, no longer maintained: October 10, [96]
SP3[97]Old version, no longer maintained: April 14, Old version, no longer maintained: April 8,
XP 98 or NT 4 SP6a[98][99]Old version, no longer maintained: July 11, []Old version, no longer maintained: July 12, []
95 or NT 4 SP3[]Old version, no longer maintained: June 30, Old version, no longer maintained: July 14,
97 NT SP5 or 95Old version, no longer maintained: August 31, []Old version, no longer maintained: February 28, []
95 NT or 95Old version, no longer maintained: December 31, []N/A[]
4.x Old version, no longer maintained: November 1, []N/A[]
3.x Various []Old version, no longer maintained: September 10 Best Free Firewalls For Windows 10/8/7 To Protect Your PC, []N/A[]
Office version Version number Minimum operating systemOffice support end date
macOS – 11TBA
– 11Current stable version:October 10, []
– x []Old version, no longer maintained: October 13, []
for Mac (Intel)[]Old version, no longer maintained: October 10, []
for Mac (PPC)[]Old version, no longer maintained: April 9, []
for Mac Old version, no longer maintained: January 10, []
v. X Old version, no longer maintained: January 9, []
Mac OS
(PPC)Old version, no longer maintained: December 31, []
98 Macintosh Edition (PPC)Old version, no longer maintained: June 30, []
(68K)Old version, no longer maintained: December 31, []
? Old version, no longer maintained: June 1, []

Version history

Main article: History of Microsoft Office

Windows versions

Microsoft Office for Windows

Microsoft Office for Windows[] started in October as a bundle of three applications designed for Microsoft Windows Microsoft Word for WindowsMicrosoft Excel for Windowsand Microsoft PowerPoint for Windows []

Microsoft Office for Windows updated the suite with Microsoft Excel []

Version [] added Microsoft Mail for PC Networks to the bundle.[]

Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office ,[] also called Microsoft Office 92, was released on August 30, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen,and[] contained WordExcelPowerPoint and Mail It was the first version Uconomix uMark 6.5 Professional Crack Plus Keygen Full Free Download 2021 Office also released on CD-ROM.[] InMicrosoft Office Professional[] was released, which added Microsoft Access []

Microsoft Office 4.x

Microsoft Office was released containing WordExcel a, PowerPoint and Mail in [] Word's version number jumped from to so that it would have the same version number as the MS-DOS and Macintosh versions (Excel and PowerPoint were already numbered the same as the Macintosh versions).

Microsoft Office for Windows NT was released in for i, Alpha,[] MIPS and PowerPC[] architectures, containing Word and Excel (both bit,[] PowerPoint (bit), and Microsoft Office Manager (the precursor to the Office Shortcut Bar)).

Microsoft Office 95

Microsoft Office 95 was released on August 24, Software version numbers were altered again to create parity across the suite&#;&#; every program was called version meaning all but Word missed out versions. Office 95 included new components to the suite such as Schedule+ and Binder. Office for Windows 95 was designed as a fully bit version to match Windows 95 although some apps not bundled as part of the suite at that time - Publisher for Windows 95 and Project 95 had some bit components even though their main program executable was bit, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen. PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen 95 was available in two versions, Office 95 Standard and Office 95 Professional. The standard version consisted of WordExcelPowerPointand Schedule+ The professional edition contained all of the items in the standard version plus Access If the professional version was purchased in CD-ROM form, it also included Bookshelf.

The logo used in Office 95 returns in Office 97, and XP. Microsoft Office 98 Macintosh Edition also uses a similar logo.

Microsoft Office 97

Microsoft Office 97 (Office ) included hundreds of new features and improvements, such as introducing command bars, a paradigm in which menus and toolbars were made more similar in capability and visual design. Office 97 also featured Natural Language Systems and grammar checking. Office 97 featured new components to the suite including FrontPage 97, Expedia Streets 98 (in Small Business Edition), and Internet Explorer &

Office 97 was the first version of Office to include the Office Assistant. In Brazil, it was also the first version to introduce the Registration Wizard, a precursor to Microsoft Product Activation. With this release, the accompanying apps, Project 98 and Publisher 98 also transitioned to fully bit versions. Exchange Server, a mail server and calendaring server developed by Microsoft, is the server for Outlook after discontinuing Exchange Client.

Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office (Office ) introduced adaptive menus, where little-used options were hidden from the user. It also introduced a new security feature, built around digital signatures, to diminish the threat of macro viruses. The Microsoft Script Editor, an optional tool that can edit script code, was also introduced in Office [] Office automatically trusts macros (written in VBA 6) that were digitally signed from authors who have been previously designated as trusted. Office also introduces PhotoDraw, a raster and vector imaging program, as well as Web Components, Visio, and Vizact.

The Registration Wizard, a precursor to Microsoft Product Activation, remained in Brazil and was also extended to Australia and New Zealand, though not for volume-licensed editions. Academic software in the United States and Canada also featured the Registration Wizard.

Microsoft Office XP

Microsoft Office XP (Office or Office ) was released in conjunction with Windows XP, and was a major upgrade with numerous enhancements and changes over Office Office XP introduced the Safe Mode feature, which allows applications such as Outlook to boot when it might otherwise fail by bypassing a corrupted registry or a faulty add-in. Smart tag is a technology introduced with Office XP in Word and Excel and discontinued in Office

Office XP also introduces new components including Document Imaging, Document Scanning, Clip Organizer, MapPoint, and Data Analyzer. Binder was replaced by Unbind, a program that can extract the contents of a Binder file. Unbind can be installed from the Office XP CD-ROM.

Office XP includes integrated voice command and text dictation capabilities, Xilisoft-3GP-Video-Converter crack serial keygen well as handwriting recognition. It was the first version to require Microsoft Product Activation worldwide and in all editions as an anti-piracy measure, which attracted widespread controversy.[] Product Activation remained absent from Office for Mac releases until it was introduced in Office for Mac, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen.

Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office (Office ) was released in It featured a new logo. Two new applications made their debut in Office Microsoft InfoPath and OneNote. It is the first version to use new, more colorful icons. Outlook provides improved functionality in many areas, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, including Kerberos authentication, RPC over HTTP, Cached Exchange Mode, and an improved junk mail filter.

Office introduces three new programs to the Office product lineup: InfoPath, a PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen for designing, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, filling, and submitting electronic structured data forms; OneNote, a note-taking program for creating and organizing diagrams, graphics, handwritten notes, recorded audio, and text; and the Picture Managergraphics software which can open, manage, and share digital images.

SharePoint, a web collaboration platform codenamed as Office Server, has integration and compatibility with Office and so on.[]

Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office (Office ) was released in Office 's new features include a new graphical user interface called the Fluent User Interface,[] replacing the menus and toolbars that have been the cornerstone of Office since its inception with a tabbed toolbar, known as the Ribbon; new XML-based file formats called Office Open XML; and the inclusion of Groove, a collaborative software application.[]

While Microsoft removed Data Analyzer, FrontPage, Vizact, and Schedule+ from Office ; they also added Communicator, Groove, SharePoint Designer, and Office Customization Tool (OCT) to the suite.

Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office (OfficeMicrosoft skipped due to fear of 13[]) was finalized on April 15,and made available to consumers on June 15, [][] The main features of Office include the backstage file menu, new collaboration tools, a customizable ribbon, protected view and a navigation panel. Office Communicator, an instant messaging and videotelephony application, was renamed into Lync

This is the first version to ship in bit and bit variants. Microsoft Office featured a new logo, which resembled the logo, except in gold, and with a modification in shape.[] Microsoft released Service Pack 1 for Office on June 28, [] and Service Pack 2 on July 16, [] Office Online was first released online along with SkyDrive, an online storing service.

Microsoft Office

A technical preview of Microsoft Office (Build ) was released on January 30,and a Customer Preview version was made available to consumers on July 16, [] It sports a revamped application interface; the interface Dr.Web Security Space crack serial keygen based on Metro, the interface of Windows Phone and Windows 8. Microsoft Outlook has received the most pronounced changes so far; for example, the Metro interface provides a new visualization for scheduled tasks. PowerPoint includes more templates and transition effects, and OneNote includes a new splash screen.[]

On May 16,new images of Office 15 were revealed, showing Excel with a tool for filtering data in a timeline, the ability to convert Roman numerals to Arabic numerals, and the integration of advanced trigonometric functions. In Word, the capability of inserting video and audio online as well as the broadcasting of documents on the Web were implemented.[] Microsoft has promised support for Office Open XML Strict starting with version 15, a format Microsoft has submitted to the ISO for interoperability with other office suites, and to aid adoption in the public sector.[] This version can read and write ODF (Windows only).[]

On October 24,Office Professional Plus was released to manufacturing and was made available to TechNet and MSDN subscribers for download.[] On November 15,the day trial version was released for public download.[] Office was released to general availability on January 29, [] Service Pack 1 for Office was released on February 25, [] Some applications were completely removed from the entire suite including SharePoint Workspace, Clip Organizer, and Office Picture Manager.

Microsoft Office

Main article: Microsoft Office

On January 22,the Microsoft Office blog announced that the next version of the suite for Windows desktop, Officewas in development. On May 4,a public preview of Microsoft Office was released.[][][] Office was released for Mac OS X on July 9, [] and for Windows on September 22, []

Users who had the Professional Plus subscription have the new Skype for Business app. Microsoft Teams, a team collaboration program meant to rival Slack, was released as a separate product for business and enterprise users.

Microsoft Office

Main article: Microsoft Office

On September 26,Microsoft announced that the next version of the suite for Windows desktop, Officewas in development. On PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen 27,PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, Microsoft released Office Commercial Preview for Windows [] It was released to general availability for Download Accelerator Plus Premium crack serial keygen 10 and for macOS on September 24, []

Microsoft Office

Main article: Microsoft Office

On February 18,PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, Microsoft announced that the next version of the suite for Windows desktop, Officewas in development.[] This new version will be supported for five years and was released on October 5, [12]

Mac versions

Prior to packaging its various office-type Mac OS software applications into Office, Microsoft released Mac versions of Word inthe first year of the Macintosh computer; Excel in ; and PowerPoint in [] Microsoft does not include its Access database application in Office for Mac.

Microsoft has noted that some features are added to Office for Mac before they appear in Windows versions, such as Office for Mac 's Office Project Gallery and PowerPoint Movie feature, which allows users to save presentations as QuickTime movies.[][] However, Microsoft Office for Mac has been long criticized for its lack of support of Unicode and for its lack of support for right-to-left languages, notably Arabic, Hebrew and Persian.[][]

Early Office for Mac releases (–)

Microsoft Office for Mac was introduced for Mac OS inbefore Office was released for Windows.[] It included WordExcelPowerPointand Mail [] It was originally a limited-time promotion but later became a regular product. With the release of Office on CD-ROM later that year, Microsoft became the first major Mac publisher to put its applications on CD-ROM.[]

Microsoft Office for Mac was released in and included the updated Excelthe first application to support Apple's System 7operating system.[]

Microsoft Office for Mac was released in and included WordExcelPowerPoint and Mail Client. Excel was the first application to support new AppleScript.[]

Microsoft Office for Mac was released in (Version was skipped HD Tune Pro SERIAL Archives synchronize version numbers with Office for Windows) Version included WordExcelPowerPoint and Mail [] It was the first Office suite for Power Macintosh.[] Its user interface was identical to Office for Windows[] leading many customers to comment that it wasn't Mac-like enough.[] The final release for Mac 68K was Officewhich updated Word to versionsomewhat improving performance.

Microsoft Office 98 Macintosh Edition

Microsoft Office 98 Macintosh Edition was unveiled at MacWorld Expo/San Francisco in It introduced the Internet Explorer web browser and Outlook Express, an Internet e-mail client and usenet newsgroup reader.[] Office 98 was re-engineered by Microsoft's Macintosh Business Unit to satisfy customers' desire for software they felt was more Mac-like.[] It included drag–and-drop installation, self-repairing applications and Quick Thesaurus, before such features were available in Office for Windows. It also was the first version to support QuickTime movies.[]

Microsoft Office and v. X

Microsoft Office v. X box art

Microsoft Office was launched in as the last Office suite for the classic Mac OS. It required a PowerPC processor. This version introduced Entourage, an e-mail client that included information management tools such as a calendar, an address book, task lists and notes.[] Microsoft Office v. X was released in and was the first version of Microsoft Office for Mac OS X.[] Support for Office v. X ended on January 9,after the release of the final update, [] Office v.X includes Word X, Excel X, PowerPoint X, Entourage X, MSN Messenger for Mac and Windows Media Player 9 for Mac; it was the last version of Office for Mac to include Internet Explorer for Mac.[]


Microsoft Office for Mac was released on May 11, [] It includes Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Entourage and Virtual PC. It is the final version of Office to be built exclusively for PowerPC and to officially support G3 processors, as its sequel lists a G4, G5, or Intel processor as a requirement, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen. It was notable for supporting Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), which is unavailable in Office This led Microsoft to extend support for Office from October 13,to January 10, VBA functionality was reintroduced in Officewhich is only compatible with Intel processors.


Microsoft Office for Mac was released on January 15, It was the only Office for Mac suite to be compiled as a universal binary, being the first to feature native Intel support and the last to feature PowerPC support for G4 and G5 processors, although the suite is unofficially compatible with G3 processors. New features include native Office Open XML file format support, which debuted in Office for Windows,[] and stronger Microsoft Office password protection employing AES and SHA Benchmarks suggested that compared to its predecessor, PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, Office ran at similar speeds on Intel machines and slower speeds on PowerPC machines.[] Office also lacked Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) support, leaving it with only 15 months of additional mainstream support compared to its predecessor. Nevertheless, five months after it was released, Microsoft said that Office was "selling faster than any previous version of Office for Mac in the past 19 years" and affirmed "its commitment to future products for the Mac."[]


Microsoft Office for Mac was released on Edraw Max 9.4.1 patch Archives 26. [59] It is the first version of Office for Mac to be compiled exclusively for Intel processors, dropping support for the PowerPC architecture. It features an OS X version of Outlook to replace the Entourage email client. This version of Outlook is intended to make the OS X version of Office work better with Microsoft's Exchange server and with those using Office for Windows.[] Office includes a Mac-based Ribbon similar to Office for Windows.

OneNote and Outlook release ()

Microsoft OneNote for Mac was released on March 17, It marks the company's first release of the note-taking software on the Mac. It is available as a free download to all users of the Mac App Store in OS X Mavericks.[]

Microsoft Outlook for Mac debuted on October 31, It requires a paid Office PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen, meaning that traditional Office retail or volume licenses cannot activate this version of Outlook. On that day, Microsoft confirmed that it would release the next version of Office for Mac in late []

Despite dropping support for older versions of OS X and only keeping support for bit-only versions of OS X, these versions of PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen and Outlook are bit applications like their predecessors.


Main article: Microsoft Trend Micro Maximum Security 2017 11.0 crack serial keygen

The first Preview version of Microsoft Office for Mac was released on March 5, [] On July 9,Microsoft released the final version of Microsoft Office for Mac which includes Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook and OneNote. It was immediately made available for Office subscribers with either a Home, Personal, Business, Business Premium, E3 or ProPlus subscription. A non–Office edition of Office was made available as a one-time PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen option on September 22, []


Main article: Microsoft Office

Mobile versions

Office Mobile for iPhone

Источник: []
Bloor Street East, Toronto, Ontario, M4W 3L4

Omar Khadr wants courts to speed up decision on his return to Canada

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Author of the article:

Adrian Humphreys

Article content

Omar Khadr wants the court to prod the government into making a decision on whether the Canadian man, imprisoned in Guantanamo Bay for war crimes, can return to Canada.

Citing “unreasonable delay” from the Public Safety Minister Vic Toews, Khadr’s lawyers on Friday filed a request for a judicial review in the Federal Court of Canada, confirmed one of his lawyers, Brydie Bethell. Khadr has been detained at the U.S. detention centre in Cuba for nearly a PC Tools speed up my pc 2010(100 % working) crack serial keygen.

Last month, his U.S. military lawyer blasted Canada for delaying the transfer.

Khadr is the last Western national held at the camp.

More than a year ago, his lawyers asked for Khadr to be transferred to a prison in Canada, but no decision has been rendered by Mr. Toews yet.

National Post



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10 ways to fix a slow PC

(Got RAM? image by Armin Hanisch, royalty free)

Upgrade hardware individually

If you can determine what part is the bottleneck in your system, a simple upgrade will be much cheaper than getting a whole new system. With laptops, your options here are pretty much limited to RAM, hard drive and wireless card, but desktop users will have a little more room to play with.

If you've got less than 4GB of RAM, investigate adding more — with more moving online, and browsers being particularly memory hungry, having more memory is never a bad thing.

Just be aware that if you have 4GB RAM or more, you'll need a bit operating system in order to recognise and use it all — which for some people still running XP might mean an operating system upgrade as well.

Hard drive
The hard disk is typically the slowest part of the computer. When loading data or if you run out of RAM, your hard drive gets hit — and if it's old and slow, you're going to feel it.

While solid-state drives (SSDs) have definitely addressed the speed issue, they're expensive compared to mechanical hard drives and are much lower in capacity. If you can only afford a mechanical hard drive, make sure to get one that's at least rpm. As a basic rule of thumb, larger capacity drives at the same revolutions per minute are faster than smaller capacity drives.

If you're finding games are a bit slow on your desktop, it may be time to update your graphics card. These days, a new graphics card will have significantly more effect on your gaming experience than an updated CPU will.

External, upgradeable graphics on the laptop never really took off — but perhaps we'll see something emerge should Intel's Thunderbolt interface take off.

If you're finding the wireless in your laptop slow and unreliable, it's actually quite easy to swap in a new wireless card in your laptop — it uses a standard interface called Mini PCI Express. Just be aware of a gotcha: some vendors like HP will only allow certain wireless cards to be used in their laptops for warranty and support issues. Others, like Dell, will accept pretty much anything. If you've got a laptop that doesn't like alternative wireless cards, you can always get a high-end USB wireless adapter that should improve performance greatly.

If you've got a friendly laptop, it's a simple case (which, depending on the laptop, may involve removing layers of equipment, admittedly) of disconnecting the antenna wire, removing the old card, putting in the new one, reattaching the wire and then installing appropriate drivers. The hard bit is finding someone that will sell you a decent chip.

Also consider the age of your router — wireless technology is improving all the time, and the more expensive routers generally do provide superior wireless performance. Just remember there's no such thing as a good router brand — stick to models that have had a good response in reviews and online.

Источник: []

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